The Canadian Aviation Regulatory Advisory Council (CARAC) Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) System Program Design Working Group has made recommendations for amendments to existing regulations and standards, and introduced new regulations and standards for the safe integration of small UAV operations within visual line-of-sight (VLOS) under visual flight rules (VFR) in Canadian airspace.
The key principles for UAV related regulatory changes were approved by the CARAC Technical Committee in June 2012 and then by the Transport Canada Canadian Aviation Regulatory Committee (CARC) in October 2012. They are now being adopted as Best Practice Footnote 1 guidance for Transport Canada Inspectors and applicants for a Special Flight Operations Certificate (SFOC) - Unmanned Air Vehicle Systems.
These Best Practices are comprised of three areas: pilot, UAV system design standard, and operator requirements. SFOC applicants demonstrating compliance with all three areas may be eligible for SFOCs of greater scope and/or duration; they may also benefit from more-timely approval of SFOC applications.
This document is provided for the guidance of organizations or individuals intending to provide ground school instruction to pilots seeking compliance with the Best Practices for pilots of small UAV systems. These training organizations will be expected to provide Transport Canada with a written declaration attesting to the compliance of their courseware and testing. Thereafter, SFOC applicants with pilots who have successfully completed such a compliant course will be able to reference that course and ground school provider in their SFOC application as proof of pilot knowledge.
Regulations and Standards for the issue of a Pilot Permit – Small UAV Systems – Restricted to Visual Line of Sight (VLOS) will be specified in future Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs). Until that time, complying with the proposed regulations will indicate that the pilot meets the recommended Best Practices expected in the approval process for an SFOC.
PILOT KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS
This document provides topics and sample objectives in the cognitive domain. The sample objectives provided are not a complete list of objectives - their purpose is to illustrate the depth of knowledge expected in the subject areas.
Future applicants for a Pilot Permit – Small UAV Systems – Restricted to VLOS will be required to complete a course of training and will be required to prove their knowledge by writing an examination on the subjects contained in this guide. Applicants must be able to read the examination questions in either English or French without assistance.
Applicants shall have obtained a minimum of 60% on a written examination of these subjects.
At this time of writing, it is expected that the organizations conducting the ground school will create and administer an appropriate examination.
The examination subjects, in general terms, are
Related Subjects in this Guide
AIR LAW ..............................
Air Law and Procedures - Section 1
Navigation and Radio Aids - Section 2
Meteorology - Section 3
AERONAUTICS - GENERAL KNOWLEDGE .....................
Airframes, Engines, and Systems - Section 4
Theory of Flight - Section 5
Flight Instruments - Section 6
Flight Operations - Section 7
Human Factors - Section 8
Aeronautical and Crew – Section 9
CURRENT REGULATIONS AND SFOC CONDITIONS
By necessity, this document makes reference to current regulations, as well as operating conditions that are commonly found as terms or restrictions in an SFOC-UAV System. Note the following in this document:
The existing Canadian Air Regulations (CARs) are referenced by their section numbers.
SFOC conditions that may modify or augment CARs are indicated by an asterisk (*) preceding the section number. Details on these operating conditions can be obtained from Unmanned Systems Canada (USC), who are part of the Working Groups and Technical Committees. Their web address is http://www.unmannedsystems.ca/
SECTION 1: AIR LAW AND PROCEDURES
Sample Learning Objectives
The pilot operating small UAVs within visual line of sight must be able to:
Some Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) refer to their associated standards. Questions from the CARs may test knowledge from the regulation or the standard.
PART I - GENERAL PROVISIONS
101 - INTERPRETATION
101.01 Interpretation (Definitions)
103 - ADMINISTRATION AND COMPLIANCE
103.02 Inspection of Aircraft, Requests for Production of Documents and Prohibitions
103.03 Return of Canadian Aviation Documents
103.04 Record Keeping
State who may demand to inspect aviation documents.
State the definition of “operator” with respect to aircraft operations and the holder of a SFOC.
Define common terms used in UAV system operations such as: command and control link, pilot, operator, handover, lost link.
PART III-AERODROMES AND AIRPORTS
300 - INTERPRETATION
301 - AERODROMES
301.09 Fire Prevention
302 - AIRPORTS
302.11 Fire Prevention
Explain that persons, vehicles, obstacles and operations at aerodromes are subject to the approval of the aerodrome operator and the appropriate air traffic control unit.
PART IV - PERSONNEL LICENSING AND TRAINING
Requirements for UAV Pilots – Small UAVs Restricted to VLOS
Medical fitness (Cat 4, valid for 60 months)
Knowledge (this document)
State the minimum age and recommended best practices for medical fitness of UAV pilots.
PART VI - GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES
600 - INTERPRETATION
601 - AIRSPACE
AIRSPACE STRUCTURE, CLASSIFICATION AND USE
601.01 Airspace Structure
601.02 Airspace Classification
601.03 Transponder Airspace
601.04 IFR or VFR Flight in Class F Special Use Restricted Airspace or Class F Special Use Advisory Airspace
(*) 601.08 VFR Flight in Class C Airspace
(*) 601.09 VFR Flight in Class D Airspace
AIRCRAFT OPERATING RESTRICTIONS AND HAZARDS TO AVIATION SAFETY
601.15 Forest Fire Aircraft Operating Restrictions
601.16 Issuance of NOTAM for Forest Fire
601.20 Projection of Directed Bright Light Source at an Aircraft
601.21 Requirement for Notification
601.22 Requirement for Pilot-in-command
Describe the horizontal and vertical limits of the various classifications of airspace, control areas, special use airspace.
