Exercise 18 — Approach and Landing

Aim

To determine the trainee's ability to approach and land safely using the correct procedure and technique for the actual wind conditions, runway surface and length, to assess the possibility of such further conditions as wind shear and wake turbulence, and to execute overshoot procedures.

Description

The trainee will be required to demonstrate:

  • a normal landing into wind and in cross-wind conditions
  • a short field landing, or soft field landing
  • an overshoot

If possible, at least one of the landings shall be completed under crosswind conditions.

The simulated surface conditions, obstacles on approach, runway threshold and length of surface available to the candidate for the short or soft field approach and landing will be clearly specified by the examiner prior to commencing the exercise.

The overshoot may be called for and assessed from any of the landing approaches, the forced landing or precautionary landing.

Assessment of approaches and landings will be based on the candidate's ability to select the proper approach profile for the actual conditions, or for those specified by the examiner.

Note:  The trainee must be able to explain the necessity for any variation from recommended speed, e.g. gusty or crosswind conditions.

Performance Criteria — Normal Approach and Landing

The trainee will:

  • perform an effective passenger safety review;
  • consider the wind conditions, landing surface and obstructions;
  • select a suitable touch-down zone and specify a touchdown point;
  • establish the recommended approach and landing configuration;
  • maintain a stabilized approach and recommended airspeed, or in its absence 1.3 Vso, (+10/-0 knots);
  • make smooth, timely, and correct control application during the flare and touchdown;
  • touch down smoothly at a minimum speed for existing conditions, at or within 200 feet beyond a specified touchdown point;
  • touch down with no drift and with the aeroplane's longitudinal axis aligned with and within 10 feet of the centre of the landing surface;
  • touch down on main wheels with nose wheel clear of ground;
  • maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing roll;
  • control nose wheel contact with the runway;
  • apply brakes without lockup or skidding;
  • complete appropriate checks.

Performance Criteria — Soft Field Approach and Landing

The candidate will:

  • perform an effective passenger safety review;
  • consider the wind conditions, landing surface and obstructions;
  • select the most suitable touchdown zone;
  • establish the recommended approach and landing configuration;
  • maintain a stabilized approach and recommended airspeed which will result in a threshold crossing airspeed of 1.2 Vso (+10/-0 knots);
  • maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing;
  • touch down softly using power as necessary to achieve the landing attitude for the slowest possible touch down on the main wheels, while preventing nose wheel or tail cone contact with the soft ground;
  • touch down with no drift and with the aeroplane's longitudinal axis aligned with the landing surface;
  • maintain the required nose-up control during the landing roll;
  • complete appropriate checks.

Performance Criteria — Short Field Approach and Landing

The candidate will:

  • perform an effective passenger safety review;
  • consider the wind conditions, landing surface and obstructions;
  • select the most suitable touchdown zone and specify a touchdown point;
  • establish the recommended approach and landing configuration;
  • maintain a stabilized approach and recommended airspeed which will result in a threshold crossing airspeed of 1.2 Vso (+10/-0 knots);
  • make smooth, timely and correct control application during the flare and touchdown;
  • touch down at or within 100 feet beyond a specified point;
  • touch down with no drift, and with the longitudinal axis aligned with and within 10 feet of the centre of the landing surface;
  • maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing;
  • apply brakes, without lockup or skidding, to stop in the shortest distance consistent with safety;
  • complete appropriate checks.

Overshoot

The trainee will:

  • make a timely decision to discontinue the approach to landing;
  • promptly and smoothly apply maximum allowable power and establish the pitch attitude that will stop the descent;
  • retract flaps in stages or as recommended by the manufacturer;
  • retract the landing gear (as applicable) after a positive rate of climb is established, or as recommended by the manufacturer;
  • accelerate to and maintain recommended climb speed (+10/-0 knots);
  • maintain maximum allowable power to a safe manoeuvring altitude, then set climb power (+/-0.5" MAP, +/-50 RPM);
  • complete the appropriate checks.
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