Section 5: Meteorology


THE EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE
1 Composition and Physical Properties
2 Vertical Structure
3 The Standard Atmosphere
4 Density and Pressure
5 Expansion and Compression
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
1 Definition
2 Pressure Measurements
3 Station Pressure
4 Sea Level Pressure
5 Pressure Systems and their Variations
6 Effects of Temperature
7 Isobars
8 Horizontal Pressure Differences
METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALTIMETRY
* 1 Pressure Altitude
* 2 Density Altitude
* 3 Altimeter Settings
4 Effects of Both Pressure and Temperature
TEMPERATURE
1 Heating and Cooling of the Atmosphere - Convection/ Advection/Radiation
2 Horizontal Differences
* 3 Temperature Variations with Altitude
4 Inversions
5 Isothermal Layers
MOISTURE
* 1 Relative Humidity/Dewpoint
2 Change of State
3 Sublimation and Condensation
4 Cloud Formation
5 Precipitation
6 Saturated and Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rates
STABILITY AND INSTABILITY
1 Lapse Rate and Stability
2 Modification of Stability
* 3 Characteristics of Stable and Unstable Air
4 Surface Heating and Cooling
5 Lifting Processes
6 Subsidence/Convergence
CLOUDS
1 Classification
2 Formation and Structure
* 3 Types and Recognition
* 4 Associated Precipitation and Turbulence
TURBULENCE
1 Convection
2 Mechanical
3 Orographic
* 4 Wind Shear
5 Clear Air Turbulence
6 Reporting Criteria
WIND
1 Definition
* 2 Pressure Gradient
3 Deflection caused by the Earth's Rotation
4 Low Level Winds - Variation in Surface Wind
5 Friction
6 Centrifugal Force
7 Veer and Back
8 Squalls and Gusts
9 Diurnal Effects
10 Land and Sea Breezes
11 Katabatic/Anabatic Effects
12 Topographical Effects
* 13 Wind Shear - Types and Causes
14 Jet Stream - Low Level
AIR MASSES
1 Definition and Characteristics
2 Formation/Classification
3 Modification
4 Factors that Determine Weather
5 Seasonal and Geographic Effects
6 Air Masses affecting North America
FRONTS
1 Structure
* 2 Types
3 Formation
4 Cross-sections
FRONTAL WEATHER
1 Cold Front
2 Warm Front
3 TROWAL and Upper Fronts
AIRCRAFT ICING
1 Formation
2 In Flight-Freezing Rain
3 Hoar Frost
THUNDERSTORMS
* 1 Requirements for Development Structure and Development
* 2 Types - Air Mass, Frontal
3 Hazards - Updrafts, Downdrafts, Gust Fronts, Downbursts, Microbursts, Hail and Lightning
SQUALL LINES
HURRICANES AND TORNADOES
SURFACE BASED LAYERS
* 1 Fog Formation
* 2 Fog Types (Including Mist)
3 Haze and Smoke
4 Blowing Obstructions to Vision
METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AVAILABLE TO PILOTS
1 Aviation Weather Information Service (AWIS)
2 Aviation Weather Briefing Service (AWBS)
3 Aviation Weather Web Site (AWWS)
4 Flight Service Stations (FSS)
5 Pilot's Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS)
6 Flight Information Center (FIC)
7 Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)
8 Voice Generator Module Reports
AVIATION WEATHER REPORTS
1 Decoding
2 Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR)
3 SPECI
4 Automated Weather Observation Station (AWOS)
5 Pilot Reports (PIREPS and AIREP)
AVIATION FORECASTS
1 Times Issued and Validity Periods
2 Decoding
3 Graphical Area Forecasts (GFA)
4 Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF)
5 Upper Level Wind and Temperature Forecasts (FD)
6 Airman's Meteorological Advisory (AIRMET)
7 Significant In-flight Weather Warning Messages (SIGMET)

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