Describe the communications required with Air Traffic control (ATC) for operating a small UAV within VLOS in class C or D airspace.
Describe the circumstances when a small UAV is permitted to be operated in the vicinity of a forest fire.
Describe the process required to legally use a LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) on a small UAV.
602 - OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES
602.01 Reckless or Negligent Operation of Aircraft
602.02 Fitness of Flight Crew Members
602.03 Alcohol or Drugs - Crew Members
(*) 602.05 Compliance with Instructions
602.07 Aircraft Operating Limitations
(*) 602.08 Portable Electronic Devices
602.10 Starting and Ground Running of Aircraft Engines
602.11 Aircraft Icing
602.12 Overflight of Built-up Areas or Open-air Assemblies of Persons during Take-offs, Approaches and Landings (as revised)
(*) 602.13 Take-offs, Approaches and Landing within Built-up Areas of Cities and Towns (as revised)
602.14 Minimum Altitudes and Distances
602.15 Permissible Low Altitude Flight
(*) 602.19 Right-of-Way - General
602.20 Right-of-Way - Aircraft Manoeuvring on Water
602.21 Avoidance of Collision
602.23 Dropping of Objects
602.24 Formation Flight
602.27 Aerobatic Manoeuvres - Prohibited Areas and Flight
602.30 Fuel Dumping
602.31 Compliance with Air Traffic Control Instructions and Clearances
602.32 Airspeed Limitations
(*) 602.40 Landing at or Take-off from an Aerodrome at Night
Compare forecast weather with the SFOC limitations.
Assess forecast ceiling, wind, turbulence, precipitation and visibility against operational objectives.
Assess forecast vs. control station requirements (e.g. lightning).
Assess forecast and density altitude for anticipated performance and flight envelope limitations.
Demonstrate awareness and sources for AIRMETs and SIGMETs.
AERONAUTICS - GENERAL KNOWLEDGE
SECTION 4: AIRFRAMES, ENGINES AND SYSTEMS
Sample Learning Objectives
The pilot operating small UAVs within visual line of sight must be able to:
Indicate how manufacturers identify the repairs and work that can be undertaken by the operator vs. what must be addressed by an authorized repair facility (e.g. how to find your applicable OEM guidelines).
Describe the importance of identifying propellor damage, surface contamination, wiring damage, structural damage.
Identify the parts of an airframe.
1 Two/Four Stroke Cycle
2 Methods of Cooling
3 Effects of Density Altitude/ Humidity
4 Limitations and Operations
5 Instruments and GCS information
Identify the type of engine (2/4 stroke) or electric motor used on the UAV.
Explain the difference between 2 and 4 stroke engines/cycles.
1 Typical Electrical System Components
2 Servo motors
Describe typical electrical system components.
Describe the actions of a servo.
Describe the indications of a failed servo.
FUEL SYSTEMS AND FUELS
1 Types - Properties
4 Contamination and Deterioration
Discuss the importance of Material Safety Data Sheet in understanding fuel hazards. (note : this is comparably relevant to health and safety...)
1 Frequency bands (licensed and unlicensed)
3 Antennas and tracking systems
5 Data protocols and data rates
Describe how to assess the RF environment or conduct and RF sweep.
List the parameters of a computer data port.
Discuss the importance of radio line-of-sight.
Discuss the importance of GCS antenna placement.
Discuss the causes of lost link and methods of recovery.
1 Types and hazards
2 Battery parameters (Ah, voltage, charge and discharge rates (“C”))
3 Battery configurations (parallel, series)
4 Charge cycles, storage, and maintenance
5 Discharge curves
6 Transportation of batteries (dangerous goods regulations)
Interpret maintenance log history.
Describe the variables affecting batteries (capacity e.g. due to age, history, charge status).
Interpret aeronautical radiocommunication (position, phase of flight)
Communicate using standard radio terminology.
Give an example of a routine blind broadcast.
List the contents of a routine call to ATC .
Give an example of an emergency (flyaway) broadcast.
GROUND CREWMEMBER RADIOS
2 Reception performance
Give an example of an advisory describing a possible aircraft conflict.
Describe factors affecting radio reception range.
Information concerning the operation of small UAVs and pilot certification may be obtained by contacting the appropriate Regional Offices. A complete listing may be found at: http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/regions-air.htm.
RECOMMENDED STUDY MATERIAL
Transport Canada Staff Instruction SI 623-001 – The Review and Processing of an Application for a Special Flight Operations Certificate for the Operation of an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) System
Air Command Weather Manual (TP 9352)
Human Factors for Aviation - Basic Handbook (TP 12863), and Advanced Handbook (TP 12864)
The Study Guide For The Radiotelephone Operator's Restricted Certificate - Aeronautical (RIC-21) is available free of charge from district offices of Industry Canada - Examinations and Radio Licensing (http://www.strategis.gc.ca).
Information on text books and other publications produced by commercial publishers can be obtained through local flying training organization, bookstores and similar sources.
Publications used in pilot training in the United States are available through the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402 (http://www.access.gpo.gov/index.html).