Instrument Flying

The following are the flight training exercises that you must include when designing a course for the VFR OTT rating. The instrument flying for this rating is to be completed in accordance with the exercise outlines in the Flight Instructor Guide (TP 975), Exercise 24 — Instrument Flying.

Full Panel (Aeroplanes and Helicopters)  

  • Straight and level flight
  • Steep turns
  • Climbing
  • Rate one turns
  • Descending
  • Turns to selected headings
  • Gentle turns
  • Climbing turns
  • Medium turns
  • Descending turns

Completion Standards

Flying by sole reference to instruments and using full panel, the student shall at various specified airspeeds be able to:

  • maintain co-ordinated straight and level flight
  • carry out climbs and descents at various rates
  • conduct climbing descending and level turns at various specified angles of bank to specific headings
  • control and manoeuvre the aeroplane or helicopter within:

    • +/- 10° of the assigned heading
    • +/- 100 feet of the assigned altitude
    • +/- 10 knots of the assigned airspeed
    • +/- 10° of the specified angle of bank.

Partial Panel (Aeroplanes Only)

  • Straight and level flight
  • Climbing turns
  • Climbing
  • Descending turns
  • Descending
  • Timed turns
  • Rate one turns

Completion Standards

Using partial panel the student shall, at various specified airspeeds:

  • maintain straight and level flight
  • conduct rate one timed turns to specific compass headings
  • control and manoeuvre the aeroplane within:

    • +/- 15° of assigned heading
    • +/- 200 feet of assigned altitude
    • +/- 15 knots of assigned airspeed.

Unusual Attitudes (Aeroplanes and Helicopters)

  • Nose-high
  • Nose-low
  • Nose-high while banked
  • Nose-low while banked

Completion Standards

Using partial panel the student shall be able to recover from various unusual attitudes:

  • promptly, taking immediate and correct action
  • with minimum loss of altitude
  • smoothly
  • using co-ordinated control inputs.

Radio Navigation

The following list of topics outlines the radio aids to navigation exercises that you must include when designing a course for the VFR OTT rating. This training is to be completed in accordance with the exercise outlines in the Flight Instructor Guide (TP 975), Exercise 24 — Instrument Flying.

VOR

  • Tune and identify the station and test the VOR receiver
  • Tracking to eliminate drift
  • Determine line of position
  • Intercept a predetermined radial and fly to the station
  • Plot a position fix
  • Intercept a predetermined radial and fly from the station
  • Home to the station
  • Identify station passage

ADF

  • Tune and identify the station and test the ADF receiver
  • Tracking to eliminate drift
  • Determine line of position
  • Intercept a predetermined track and fly to the station
  • Plot a position fix
  • Intercept a predetermined track and fly from the station
  • Home to the station
  • Identify station passage

GPS

  • monitor and verify self test and initialization
  • Intercept a predetermined track and fly to the waypoint
  • verify the equipment is serviceable and functioning
  • Input, or retrieve and verify the waypoint
  • Home to the waypoint
  • Intercept a predetermined track and fly from the waypoint
  • Tracking to eliminate drift
  • Identify waypoint passage

Completion Standards

The student shall be able to:

  • tune and identify the radio facility and test the receiver or, for GPS, input or retrieve and verify the required waypoint
  • determine the position of the aircraft relative to a radio navigation aid or waypoint
  • expeditiously apply an orientation procedure that will establish the aircraft on the required track or radial
  • maintain the required track or radial within +/-10° or, for GPS, within +/- one nautical mile
  • identify or describe station or waypoint passage.

Advice to Instructors

Planning an Over-the-Top flight brings with it some additional areas of consideration. Point out that in many cases it will be necessary to fly at higher altitudes and the operational limits of the aircraft may become a critical factor. Also, if the flight will be above 10,000 feet, oxygen may become a requirement.

Consider the benefits of adding realism to the training. If possible, arrange the training schedule such that a portion of the training is carried out in various actual over-the-top conditions. Have the student practice making go-no-go decisions based on an analysis of weather data for a pre-selected trip.

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