Section 3: Meteorology

THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE

1 Properties
2 Vertical Structure
3 ICAO Standard Atmosphere

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

1 Pressure Measurements
2 Station Pressure
3 Mean Sea Level Pressure
4 Pressure Systems and their Variations
5 Effects of Temperature
6 Horizontal Pressure Differences

METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALTIMETRY

1 Pressure Altitude
2 Density Altitude
3 True Altitude
4 Altimeter Settings
5 Effects of both Pressure and Temperature

TEMPERATURE

1 Heating and Cooling of the Atmosphere - Convection / Advection / Radiation
2 Horizontal Differences
3 Temperature Variations with Altitude
4 Inversions
5 Isothermal Layers

MOISTURE

1 Relative Humidity / Dewpoint
2 Sublimation and Condensation
3 Cloud Formation
4 Precipitation
5 Saturated and Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rates

STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

1 Lapse Rate and Stability
2 Modification of Stability
3 Characteristics of Stable and Unstable Air
4 Surface Heating and Cooling
5 Lifting Processes
6 Subsidence / Convergence

CLOUDS

 1 Classification
 2 Formation
 3 Types and Recognition
 4 Associated Precipitation and Turbulence

TURBULENCE

1 Convection
2 Mechanical
3 Orographic
4 Clear Air Turbulence
5 VIRGA - Evaporation Cooling
6 Reporting Criteria
 7 Mountain Waves

WIND

1 Pressure Gradient
 2 Deflection caused by the Earth's Rotation
 3 Low Level Winds - Variation in Surface Wind
4 Friction
5 Centrifugal Force
 6 Veer and Back
 7 Squalls and Gusts
8 Diurnal Effects
 9 Land and Sea Breezes
10 Katabatic / Anabatic Effects
11 Topographical Effects
 12 Wind Shear, Types and Causes

AIR MASSES

1 Definition and Characteristics
2 Formation
3 Classification
4 Modification
5 Factors that Determine Weather
6 Seasonal and Geographic Effects
7 Air Masses affecting North America

FRONTS

 1 Structure
 2 Types
 3 Formation
4 Cross-sections
5 Discontinuities Across Fronts
6 Frontal Waves and Occlusions
7 Frontogenesis and Frontolysis

FRONTAL WEATHER

1 Warm Front
2 Cold Front
3 Stationary Front
4 TROWAL and Upper Fronts

AIRCRAFT ICING

 1 Formation
 2 Types of Ice
 3 Reporting Criteria
 4 Cloud Types and Icing
 5 Freezing Rain and Drizzle
 6 Icing in Clear Air (Hoar Frost)
 7 Collection Efficiency
 8 Aerodynamic Heating

THUNDERSTORMS

1 Requirements for Development
2 Life Cycle
3 Classification - Air mass, Frontal, Squall Line, Convective, Orographic and Nocturnal
4 Tornadoes and Hurricanes
 5 Hazards - Turbulence, Hail, Rain, Icing, Altimetry, Lightning, Gust Fronts, Downbursts and Micro-bursts

SURFACE BASED LAYERS

1 Fog Formation
2 Fog Types (including mist)
3 Haze and Smoke
4 Blowing Obstructions to Vision

METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AVAILABLE TO PILOTS

1 Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS)
2 Aviation Weather Information Service (AWIS)
3 Flight Service Stations (FSS)
4 Weather Broadcasts by FSS
5 Atmospheric Environment Service Weather Briefing
6 Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWB)
7 DUATS - Commercial Weather Service
8 Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
9 VOLMET (HF) Broadcast
10 Pilots Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS)

AVIATION WEATHER REPORTS

 1 Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR)
2 SPECI
 3 Decoding
4 AWOS
5 Pilot Reports (PIREP/AIREP)

AVIATION FORECASTS

 1 Times Issued and Validity Periods
 2 Decoding
 3 Graphical Area Forecasts (GFA) and AIRMET
 4 Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF)
 5 Upper Level Winds and Temperature Forecasts (FD)
 6 Significant In-flight Weather Warning Messages (SIGMET)

WEATHER MAPS AND PROGNOSTIC CHARTS

1 Times Issued and Validity Periods
2 Symbols and Decoding
3 Surface Weather Map
4 Prognostic Surface Chart
5 Upper Level Chart - ANAL (850 - 700 mb)
6 Significant Weather Prognostic Chart FL100 - 250 (700 - 400 mb)

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