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3.0 Meteorology


3.1 THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE
.1 Properties
.2 Vertical Structure
.3 ICAO Standard Atmosphere

3.2 ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
.1 Pressure Measurements
.2 Station Pressure
.3 Mean Sea Level Pressure
.4 Pressure Systems and their Variations
.5 Effects of Temperature
.6 Horizontal Pressure Differences

3.3 METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALTIMETRY
.1 Pressure Altitude
.2 Density Altitude
.3 True Altitude
.4 Altimeter Settings
.5 Effects of both Pressure and Temperature

3.4 TEMPERATURE
.1 Heating and Cooling of the Atmosphere - Convection/Advection/ Radiation
.2 Horizontal Differences
.3 Temperature Variations with Altitude
.4 Inversions
.5 Isothermal Layers

3.5 MOISTURE
.1 Relative Humidity/Dewpoint
.2 Sublimation and Condensation
.3 Cloud Formation
.4 Precipitation
.5 Saturated and Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rates

3.6 STABILITY AND INSTABILITY
.1 Lapse Rate and Stability
.2 Modification of Stability
.3 Characteristics of Stable and Unstable Air
.4 Surface Heating and Cooling
.5 Lifting Processes
.6 Subsidence/Convergence

3.7 CLOUDS
 .1 Classification
 .2 Formation
 .3 Types and Recognition
 .4 Associated Precipitation and Turbulence

3.8 TURBULENCE
.1 Convection
.2 Mechanical
.3 Orographic
.4 Clear Air Turbulence
 .5 VIRGA - Evaporation Cooling
.6 Reporting Criteria
.7 Mountain Waves

3.9 WIND
.1 Pressure Gradient
 .2 Deflection caused by the  Earth's Rotation
 .3 Low Level Winds - Variation in Surface Wind
.4 Friction
.5 Centrifugal Force
 .6 Veer and Back
 .7 Squalls and Gusts
.8 Diurnal Effects
 .9 Land and Sea Breezes
.10 Katabatic/Anabatic Effects
.11 Topographical Effects
.12 Wind Shear, Types and Causes

3.10 AIR MASSES
.1 Definition and Characteristics
.2 Formation
.3 Classification
.4 Modification
.5 Factors that Determine Weather
.6 Seasonal and Geographic Effects
.7 Air Masses affecting North America

3.11 FRONTS
 .1 Structure
 .2 Types
 .3 Formation
.4 Cross-sections
.5 Discontinuities Across Fronts
.6 Frontal Waves and Occlusions
.7 Frontogenesis and Frontolysis

3.12 FRONTAL WEATHER
.1 Warm Front
.2 Cold Front
.3 Stationary Front
.4 TROWAL and Upper Fronts

3.13 AIRCRAFT ICING
 .1 Formation
 .2 Types of Ice
 .3 Reporting Criteria
 .4 Cloud Types and Icing
.5 Freezing Rain and Drizzle
 .6 Icing in Clear Air (Hoar Frost)
 .7 Collection Efficiency
 .8 Aerodynamic Heating

3.14 THUNDERSTORMS
.1 Requirements for Development
.2 Life Cycle
.3 Classification - Air mass, Frontal, Squall Line, Convective, Orographic and Nocturnal
.4 Tornadoes and Hurricanes
.5 Hazards - Turbulence, Hail, Rain, Icing, Altimetry, Lightning, Gust Fronts, Downbursts and Micro-bursts

3.15 SURFACE BASED LAYERS
.1 Fog Formation
.2 Fog Types (including mist)
.3 Haze and Smoke
.4 Blowing Obstructions to Vision

3.16 METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AVAILABLE TO PILOTS
.1 Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS)
.2 Aviation Weather Information Service (AWIS)
.3 Flight Service Stations (FSS)
.4 Weather Broadcasts by FSS
.5 Atmospheric Environment Service Weather Briefing
.6 Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWB)
.7 DUATS - Commercial Weather Service
.8 Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
.9 VOLMET (HF) Broadcast
.10 Pilots Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS)

3.17 AVIATION WEATHER REPORTS
 .1 Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR)
.2 SPECI
 .3 Decoding
.4 AWOS
.5 Pilot Reports (PIREP/AIREP)

3.18 AVIATION FORECASTS
 .1 Times Issued and Validity Periods
 .2 Decoding
 .3 Graphical Area Forecasts (GFA) and AIRMET
 .4 Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF)
 .5 Upper Level Winds and Temperature Forecasts (FD)
 .6 Significant In-flight Weather Warning Messages (SIGMET)

3.19 WEATHER MAPS AND PROGNOSTIC CHARTS
.1 Times Issued and Validity Periods
.2 Symbols and Decoding
.3 Surface Weather Map
.4 Prognostic Surface Chart
.5 Upper Level Chart - ANAL (850 - 700 mb)
.6 Significant Weather Prognostic Chart FL100 - 250 (700 - 400 mb)