Meteorology

THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE

    Composition and physical properties
  Vertical structure
  Standard atmosphere
  Density and pressure
  Expansion and compression

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    Units of measurement
  Station pressure
  Sea level pressure
  Pressure systems and their variations
  Effects of temperature
  Isobars

METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALTIMETRY

•  Pressure altitude
•  Density altitude
•  Altimeter settings
•  Considerations when flying to/from high to low pressure or temperature areas

TEMPERATURE

•   Heating and cooling of the atmosphere - convection, advection and radiation
  Horizontal differences
•  Temperature variations with altitude
•  Inversions
  Isothermal layers

MOISTURE

•   Relative humidity and dewpoint
  Sublimation and condensation
  Cloud formation
  Precipitation
  Saturated and dry adiabatic lapse rate

STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

  Lapse rate and stability
  Modification of stability
•   Characteristics of stable and unstable air
  Surface heating and cooling
•   Lifting processes
  Subsidence and convergence

CLOUDS

  Classification
  Formation and structure
•   Types and recognition
•   Associated precipitation and turbulence

SURFACE BASED LAYERS

•   Fog formation
•   Fog types (including mist)
  Haze and smoke
  Blowing obstruction to vision

TURBULENCE

  Convection
  Mechanical
  Orographic
•   Wind shear
  Reporting criteria

WIND

  Definition
•   Pressure gradient
  Deflection caused by the earth's rotation
•   Low level winds - variation in surface wind
  Friction
•   Veer/back
  Squall/gusts
  Diurnal effects
  Land and sea breezes
  10  Katabatic and anabatic effects
•   11  Topographical effects
•   12  Wind shear - types, causes

AIR MASSES

    Definition and characteristics
  Formation and classification
  Modification
  Factors that determine weather
  Seasonal and geographic effects
  Air masses affecting North America

FRONTS

  Structure
•   Types
  Formation
  Cross-sections
•   Cold front weather
•   Warm front weather
  Trowal and upper front

AIRCRAFT ICING

   In-flight - freezing rain
  Hoar frost
  Impact icing (engine)

THUNDERSTORMS

•  Requirements for development
  Structure and development
  Types - air mass and frontal
•  Hazards - Updrafts, downdrafts, gust fronts, downbursts, microbursts, hail and lightning
  Squall lines

HURRICANES AND TORNADOES

    Hazards

METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AVAILABLE TO PILOTS

    Aviation Weather Information Services (AWIS)
  Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS)
  Flight Service Stations (FSS) and Flight Information Centres
  Pilot's Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS)
  Aviation Weather Web Site (AWWS)
  Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)

AVIATION WEATHER REPORTS

•   Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) - decoding
  Automated Weather Observation Station (AWOS)
  Pilot Reports (PIREP)

AVIATION FORECASTS

•   Times issued and period of coverage
•   Decoding
•   Graphical Area Forecast (GFA)
•   Terminal Area Forecast (TAF)
•   Upper Winds and Temperature Forecast (FD)
  Airman's Meteorological Advisory (AIRMET)
•   Significant In-flight Weather Warning Message (SIGMET)

WEATHER MAPS AND PROGNOSTIC CHARTS

    Times issued and period of coverage
  Symbols and decoding
  Surface weather map
  Upper air charts - weather Information to 700 mb Level
  Prognostic surface charts
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