Chapter 15 - Emergencies

15.1 Introduction    

The emergency planning procedures contained in this section are primarily based upon those of a major Canadian airport. The appropriate emergency procedures for each airport will vary. Consider the procedures offered in this section as pertinent suggestions. While the information will appear to be primarily focused on the Service Providers there are valuable suggestions that are pertinent to others.

It is understood that each deicing facility must develop detailed emergency procedures, which are suited to the types of operations at a particular airport and are in accordance with that Airport's Emergency Plan.

Deicing and anti-icing procedures, training program and logistic supporting deicing activities need to be well defined and reflective of: the airport characteristics, the air operators being served, the deicing facility characteristics, and the deicing service provider's profile.

In addition to identifying the numerous facets of the deicing operation, it is essential that "Emergency Procedures" which are already established, by the deicing service provider, be incorporated into the Airport's Emergency Plan. Given that the possibility of an accident is always present, the importance of "Emergency Procedures" in the overall safety objective cannot be overstated.

The magnitude of the emergency procedures will vary from one airport to another depending upon the size of the operation. The emergency structure, the facilities and the services already available at the airport or in the surrounding communities, will also impact the procedures that will need to be established.

Each deicing service provider operator must develop detailed emergency procedures suited to their type of operation and which can be merged into the Airport Emergency Procedures.

15.2 Operator's Roles and Responsibilities

The emergency procedures must list the participating agencies for each type of emergency identified. The role and responsibilities of each organization must be clearly delineated such that an overall understanding of each organization's function in any given emergency situation is evident.

The Service Provider should have a clear and concise description of the role and responsibilities for each of the team members. The reporting structure within the organization, in accordance with each type of emergency, needs to be clearly depicted.

The organizations, which may become involved will vary from airport to airport.

The Emergency Plan should describe applicable procedures by type of emergency.

15.3 Communications

An Emergency Plan should identify the communication steps to be followed in the declaration of an emergency. Those personnel listed, as responders should be accessible under all circumstances and should be able to respond within an agreed and specified time frame.

A list of participating organizations and their representatives along with their corresponding phone numbers, or other necessary contact information, must be kept posted in key work place areas for quick reference.

15.4 Deicing Co-ordination Center

At major airports where the movements of aircraft at the deicing center are the responsibility of the Service Provider, all communications should be channeled through the Deicing Co-ordination Center, or equivalent.

The function, responsibilities and operation of this Center will need to be included in the Airport Operations Plan. The role of the Center in cases of an emergency will also need to be established and thoroughly documented.

15.5 Types of Emergencies

Examples of the emergencies that should be addressed in the Emergency Plan are as follows, but not limited to:

  1. Medical emergency on board the aircraft;
  2. Ground equipment fire;
  3. Aircraft fire;
  4. Aircraft evacuation;
  5. Aircraft hijacking;
  6. Aircraft bomb threat;
  7. Ground vehicle to aircraft contact;
  8. Aircraft to aircraft contact;
  9. Personnel injury;
  10. Major fluid leak and
  11. Other situations that may arise and which may be site specific.

In case of a deicing facility control center structural fire or alarm, which requires the personnel to evacuate the building, the Service Provider should have a contingency plan. The plan should address the communication and operational aspects of its activities, under such circumstances, to ensure the safety of operations and the continuity of service for the period of time required to resolve the emergency and resume normal operations.

15.6 Emergency Exercises

Personnel must be thoroughly trained in their role and responsibilities for each type of emergency.

An emergency exercise should be carried out by a deicing Service Provider, on a regular basis during each year, which involves the various types of identified emergencies, in accordance with the Emergency Plan. The emergency exercises serve to validate the Service Provider's Emergency Plan and to train key personnel. Not every emergency needs to be exercised every year, however, the emergencies should be scheduled such that over a period of time all emergencies will have been exercised.

The deicing Service Provider should be part of an Airport Emergency Exercise held by Airport Authorities and/or Transport Canada.

A debriefing session involving all organizations involved in the emergency exercise should take place immediately after the exercise. This will serve to reveal a need to update existing procedures and will validate those procedures that were found to be adequate. Long delays after conducting an exercise, before debriefing, may result in the loss of valuable "lessons learned".

15.7 Equipment Available for a "First Response"

The Service Provider should have an inventory listing the equipment, which is available for use during a "first response" action to an emergency situation. The "first response" action should be laid out in the Emergency Plan.

15.8 Central Deicing Center

When a deicing pad related emergency occurs, it is the responsibility of the Service Provider to initiate the emergency response, in accordance with the Emergency Plan.

15.9 Glycol Spills

In accordance with the plan for such an event, if the fluids cannot be readily contained, the following actions should be taken:

  1. Initiate the Service Provider Company's Environmental Emergency procedures;
  2. Notify the Airport Emergency Centre;
  3. Deploy all available resources and equipment according to the Emergency Plan;
  4. Notify Environmental Agencies (Municipal, Provincial and Federal);
  5. Take immediate measures to mitigate the consequences of the spill and its effect on surrounding groundwater and surface/underground drainage systems;
  6. Call a company specializing in the recovery of spilled glycol for assistance; and
  7. Log all actions taken.

As a minimum when advising the authorities of the situation, include the following information:

  1. Location of the spill;
  2. Type of glycol fluid involved; and
  3. The quantities of fluid spilled.

An incident report should be completed and forwarded to the Airport Manager.

Following the emergency, the Airport Manager should schedule a meeting with all the departments and agencies involved to review the events, issue recommendations, offer improvements to procedures, or revise the emergency plan, as may be appropriate.

15.10 Aircraft Fuel Spill

When deicing personnel become aware of an aircraft fuel spill, they should immediately advise the appropriate authorities of the situation who should take action in accordance with the Emergency Plan.

Following the emergency, the Airport Manager should consider scheduling a meeting with all the departments and agencies involved to review the events, issue recommendations, offer improvements to procedures, or revise the emergency plan, as may be appropriate.

15.11 Aircraft Fire

When deicing personnel become aware of a fire at the aircraft, they must immediately advise the appropriate authority of the emergency. The coordination and control of the emergency should be accomplished in accordance with the Emergency Plan.

ATS should be advised immediately.

The Pilot-in-Command has the responsibility of moving the aircraft to a safe location or to evacuate the aircraft at the deicing pad. If the aircraft Pilot-in-Command decides to evacuate the passengers, Pad Control should direct the other aircraft away from the deicing area beginning with the aircraft adjacent to the emergency aircraft.

15.12 Deicing Building Structural Fire

The procedures should be followed in accordance with the Emergency Plan.

15.13 Aircraft Bomb Threat

The appropriate authority will advise the Airport Emergency Control Center (ECC), of the situation, who will in turn contact all of the necessary departments and agencies regarding the emergency.

Following the emergency, the Airport Manager, Aviation Services should schedule a meeting with all the departments and agencies involved to review the events, issue recommendations, offer improvements to procedures, or revise the emergency plan, as may be appropriate.

15.14 Aircraft Hijacking

Pad Control will advise the Airport Emergency Control Center (ECC) who will, in turn, contact all of the necessary departments and agencies regarding the emergency in accordance with the Emergency Plan.

15.15 Medical Emergency

Pad Control should advise ATC in accordance with the Airport Emergency Plan.

15.16 Ground Equipment Fire

Pad Control should contact the Airport Emergency Control Center (ECC) who will notify all of the necessary departments and agencies, in accordance with the Airport Emergency Plan.

Following the emergency, the Airport Manager should schedule a meeting with all the departments and agencies involved to review the events, issue recommendations, offer improvements to procedures, or revise the emergency plan, as may be appropriate.

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