5.0 Meteorology

5.1 THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE

  1. Composition and Physical Properties
  2. Vertical Structure
  3. The Standard Atmosphere
  4. Density and Pressure
  5. Mobility
  6. Expansion and Compression

5.2 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

  1. Definition
  2. Pressure Measurements
  3. Station Pressure
  4. Sea Level Pressure
  5. Pressure Systems and their Variations
  6. Effects of Temperature
  7. Isobars
  8. Horizontal Pressure Differences

5.3 METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALTIMETRY

  1. Pressure Altitude
  2. Density Altitude
  3. Altimeter Settings

5.4 TEMPERATURE

  1. Temperature Scales, Farhenheit and Celsius
  2. Heating and Cooling of the Atmosphere - Convection/Advection/ Radiation
  3. Horizontal Differences
  4. Temperature Variations with Altitude
  5. Inversions
  6. Isothermal Layers

5.5 MOISTURE

  1. Relative Humidity Dewpoint
  2. Change of State
  3. Sublimation and Condensation
  4. Cloud Formation
  5. Precipitation
  6. Saturated and Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rates

5.6 STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

  1. Lapse Rate and Stability
  2. Modification of Stability
  3. Characteristics of Stable and Unstable Air
  4. Surface Heating and Cooling
  5. Lifting Processes
  6. Subsidence/Convergence

5.7 CLOUDS

  1. Classification
  2. Formation and Structure
  3. Types and Recognition
  4. Associated Precipitation and Turbulence

5.8 TURBULENCE

  1. Convective
  2. Mechanical
  3. Wind Shear
  4. Frontal Systems

5.9 WIND

  1. Pressure Gradient
  2. Deflection caused by the Earth's Rotation/Centrifugal Force
  3. Low Level Winds - Variation in Surface Wind
  4. Friction
  5. Veer and Back
  6. Squalls and Gusts
  7. Diurnal Effects
  8. Land and Sea Breezes
  9. Katabatic/Anabatic Effects
  10. Topographical Effects
  11. Wind Shear, Types and Causes

5.10 AIR MASSES

  1. Definition and Characteristics
  2. Formation
  3. Classification
  4. Modification
  5. Factors that Determines Weather
  6. Seasonal and geographic Effects
  7. Air Masses affecting North America

5.1 THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE

  1. Composition and Physical Properties
  2. Vertical Structure
  3. The Standard Atmosphere
  4. Density and Pressure
  5. Mobility
  6. Expansion and Compression

5.2 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

  1. Definition
  2. Pressure Measurements
  3. Station Pressure
  4. Sea Level Pressure
  5. Pressure Systems and their Variations
  6. Effects of Temperature
  7. Isobars
  8. Horizontal Pressure Differences

5.3 METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALTIMETRY

  1. Pressure Altitude
  2. Density Altitude
  3. Altimeter Settings

5.4 TEMPERATURE

  1. Temperature Scales, Farhenheit and Celsius
  2. Heating and Cooling of the Atmosphere - Convection/Advection/ Radiation
  3. Horizontal Differences
  4. Temperature Variations with Altitude
  5. Inversions
  6. Isothermal Layers

5.5 MOISTURE

  1. Relative Humidity Dewpoint
  2. Change of State
  3. Sublimation and Condensation
  4. Cloud Formation
  5. Precipitation
  6. Saturated and Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rates

5.6 STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

  1. Lapse Rate and Stability
  2. Modification of Stability
  3. Characteristics of Stable and Unstable Air
  4. Surface Heating and Cooling
  5. Lifting Processes
  6. Subsidence/Convergence

5.7 CLOUDS

  1. Classification
  2. Formation and Structure
  3. Types and Recognition
  4. Associated Precipitation and Turbulence

5.8 TURBULENCE

  1. Convective
  2. Mechanical
  3. Wind Shear
  4. Frontal Systems

5.9 WIND

  1. Pressure Gradient
  2. Deflection caused by the Earth's Rotation/Centrifugal Force
  3. Low Level Winds - Variation in Surface Wind
  4. Friction
  5. Veer and Back
  6. Squalls and Gusts
  7. Diurnal Effects
  8. Land and Sea Breezes
  9. Katabatic/Anabatic Effects
  10. Topographical Effects
  11. Wind Shear, Types and Causes

5.10 AIR MASSES

  1. Definition and Characteristics
  2. Formation
  3. Classification
  4. Modification
  5. Factors that Determines Weather
  6. Seasonal and geographic Effects
  7. Air Masses affecting North America

5.11 FRONTS

  1. Structure
  2. Types
  3. Formation
  4. Cross-sections
  5. Frontogenesis and Frontolysis

5.12 FRONTAL WEATHER

  1. Cold Front
  2. Warm Front
  3. TROWAL and Upper Fonts

5.13 THUNDERSTORMS AND TORNADOES

  1. Requirements for Development
  2. Structure and Development
  3. Types - Air Mass, Frontal
  4. Hazards - Updrafts, Downdrafts, Gust Fronts, Downbursts, Microbursts, Hail and Lightning

5.14 SQUALL LINES

5.15 TERRAIN EFFECTS

5.16 SURFACE BASED LAYERS

  1. Fog Formation
  2. Fog Types
  3. Haze and Smoke
  4. Obscured/Partially Obscured

5.17 METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AVAILABLE TO PILOTS

  1. Flight Information Centres (FIC)
  2. Aviation Weather Website
  3. Pilot's Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS)
  4. Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)

5.18 AVIATION WEATHER REPORTS

  1. Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METAR)
  2. Speci
  3. Decoding
  4. AWOS
  5. Pilot Reports (PIREP and AIREP)

5.19 AVIATION FORECASTS

  1. Times Issued and Validity Periods
  2. Decoding
  3. Graphical Area Forecasts (GFA)/AIRMET
  4. Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF)
  5. Upper Level Wind and Temperature Forecast (FD)
  6. Significant In-Flight Weather Warning Messages (SIGMET)

5.20 WEATHER MAPS AND PROGNOSTIC CHARTS

  1. Times Issued and validity Periods
  2. Symbols and Decoding
  3. Surface Weather Charts
  4. Prognostic Surface Chart
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