- Standards Branch
- Aerodromes and Air Navigation
- Wildlife Control
- Preface to the second edition
- How To Use this Book
- Chapter 1
- Chapter 2
- Chapter 3
- Chapter 4
- Chapter 5
- Chapter 6
- Chapter 7
- Chapter 8
- Chapter 9
- Chapter 10
- Chapter 11
- Chapter 12
- Chapter 13
- Chapter 14
- Chapter 15
- Production Team
- Colour Plates
Active management • A type of wildlife management in which short-term solutions, such as pyrotechnics and distress calls, are employed to disperse wildlife from airport property.
Aerodrome • Any area of land, water (including ice surfaces) or other supporting surface used, designed, prepared, equipped or designated for the arrival and departure, movement or servicing of aircraft. Includes all associated buildings, installations and equipment.
Aeronautics • The science, art and practice of aerial navigation.
Aeronautics Act • A legal document that stipulates regulations and safety standards pertaining to aircraft and aerodromes.
AGL • Altitude above ground level.
Airport • In Canada, an aerodrome for which an airport certificate has been issued by the Transport Minister under Part III of the Air Regulations.
Air Traffic Control Unit • An area control centre (ACC); a terminal control unit (TCU); an airport tower control unit.
Airport tower control unit • A control unit established to provide air-traffic control service to airport traffic.
Airport wildlife activity • The presence of any birds and mammals within airport ground perimeters and the airspace up to 200 feet above ground level on approach, and up to 500 feet above ground level on takeoff.
Airport wildlife incident • Any airport wildlife activity that presents flight safety hazards or causes pilots to take evasive action.
Airport wildlife occurrence • Any wildlife incident, bird strike, or mammal strike that takes place within airport ground perimeters and the airspace up to 200 feet above ground level on approach, and up to 500 feet above ground level on takeoff.
Airport zoning regulations • In Canada, a regulation made by the Governor in Council respecting a given airport pursuant to section 5.4 of the Aeronautics Act.
Air traffic • All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome.
ATS Providers • Air-traffic service providers; a collective term for air-traffic controllers, terminal controllers, arrival controllers, departure controllers, ground controllers and flight-service specialists.
Altitude • Height above sea level (ASL) or ground (AGL).
Area Control Centre (ACC) • A control unit established to provide air-traffic control service to IFR flights and controlled VFR flights.
Arrival control(ler) • An ATS provider who expedites the flow of inbound IFR flights within a terminal control area, and who may also service VFR flights.
ASL • Altitude above sea level.
Audibility • The range of sound-wave frequencies that can be heard by humans: 30 to 20,000 Hz.
Bird strike • As determined by Bird Strike Committee Canada, a bird strike has occurred when:
- a pilot reports a bird strike;
- aircraft-maintenance personnel identify aircraft damage caused by a bird strike;
- personnel on the ground report seeing an aircraft strike one or more birds; and
- bird remains, whether in whole or in part, are found on an airside pavement area orwithin 200 feet of a runway—unless another reason for the bird’s death is identified.
Carnivore • An animal that feeds on animal tissue.
Competitor • Two or more animals competing for the same food source.
Conservation • Preservation of the natural environment.
Controller • A person authorized to provide air-traffic control services.
Crepuscular • Appearing or active in twilight.
Departure control(ler) • An ATS provider who expedites the flow of outbound IFR flights within a terminal control area and who may also service VFR flights.
Deterrence • Active or passive wildlife management for the purpose of minimizing animal activity on airport property.
Dispersal • Active wildlife-management measures that drive animals from airport property.
Diurnal • Animals active during daylight hours.
Endangered Species • Species that have become threatened or rare, and that are protected under federal or provincial legislation.
Feral • An organism (animal) that is wild or untamed.
Flight Service Specialist • A person who works at a flight-service station, such as Nav Canada, and manages such items as flight planning and weather indicators.
Frost heave • The cyclic cooling and warming of ground layers which causes expansion and cracking of the ground, including runway surfaces.
Fungicide • A pesticide intended specifically for use against undesirable fungus. (See pesticide.)
Generalist • An organism, such as a gull, that consumes a range of different foods and is able to live in many different climates; opposite of specialist.
Glider • An un-powered heavier-than-air aircraft that derives its lift from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces that remain fixed during flight.
Gregarious • Living in flocks or communities.
Ground-movement controller • An ATS provider who is responsible for safe and orderly flow of aircraft movements on the ground.
Habitat management • The manipulation and management of wildlife-attracting land features at and around airports for the purpose of making these features less attractive to wildlife. Also refers to habitat modification. (See passive management.)
Habituation • The tendency for wildlife to become accustomed to sounds and objects.
Hazard • The conditions and circumstances that could lead to the damage or destruction of an aircraft, or to loss of life as the result of aircraft operations.
Hazardous Wildlife • Species of wildlife—including feral and domestic animals— that are associated with bird and mammal strikes, and are capable of causing structural damage to aircraft and airport facilities. Hazardous wildlife species also include those that attract other wildlife to airport environments.
