Chapter 1 - Introduction

1.1 Background

Over the years, Transport Canada (TC) has received numerous requests for advice, information and direction regarding aircraft ground deicing and anti-icing operations. The requests included information on personnel training, equipment requirements, fluid specifications and performance, the use of hold over time (HOT) guidelines, required communications, Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs), the deicing process, and other related topics.

1.2 Purpose of the Document

This guidance document has been generated to serve as an Aircraft Ground Icing resource to the Canadian Aviation Industry.

It is anticipated that the information contained in this TP guidance document will serve Air Operators, Airport Operators, deicing service providers, Central Deicing Facility (CDF) operators, maintenance personnel, managers, Transport Canada Operations Inspectors, and others involved in aircraft ground icing operations.

No attempt has been made to regenerate existing documents, rather, whenever, possible, reference has been made to authoritative documents or organizations with subject matter expertise. In this way the user of this guidance document can pursue a greater depth of subject matter knowledge.

1.3 Hazards of Ice, Snow and Frost

A very small amount of roughness, in thickness as low as 0.40 mm (1/64in.), caused by ice, snow or frost, disrupts the air flow over the lift and control surfaces of an aircraft. The consequence of this roughness is severe lift loss, increased drag and impaired manouverability, particularly during the take off and initial climb phases of flight. Ice can also interfere with the movement of control surfaces or add significantly to aircraft weight. There is no such thing as an insignificant amount of ice.

Ice can form even when the Outside Air Temperature (OAT) is well above 0°C (32°F). An aircraft equipped with wing fuel tanks may have fuel that is at a sufficiently low temperature such that it lowers the wing skin temperature to below the freezing point. This phenomenon is known as cold-soaking. This situation can also occur when an aircraft has been cruising at high altitude for a period of time followed by a quick descent to a landing in a humid environment. Liquid water coming in contact with a wing, which is at a below freezing temperature, will then freeze to the wing surfaces.

Cold-soaking can also be caused by fueling an aircraft with cold fuel. If there is rain or high humidity, ice can form on the cold-soaked wing and accumulate over time. This ice can be invisible to the eye and is often referred to as clear ice. This ice can be detected by performing a tactile inspection or by using specially designed ice detecting systems such as a Ground Ice Detection System (GIDS).

Sheets of clear ice dislodged from the wing or fuselage during takeoff or climb can be ingested by aft fuselage mounted engines, thereby causing a flameout or damage. Sheets of dislodged clear ice can also cause impact damage to critical surfaces such as the horizontal stabilizer.

1.4 Canadian Aviation Regulations and Standards

Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) 602.11 states, in part that: "No person shall conduct or attempt to conduct a take-off in an aircraft that has frost, ice or snow adhering to any of its critical surfaces"; and the associated General Operating Flight Rules Standard (GOFR) 622.11, outlines the requirements of a ground icing program.

The following Regulations and Standards are also applicable:

1.4.1 General Operating Flight Rules and Standards

  1. CAR 602.11 Aircraft Icing
  2. GOFRS 622.11 Ground Icing Operations
  3. CAR 604.73(3) Training Program
  4. GOFRS 624.57(1) Maintenance Training
  5. GOFRS 624.73(17) Training Programs, Aircraft Surface Contamination Training
  6. GOFRS 624.80(d) Contents of Operations Manual

1.4.2 Commercial Air Service - Aerial Work

  1. CAR 702.76(2)(d)(iv) Training
  2. CASS 722.09(f) General Conditions of Air Operator Certificate - Operational Support Services
  3. CASS 722.76(4) Training Program - Company Indoctrination Training
  4. CASS 722.76(8) Training Program - Aircraft Services and Ground Handling Training
  5. CASS 722.76(10) Training Program - Initial and Annual Recurrent
  6. CASS 722.76(14) Training - Surface Contamination Training
  7. CASS 722.82(1)(s) Contents of a Company Operations Manual - COM for IFR & VFR at Night Operations
  8. CASS 722.82 (2)(p) Contents of a Company Operations Manual - Operations Manual for Day VFR Operations

1.4.3 Commercial Air Service - Air Taxi Operations

  1. CAR 703.98(2)(v) Training Program
  2. CASS 723.07(3)(g) Issuance or Amendment of Air Operator Certificate - Operational Support Services and Equipment
  3. CASS 723.98(5)(f) Training Programs - Company Indoctrination Training
  4. CASS 723.98(17) Training Programs - Aeroplane Surface Contamination Training
  5. CASS 723.105(1)(t) Contents of Company Operations Manual
  6. CASS 723.105(2)(n) Contents of Company Operations Manual
  7. CASS 723.105(1)(t) Contents of a Operations Manual

1.4.4 Commercial Air Service - Commuter Operations

  1. CAR 704.115(2)(c) Training Program
  2. CASS 724.115(6)(f) Training Program - Company Indoctrination Training
  3. CASS 724.115(18) Training Program - Aeroplane Surface Contamination Training
  4. CASS 724.115(26)(e) Training Program - Aeroplane Servicing and Ground Handling Training for Pilots
  5. CASS 724.121(t) Contents of Company Operations Manual

1.4.5 Commercial Air Service - Airline Operations

  1. CAR 705.124(2)(a)(iv) Training Program
  2. CAR 705.124(2)(b)(iv) Training Program
  3. CASS 725.07(4)(f) Issuance and Amendment of Air Operator Certificate - Operational Support Service and Equipment
  4. CASS 725.124(5)(f) Training Program - Company Indoctrination Training
  5. CASS 725.124(23) Training Program - Aeroplane Surface Contamination Training
  6. CASS 725.124(31)(e) Training Program - Aeroplane Servicing and Ground Handling Training for Pilots
  7. CASS 725.135(t) Contents of Company Operations Manual
Date modified: