Staff Instruction (SI) No. 800-001-Y

Procedures for Approval of Training in the Interpretation and Application of Standards and Criteria for the Development of Instrument Procedures

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Issuing Office: Civil Aviation Document
No.
:
SI 800-001-Y
File Classification No.: Z 5000-32 Issue No.: 01
RDIMS No.: 6414337-V12 Effective Date: 2011-11-16

1.0  INTRODUCTION

1.1  Purpose

  1. The purpose of this Staff Instruction (SI) is to describe the process to approve training dealing with the interpretation and application of standards and criteria used in the development of Instrument Procedures. In accordance with Section 803.02 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs), this training must be acceptable to the Minister.

1.2  Applicability

  1. This document applies to Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) Headquarters personnel. This document is also available to TCCA Regional personnel and aviation industry for information purposes.

1.3  Description of Changes

  1. Not applicable.

2.0  REFERENCES AND REQUIREMENTS

2.1  Reference Documents

  1. It is intended that the following reference materials be used in conjunction with this document:

    1. Aeronautics Act; (R.S.C., 1985, C.A-2);

    2. Part VIII, Subpart 3 Aeronautical Information Services of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs);

    3. Transport Canada Publication (TP) 308 – Criteria for the Development of Instrument Procedures;

    4. TP 1820 – Designated Airspace Handbook (DAH);

    5. TP 14371, Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM);

    6. International Civil Aviation Organization Document 9906 – Quality Assurance Manual for Flight Procedure Design;

    7. ICAO Annex 4 – Aeronautical Charts;

    8. ICAO Annex 15 - Aeronautical Information Services;

    9. NAV CANADA Publication - Canada Air Pilot (CAP);

    10. NAV CANADA Publication - Restricted Canada Air Pilot (RCAP);

    11. NAV CANADA Publication - Canada Flight Supplement (CFS);

    12. NAV CANADA Publication - Enroute Charts;

    13. NAV CANADA Publication – Specifications for the Canada Air Pilot (CAP SPEC);

    14. ARINC Specification 424, 2004-08, and as amended from time to time – Navigation System Data Base (https://www.arinc.com/cf/store/catalog_detail.cfm?item_id=518); and

    15. RTCA DO-201A, 2000-04-19Standards for Aeronautical Information (http://www.rtca.org/doclist.asp). 

    Note:

    Some of the referenced NAV CANADA publications are  available at: http://www.navcanada.ca/NavCanada.asp?Language=en&Content=ContentDefinitionFiles\Publications\AeronauticalInfoProducts\default.xml

2.2  Cancelled Documents

  1. Not applicable.

2.3  Definitions and Abbreviations

  1. The following abbreviations are used in this document:

    1. ANS: Air Navigation System

    2. CARs: Canadian Aviation Regulations

    3. DME: Distance Measurement Equipment

    4. EFIS: Electronic Flight Instrument System

    5. FMS: Flight Management System

    6. GPS: Global Positioning System

    7. IFR: Instrument Flight Rules

    8. ILS: Instrument Landing System

    9. RDIMS: Records and Documents Information Management System

    10. RNAV: Area Navigation

    11. RNP: Required Navigation Performance

    12. SI: Staff Instruction

    13. TCCA: Transport Canada Civil Aviation

    14. TP: Transport Canada Publication

    15. VOR: Very high frequency Omni Range

3.0  BACKGROUND

  1. The nature of the specific criteria to develop instrument procedures is very technical and requires those who instruct and/or receive instruction on these criteria to have knowledge and understanding of them. In Canada, prior to the privatization of the Air Navigation System (ANS), TCCA staff with extensive Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) experience developed instrument procedures. They were trained in the interpretation and application of standards and criteria for instrument procedure development by internationally recognized training institutions. After being trained, they were introduced to instrument procedure development under the direct supervision of senior procedure designers. The newly trained procedure designer was required to demonstrate the knowledge and ability to correctly interpret and apply the criteria before direct supervision by the experienced procedure designer was withdrawn.

  2. Privatization of the ANS created an opportunity for private corporations and individuals to develop instrument procedures provided the conditions of Section 803.02 of the CARs were met. Procedure designers are exposed to many aviation disciplines such as air traffic control, airspace design and classification, advanced aircraft navigation systems, navigation databases, etc., and on the international scene have traditionally come from backgrounds with experience in aviation such as pilot, air traffic controller, navigator or engineer. This SI deals with the specific areas of procedure design training: instructor, syllabus, lesson plans, training aids, course presentation, practical  exercises, course handouts, examinations, automated procedure design tools, facilities and environment, initial course approval, and monitoring and maintenance of acceptability of the course.