Herbicide • A pesticide intended specifically for use against undesirable plants. (See pesticide.)
Herbivore • Animal that feeds on plant tissue.
Incursion • The act of an animal entering airport property.
Infrasound • Having or relating to a frequency below the audible range of the human ear.
Insecticide • A pesticide intended specifically for use against undesirable insects. (See pesticide.)
Insectivore • An animal that feeds on insect tissue.
Loaf • he act, by an animal, of resting or stopping at a particular spot (e.g., Gulls loaf on the runway).
Mammal strike • As determined by Bird Strike Committee Canada, a mammal strike has occurred when:
- a pilot reports a mammal strike;
- aircraft maintenance personnel identify aircraft damage caused by a mammal strike;
- personnel on the ground report seeing an aircraft strike one or more mammals; and
- mammal remains, whether in whole or in part, are found on an airside pavement area or within 200 feet of a runway—unless another reason for the mammal’s death is identified.
Microwaves • A comparatively short electromagnetic wave, between approximately one millimeter and one meter in wavelength.
Minister • In Canada and other Commonwealth nations, the head of a government department.
Military airport • An aerodrome used solely for the purpose of military aircraft.
Movement area • The part of an aerodrome used for the takeoff, landing and taxiing of aircraft, comprising manoeuvring areas and aprons.
Nocturnal • Active during the night.
Normal category (rotorcraft) • Official aircraft specification that permits maximum gross weight operations, but prohibits certain manoeuvres such as spins and steep turns.
Obstacle limitation surfaces • According to regulations, a defined area that limits the extent to which objects may project into airport airspaces. Includes takeoff, approach, transitional and outer airport areas.
Off-airport wildlife activity • Any wildlife activity outside airport perimeters and the airspace higher than 200 feet above ground level on approach, and higher than 500 feet above ground level on takeoff.
Off-airport wildlife incident • Any off-airport wildlife activity that presents flight safety hazards and causes pilots to take evasive action.
Off-airport wildlife occurrence • Any wildlife incident, bird and mammal strike that takes place outside airport perimeters and the airspace higher than 200 feet above ground level on approach, and higher than 500 feet above ground level on takeoff.
Omnivore • An animal that feeds on both plant and animal tissue.
Passive management • Wildlife-management activities in which long-term solutions— such as habitat management and pesticide use—are employed to deter wildlife from airport properties.
Pesticide • 1 Any substance and mixture intended for preventing, destroying, repelling, and mitigating pests. 2 Any substance or mixture of substances intended for use as a plant regulator, defoliant, or desiccant. 3 Any nitrogen stabilizer.
Predator • An organism that preys, destroys, or devours.
Pyrotechnics • Various combustible projectiles launched from a shotgun, pistol or other device to frighten wildlife by producing noise, light or smoke.
Resident species • Organisms that can be found at and around airports throughout the year, such as non-migrating birds and rodents.
Risk • In aviation, the consequence of a hazard, measured in terms of likelihood and severity.
Rodenticide • A pesticide intended specifically for use against undesirable rodents. (See pesticide.)
Roosting • The act of settling for sleep. Roosting sites are safe areas in which organisms congregate and sleep in large numbers.
Soaring • To fly aloft; to sail or hover in the air often at a great height; to fly without engine power and without loss of altitude. Sometimes referred to as towering. Vultures ride thermals to soar and tower. (See thermals.)
Specialized (specialist) • An organism that consumes a limited variety of food types. Opposite of generalist.
Stakeholder • A person or organization interested in, associated with or responsible for an issue or event.
Tactile • Associated with the sense of touch.
Taxonomy • The study of the general principles of scientific classification; the orderly classification of plants and animals according to presumed natural relationships.
Telemetry • The science or process of transmitting data and the recorded readings of instruments by radio.
Terminal Control Area (TCA) • An airspace extending upwards from a base altitude within which a terminal control unit provides ATC services to IFR flights.
Terminal Control Unit • A control unit established to provide air-traffic control service to IFR flights and controlled VFR flights operating within a terminal control area.
Thermals • Rising parcels of warm air that allow soaring and towering by birds such as vultures. (See soaring.)
Tower controller • A tower-based air-traffic controller who conducts all traffic within the control zone surrounding an airport to ensure efficient and safe movements.
Towering • See soaring.
Transport-category aircraft • An aircraft certified pursuant to Chapter 525 of the Airworthiness Manual or an equivalent foreign airworthiness standard; a helicopter certified pursuant to Chapter 529 of the Airworthiness Manual or an equivalent foreign airworthiness standard.
V1 • Critical engine-failure recognition speed. The point at which the pilot has to decide to continue or reject takeoff.
Wildlife attractants • Any land-use practice and geographic feature or structure that can attract or sustain hazardous wildlife within the landing and departure airspace, aircraft movement area, loading ramps, and aircraft parking areas of an airport. These attractants include architectural features, landscaping, waste-disposal sites, wastewater-treatment facilities, agricultural or aquacultural activities, surface mining and wetlands.
Wildlife Hazard • See hazard.
Zoonosis • A disease communicable from animals to humans under natural conditions.
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