Section 3: Meteorology

 

THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE

  1 Composition and Physical Properties
  2 Vertical Structures
  3 The Standard Atmosphere
  4 Density and Pressure
  5 Mobility
  Expansion and Compression
 

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

  1 Pressure Measurements
  2 Station Pressure
  3 Sea Level Pressure
  4 Pressure System and their Variations
  5 Effects of Temperature
  Isobars
  7 Horizontal Pressure Differences
 

METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALTIMETRY

  1 Pressure Altitude
  2 Density Altitude
  3 Altimeter Settings
  4 Considerations when Flying from High to Low Pressure and Temperature Areas, and vice versa
 

TEMPERATURE

  1 Temperature Scale - Fahrenheit/Celsius
  2 Heating/Cooling of the Atmosphere - Convection/Advection/Radiation
  3 Horizontal Differences
  4 Temperature Variations with Altitude
  5 Inversions
  Isothermal Layers
 

MOISTURE

  1 Relative Humidity/Dewpoint
  2 Change of State
  3 Sublimation/Condensation
  4 Cloud Formation
  5 Precipitation
  Saturated/Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate
 

STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

  1 Lapse Rate and Stability
  2 Modification of Stability
  3 Characteristics of Stable/Unstable Air
  4 Surface Heating/Cooling
  5 Lifting Processes
  Subsidence/Convergence
 

CLOUDS

  1 Classification
  2 Formation and Structure
  3 Types and Recognition
  4 Associated Precipitation and Turbulence
 

SURFACE BASED LAYERS

  1 Fog Formation
  2 Fog Types (Including Mist)
  3 Haze/Smoke
  4 Blowing Obstruction to Vision
 

TURBULENCE

  1 Convection
  2 Mechanical
  3 Orographic
  4 Wind Shear
  5 Clear Air Turbulence
  Reporting Criteria
 
 

WIND

  1 Definition
  2 Pressure Gradient
  3 Deflection Caused by the Earth's Rotation
  4 Low Level Winds - Variation in Surface Wind
  5 Friction
  Centrifugal Force
  7 Veer/Back
  8 Squall/Gusts
  9 Diurnal Effects
  10 Land/Sea Breezes
  11 Katabatic/Anabatic Effects
  12 Topographical Effects
  13 Wind Shear - Types/Causes
  14 Jet Stream - Composition/Altitude/Seasonal Variance
 

AIR MASSES

  1 Definition and Characteristics
  2 Formation/Classification
  3 Modification
  4 Factors that Determine Weather
  5 Seasonal/Geographic Effects
  Air Masses Affecting North America
 

FRONTS AND FRONTAL WEATHER

  1 Structure
  2 Types
  3 Formation
  4 Cross-sections
  5 Frontogenesis/Frontolysis
  Cold Front
  7 Warm Front
  8 TROWAL and Upper Fronts
 

AIRCRAFT ICING

  1 Formation
  2 In-flight - Freezing Rain
  3 Hoar Frost
 

THUNDERSTORMS

  1 Requirements for Development
  2 Structure/Development
  3 Types - Air Mass/Frontal
  4 Hazards - Updrafts/Downdrafts/Gust Fronts/Downbursts/ Microbursts/Hail/Lightning
  5 Squall Lines
 
 

HURRICANES AND TORNADOES

  1 Hazards
 

METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AVAILABLE TO PILOTS

  1 Flight Information Centres (FIC)
  2 Aviation Weather Web Site
  3 Pilot's Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS)
  4 Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
  5 VOLMET (HF) Broadcast
 

AVIATION WEATHER REPORTS

  1 Decoding
  2 Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR)
  3 Automated Weather Observation Station (AWOS)
  4 Limited Weather Information System (LWIS)
 

AVIATION FORECASTS

  1 Times Issued and Validity Periods
  2 Decoding
  3 Graphic Area Forecasts (GFA)
  4 Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF)
  5 Upper Wind and Temperature Forecasts (FD)
  Airman's Meteorological Advisory (AIRMET)
  7 Significant In-flight Weather Warning Messages (SIGMET)
 

WEATHER MAPS AND PROGNOSTIC CHARTS

  1 Times Issued and Validity Period
  2 Symbols and Decoding
  3 Surface Analysis Chart
  4 Upper Air Charts - Weather Information to 500 mb Level
  5 Significant Weather Prognostic Chart (Upper Air) 700-400 mb
 

PILOT REPORTS

  1 Pilot Reports (PIREP)