4.0  PROCEDURE DESIGN COURSE DEVELOPMENT AND TRAINING

4.1  Instructor

  1. A person who intends to instruct a course in instrument procedure design should have the following attributes:
    1. thorough knowledge of  the regulations and procedures related to instrument flying;
    2. training in the interpretation and application of all of the instrument procedure design criteria they intend to instruct, including the basic criteria (general, non-precision approach, precision approach, departure and enroute criteria) contained within TP 308;

    3. training and/or extensive experience in instructional techniques and presentation; and

    4. advanced knowledge of the criteria and standards to be taught.  

4.2  Training Syllabus

  1. The instrument procedure design course should be developed based on a syllabus that covers all aspects of TP 308. The syllabus forms the basis upon which lesson plans are developed and must consider the following key components:

    1. course description and course objectives;

    2. course prerequisites and required skills;

    3. course design and development;

    4. policies regarding missed examinations and assignments;

    5. class participations and / or attendance requirements;

    6. text and / or material the candidate may have to purchase or supply themselves;

    7. testing, grading and evaluation; and

    8. schedule of the course, assignments and activities.

  2. For Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) criteria, an instrument procedure design course should familiarize the candidate with modern aircraft Flight Management Systems (FMS)

  3. When discussing RNAV and RNP type criteria, the concept of path terminators utilized by the aviation industry should be introduced to the candidates. ARINC SPECIFICATION 424 is an excellent source of information regarding the use of path terminators. Another excellent source reference is RTCA DO-201A, Standards for Aeronautical Information.

4.2.1  Course Description and Course Objectives
  1. The course description should emphasize the relevance and applicability of the course. Course objectives or goals can sometimes be combined with the course description, depending on their complexity and nature of the course and discipline. The course should have clearly stated objectives that describe the learning outcomes. The skills and knowledge to be taught should be included in the training objectives. The course objectives should also be directly measurable through assessment and evaluation. There must be a way to determine whether the objectives have or have not been met. It’s important to remember that course objectives can provide both a focus and a motivation for learning.   

  2. Three basic questions can help identify and/or quantify the objectives or goals:

    1. What do you want the candidates to learn (categorize as new knowledge or skills)?

    2. What assignments, classroom activities, and instructive approaches will help them master the identified knowledge, skills or attitude changes?

    3. How will you determine that the candidates have accomplished what you set out to teach them?  How will you evaluate their achievements?

4.2.2  Course Prerequisites and Required Skills
  1. List the skills and knowledge required to do the tasks. Course prerequisites and required skills must be emphasized to minimize the problem of unqualified candidates taking the training.

4.2.3  Course Design and Development
  1. The knowledge and skills to be taught should be organized into logical teaching modules. Each module will include the objectives and a brief outline of the information, examples and exercises that will be used to practise the skills and knowledge taught.

  2. Each module should then be further developed into an expanded outline. The expanded outline should provide more specifics on the information to be taught, links and relativity to other modules, as well as more specific detail on examples and exercises to be practised.

  3. The training modules/materials should be reviewed and tested. Revisions to training modules should be based on reviews and results of testing the material/exercises.

4.2.4  Testing, Grading and Evaluation
  1. Testing and evaluation of candidates should be specifically described. This should include the number of tests, their point value, the percentage each test contributes toward the final grade, the course grading scale, and how the final grade will be determined.
4.2.5  Schedule of the Course, Assignments and Activities
  1. The course schedule, list of topics, assignments, class activities such as exercises, and test times should be laid out from beginning to end. This preparation is critical to the process of determining the scope and sequence of the course.

  2. This must include the “core” material that candidates must master before moving on to the next presentation or activity. An example of “core” material items in a basic instrument procedure design course would be the use of the trigonometry function of a calculator and the knowledge of basic trigonometry functions.

4.3  Lesson Plan

  1. Lesson plans help the instructor prepare for each lesson. The lesson plan should present a detailed description of how the lesson is to be implemented. The plan should clearly illustrate all the steps and procedures, and all materials that will be required for any activity that will be done in a given lesson or session. Strong, well-stated objectives are an essential, key component of any lesson plan. Once the objectives have been determined, the lesson plan design follows. New instructors should develop thorough lesson plans, in part to ensure that important details and concerns have not been overlooked, but also to provide a disciplined and structured way to present the lesson. In general, a good lesson plan should contain variations of the following items:   

    1. title and brief introduction;

    2. major content;

    3. guided and independent practice; and

    4. assessment.
4.3.1  Title and Introduction
  1. Some specific goal or outcome should be part of every lesson. Candidates should be informed of these outcomes/goals at the beginning of the lesson and periodically reminded of them during the lesson. State what will be learned and why it is important to be learned. Lessons are normally linked, wherein the candidate draws upon knowledge learned in previous lessons. Statements of what the candidates already know about the content to be learned should be included so that as much as possible they are all starting from the same point. Examples of when and how the candidates will apply the material learned should be provided.
4.3.2  Major Content
  1. While developing the lesson plan the following questions should be answered:

    1. How will the lesson material be presented?

    2. What sequence will the material be presented in?

    3. What examples will be provided?

    4. What exercise will be required?

    5. How much time will be required for each topic?

    6. What questions will be asked to confirm learning?

    7. What media will be used to teach the lesson?

    8. What are the relevant references for each topic?

4.3.3  Guided and Independent Practice
  1. Practical exercises aid in the learning process as well as provide the instructor with a “how-goes-it” learning measure. Guided practise could be something as simple as asking an appropriate question following the presentation of material. Independent practise may be a part of a group activity (e.g. candidate works on a task, but may use group members for help), or individual activity (e.g. working alone on task or worksheet).
4.3.4  Assessment
  1. Again, while developing the assessment tools, the following questions should be considered and answered:

    1. How will the instructor determine how the individual candidates are progressing through the lesson?

    2. How will the instructor determine who learned what and who did not learn as much as anticipated?

    3. What kind of product or procedure are the candidates expected to be able to produce at the end of the lesson?

    4. How will performance be evaluated?

4.4  Training Aids

  1. Training aids are an integral part of any instruction, particularly instrument procedure design. Chalkboards, dry marker boards, flip charts, overhead projections, models, video presentations, etc. contribute to a good learning environment. Of particular importance to procedure design is the availability of scientific calculators, computers and computer software (as required), protractors, T-squares, compasses, plastic angles, rulers, tape, paper, pencils, coloured markers, etc. Appropriate scaled maps are required for practical/laboratory exercises.

  2. Course joining instructions should clearly specify what, if any, training aids and materials are to be brought by the candidate.

4.5  Course Presentation

  1. Where “visual learning” will enhance the learning experience, the course presentation should make use of visual aids.

  2. Candidate participation in classroom discussions enhances learning and motivates candidates to learn. Caution should be exercised, however, to ensure that all candidates have an opportunity to contribute to the discussions. The instructor must also ensure that he/she retains control of classroom discussions.

4.6  Laboratory Exercises

  1. Because of the detailed technical nature of the criteria and standards pertaining to instrument procedure design, candidate learning is greatly enhanced by including a number of practical exercises in the course syllabus. The exercises establish a baseline of how to develop a particular procedure in a structured manner. Although these exercises may be time consuming, the benefits gained far outweigh this disadvantage.

  2. Practical exercises may be conducted in groups. Ideally, a procedure design course should not exceed twelve (12) candidates. When conducting exercises in groups, there should be no more than three (3) candidates per group.

  3. Procedure design exercises require large work areas to accommodate, maps, templates, etc. Large drafting tables are preferred, however, any large surface area table will do.

  4. The number of exercises included during training will be dependent on the type of course being offered. For the instrument procedure design courses based on conventional navigation, exercises for the following criteria should be considered:

    1. non-precision approach (ideally a (Very high frequency Omni Range (VOR)/ Distance Measurement Equipment (DME) procedure);

    2. precision approach (Instrument Landing System (ILS)); and

    3. departure procedure.

  5. Procedure design courses that provide training on Global Positioning System (GPS), RNAV, FMS criteria etc., should have a laboratory exercise associated with each of the criteria being taught.

  6. The results of all exercises should be presented to the entire class in order to enhance the learning process. This approach allows an opportunity for individuals to express their rationale for choosing a particular solution to a problem.

4.7  Course Handouts

  1. Course handouts form an integral part of any technical course. Handouts can be as simple as a single sheet of paper with a simple diagram that enhances and supports the information being discussed during the formal presentation. Other handouts may be more detailed to provide additional information that the candidates may utilize as reference material.

