Section 3: Meteorology

(proficiency level 5 for all items in section 3)

3.1 THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE
   
  1 Properties
  2 Vertical Structure
  3 ICAO Standard Atmosphere
   
3.2 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
   
  1 Pressure Measurements
  2 Station Pressure
  3 Mean Sea Level Pressure
  4 Pressure Systems and Their Variations
  5 Effects of Temperature
  6 Horizontal Pressure Differences
   
3.3 METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALTIMETRY
   
  1 Pressure Altitude
  2 Density Altitude
  3 True Altitude
  4 Altimeter Setting
  5 Effects of both Pressure and Temperature
   
3.4 TEMPERATURE
   
  1 Heating and Cooling of the Atmosphere - Convection/ Advection/Radiation
  2 Horizontal Differences
  3 Temperature Variations with Altitude
  4 Inversions
  5 Isothermal Layers
   
3.5 MOISTURE
   
  1 Relative Humidity/Dewpoint
  2 Sublimation/Condensation
  3 Cloud Formation
  4 Precipitation
  5 Saturated/Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rates
   
3.6 STABILITY AND INSTABILITY
   
  1 Lapse Rate and Stability
  2 Modification of Stability
  3 Characteristics of Stable/ Unstable Air
  4 Surface Heating and Cooling
  5 Lifting Process
  6 Subsidence/Convergence
   
3.7 CLOUDS
   
  1 Classification
  2 Formation
  3 Types and Recognition
  4 Associated Precipitation and Turbulence
   
3.8 TURBULENCE
   
  1 Convection
  2 Mechanical
  3 Orographic
  4 Clear Air Turbulence
  5 VIRGA - Evaporation Cooling
  6 Reporting Criteria
  7 Mountain Waves
   
3.9 WIND
   
  1 Pressure Gradient
  2 Deflection Caused by the Earth's Rotation
  3 Low Level Winds - Variation in Surface Wind
  4 Friction
  5 Centrifugal Force
  6 Veer and Back
  7 Squalls and Gusts
  8 Diurnal Effects
  9 Land and Sea Breezes
  10 Katabatic/Anabatic Effects
  11 Topographical Effects
  12 Wind Shear, Types and Causes
   
3.10 JET STREAMS
   
  1 Frontal Jet Streams
  2 Wind Distribution/Location
  3 Temperature Distribution
  4 Seasonal Variations in Latitude and Speed
  5 Arctic Stratospheric Jets
  6 Subtropical Jet Streams
  7 Turbulence
   
3.11 AIR MASSES
   
  1 Definition and Characteristics
  2 Formation
  3 Classification
  4 Modification
  5 Factors that Determine Weather
  6 Seasonal and Geographic Effects
  7 Air Masses Affecting North America
   
3.12 FRONTS
   
  1 Structure
  2 Types
  3 Formation
  4 Cross-sections
  5 Discontinuities Across Fronts
  6 Frontal Waves and Occlusions
  7 Frontogenesis and Frontolysis
   
3.13 FRONTAL WEATHER
   
  1 Warm Front
  2 Cold Front
  3 Stationary Front
  4 TROWAL and Upper Fronts
   
3.14 AIRCRAFT ICING
   
  1 Formation
  2 Type of Ice
  3 Reporting Criteria
  4 Cloud Types and Icing
  5 Freezing Rain and Drizzle
  6 Icing in Clear Air (Hoar Frost)
  7 Collection Efficiency
  8 Aerodynamic Heating
   
3.15 THUNDERSTORMS
   
  1 Requirements for Development
  2 Life Cycle
  3 Classification - Air Mass, Frontal, Squall Line, Convective, Orographic and Nocturnal
  4 Tornadoes and Hurricanes
  5 Hazards - Turbulence, Hail, Rain, Icing, Altimetry, Lightning, Gust Fronts, Downbursts and Microbursts
   
3.16 SURFACE BASED LAYERS
   
  1 Fog Formation
  2 Fog Types
  3 Haze and Smoke
  4 Blowing Obstructions to Vision
   
3.17 METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AVAILABLE TO Dispatchers
   
  1 Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS)
  2 Aviation Weather Information Service (AWIS)
  3 Flight Service Stations (FSS)
  4 Weather Broadcasts by Flight Service Stations
  5 Atmospheric Environment Service Weather Briefing
  6 Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWB)
  7 DUATS - Commercial Weather Service
  8 Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATS)
  9 VOLMET (HF) Broadcast
  10 Pilots Automatic Telephone Reporting Criteria, Cloud Types and Icing Weather Answering Service(PATWAS)
   
3.18 AVIATION WEATHER REPORTS
   
  1 Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR)
  2 SPECI
  3 Decoding
  4 AWOS
  5 Pilot Reports (PIREP/AIREP)
   
3.19 AVIATION FORECASTS
   
  1 Times Issued/Validity Periods
  2 Decoding
  3 Graphical Area Forecasts (GFA)/AIRMET
  4 Terminal Area Forecasts (TAF)
  5 Upper Level Winds and Temperature Forecasts (FD)
  6 Significant In-flight Weather Warning Message (SIGMET)
   
3.20 WEATHER MAPS AND PROGNOSTIC CHARTS
   
  1 Times Issued/Validity Periods
  2 Symbols/Decoding
  3 Surface Weather Map
  4 Prognostic Surface Chart
  5 Upper Level Charts - ANAL (850mb, 700mb, 500mb & 250mb)
  6 Upper Level Charts - PROG (FL240, FL340, FL450)
  7 Significant Weather Prognostic Chart FL100-250 (700-400mb) & FL250-600 (400-100mb)
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