  2. Handouts may also be utilized to provide “correct solutions” to any problem exercises (other than laboratory exercises) issued to the class. This approach ensures the “correct solution” is available to all the candidates for reference.

  3. All handouts should be prepared ahead of time and not developed as the course progresses. Clear, concise and legible products contribute to excellent reference material.

4.8  Examinations

  1. Examinations are powerful educational tools that serve at least four (4) functions. First, examinations help the instructor evaluate candidates and assess whether they are learning what is expected. Second, well-designed examinations serve to motivate and help candidates structure their academic efforts. Third, examinations can help the instructor understand how successfully he/she is presenting the material. Finally, examinations reinforce learning by providing the candidates with indicators of what topics or skills have not been mastered and where learning should be concentrated.

  2. Examinations will take time to develop and should include components requiring the demonstration of practical skills.  When developing examinations, consider the following:

    1. What learning outcomes are to be measured?

    2. What is the range of difficultly of the outcomes being measured?

    3. What is the length of time and time limits for the exam?

    4. What is the format and layout for the exam?

    5. What are the scoring procedures?

  3. Exams should be matched to the material being instructed. Exam items should be based on the content and skills that are most important for the candidates to learn.

  4. The exam should be valid, reliable and balanced. An exam is valid if its results are appropriate and useful for making a decision about the aspect of the candidate’s achievement. A practical approach is to focus on content validity, the extent to which the content of the exam represents an adequate sampling of the knowledge and skills taught in the course. An exam is reliable if it accurately and consistently evaluates the candidate’s performance. In general, ambiguous questions, unclear directions, and vague scoring criteria threaten reliability. Very short exams are also likely to be highly reliable. It is important for an exam to be balanced, to cover most of the main ideas and important concepts in proportion to the emphasis they receive in class. Open-book exams simulate the very situation procedure designers will find themselves in when they develop instrument procedures. Instrument procedure design courses should consider utilizing a combination of open and close book exams.

4.9  Automated Instrument Procedure Design Tools

  1. Instrument procedure designers are increasingly using automated instrument procedure design tools. In addition, future criteria development may require the use of an automated instrument procedure design tool to accomplish the procedure design.

  2. The use of an automated instrument procedure design tool does not waive the requirement for the instrument procedure designer to understand the criteria and have the ability to design by conventional means. The automated design tool should be used to assist the designer and should not preclude the designer from being vigilant of automated tool results. Procedure designers must continue to maintain a high level of competency in criteria understanding and application regardless of whether they design manually, or with the assistance or sole use of a procedure design tool.

  3. If procedure design criteria specify the use of an automated procedure design tool as the only means to accomplish the procedure design in accordance with the CARs, the procedure designer remains responsible to ensure the resulting design is criteria compliant.

4.10  Facilities and Environment

  1. A spacious, ventilated and well-lit room should be provided to support the appropriate learning environment. Consideration should be given to the specific requirements of a procedure design course, such as providing a classroom of sufficient size to accommodate drafting tables, manuals and computers.

4.11  Feedback and Critique

  1. To ensure continued suitability of the procedure design course, a system of “feedback and critique” from the candidates is essential. The candidates must be given an opportunity to provide comments on course syllabus, presentation, training aids, exams, etc. Feedback is necessary, and it is important that the instructor review and analyze the comments in order to make appropriate changes to future courses. Transport Canada People Management and Learning can provide templates as guidance in this area.

5.0  TRANSPORT CANADA COURSE APPROVAL AND OVERSIGHT

5.1  Training Requirements

  1. In accordance with Section 803.02 of the CARs, training in the interpretation and application of the criteria specified in TP 308 must be acceptable to the Minister. Under the auspices of this Regulation, TCCA Inspectors within the Aeronautical Information System and Airspace Audit and Inspection Division of the National Operations will review and approve all new instrument procedure design courses; and conduct oversight on already approved courses.

  2. The Chief of Flight Standards will make the determination as to whether training is required for any specific criteria.

5.2  Initial Course Acceptance

  1. The following process should be followed in order to approve or confirm acceptance of a new instrument procedure design course:

    1. The proponent must notify National Operations, in writing, of their intent to conduct training and the dates of intended training;

    2. The request should include the following information and documentation:

      1. instructor name, address, phone, and email; and

      2. course content and documentation, including the course syllabus, lesson plans, handouts, exercises, course presentation, examinations, etc.

    3. National Operations will review all course documentation: 

      1. If the course documentation is determined to be unacceptable, the proponent will be advised of areas of shortcomings;

      2. If the course documentation is determined to be acceptable, the proponent will be required to present a sampling of lessons to National Operations inspector(s) at a mutually agreed to date, time and place. The proponent will be requested to present the lesson(s) as he/she would to candidates in the classroom environment. The intent of this will be to assess the instructors’ classroom presentation skills and effectiveness, and to confirm the instructors’ knowledge regarding the interpretation and application of the procedure design standards and criteria.

    4. At the completion of the presentation of the lessons, National Operations will verbally advise the instrument procedure design course proponent/instructor of the results. A formal letter reflecting the content of the verbal debriefing will be sent to the course proponent within twenty (20) working days of completion of delivery of the lessons. A sample letter is provided in Appendix A.

    5. For any course that is not accepted by the Minister, the proponent will be offered suggestions on ways to improve the course.

5.3  Monitoring Initial Course

  1. During the first delivery of a newly approved course to students/candidates, National Operations may elect to monitor the training. The inspector(s) will normally take a position at the rear of the classroom for most of the presentations being monitored. Again, the instruction will be assessed to ensure applicability and effectiveness of the presentations. Occasionally, the inspector may want an opportunity to have informal discussions with the course candidates.

5.4  Course Oversight

  1. The Regulations do not specify any time limit or expiration of the Minister’s acceptance of any training provided in accordance with Section 803.02 of the CARs. Acceptance of a course is expected to continue for any future presentation of the same course, provided that the syllabus, lesson plan, course content and instructor do not change. However, to ensure that the requirements of the CARs are still valid, it is recommended that the course be audited/monitored one year following the initial acceptance. It is also recognized that a particular course may have significant changes as a result of updating information or changing instructors. Therefore, as determined by National Operations, instrument procedure design courses may be audited/monitored as required.

  2. The acceptance of a particular course is deemed to be applicable to the content as presented during the initial course approval and particular to the individual instructor. Course proponents may wish to train and utilize additional instructors other than those that were initially approved. In these cases it is incumbent upon the proponent to advise TCCA in order that TCCA assess the new instructor in accordance with paragraph 5.2(1)(c)(ii) above.

6.0  INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

  1. All documents related to the Approval of Training in the Interpretation and Application of Standards and Criteria for the Development of Instrument Procedures shall be saved in the Records and Documents Information Management System (RDIMS).

7.0  DOCUMENT HISTORY

  1. Not applicable.

8.0  CONTACT OFFICE

For more information, please contact the:
Chief, Flight Standards (AARTA)

Phone: 613-998-9855
Fax: 613-954-1602
E-mail: ron.carter@tc.gc.ca

Suggestions for amendment to this document are invited, and should be submitted via: AARTinfodoc@tc.gc.ca.

original signed by Arlo Speer for

Jacqueline Booth
A/Director, Standards
Civil Aviation
Transport Canada

APPENDIX A— SAMPLE INSTRUMENT PROCEDURE DESIGN COURSE ACCEPTANCE LETTER

Your file


Our file

Votre référence


Notre référence

RDIMS #

December 15, 2010

Mr. John Doe
P.O. Box 2608, Station D
Ottawa, ON
K1P 5W7

Dear Mr. Doe:

I am pleased to inform you that the course outline and lesson plans you presented on November 30, 2010, meet the requirements of subsection 803.02(b) of the Canadian Aviation Regulation (e.g.), and that your course is acceptable to the Minister for training a person in the interpretation and application of TP 308, Criteria for the Development of Instrument Procedures, Chapters 1, 2, 3 12, 16, and 18, as amended from time to time. Persons who complete your training will be authorized to develop GPS Instrument Approach Procedures and Conventional Departure Procedures. Both you and Mr. Joseph Blow are recognized instructors for the course.

There is no specified time limit to the recognition of this course, however, it is anticipated that Transport Canada will monitor this course from time to time to ensure that the content and presentation continue to be acceptable to the Minister.

Yours sincerely,

Jennifer J. Taylor
Director
National Operations
Civil Aviation Directorate

Attachment:  Monitoring Report

Transport Canada documents or intranet pages mentioned in this document are available upon request.

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