Chapter 2 - Ground Icing Program Guidelines

2.1 Development of an Approved Ground Icing Program (AGIP)

In accordance with the CARs, CAR705 operators (Airline Operations) are required to establish an Approved Ground Icing Program (AGIP).

Air operators conducting operations under CAR702 (Aerial Work), 703 (Air Taxi) and 704 (Commuter Operation) and foreign air operators operating in Canada are not specifically required by regulation to have an AGIP. However, they are strongly encouraged to institute such a program. The rational for instituting an AGIP for these operators is that they must address procedures for dealing with ground icing operations in any case. The AGIP provides a structured approach for addressing ground icing operations.

A sample AGIP has not been provided, since it was deemed impossible to create one that would address every possible organization and situation. Instead, it was deemed more appropriate to provide guidance material on the preparation and minimum requirements of an AGIP, which along with the contents of the other chapters of this TP, provide sufficient knowledge to both the producer of the AGIP and the Transport Canada inspector responsible for approving the associated AGIP.

Accordingly, this chapter provides guidance with respect to the material and areas that need to be addressed in an AGIP.

For ease of reference and continuity, the flow and layout of this chapter follows the layout of the overall document. Cross-references to the appropriate chapters of this TP have been included to minimize duplication of information and to facilitate usability of the document.

2.2 Elements of an Approved Ground Icing Program

General Operating and Flight Regulation (GOFR) 622.11 provides a list of the minimum requirements which must be contained in an AGIP. Since the original publication of GOFR622.11 new areas of knowledge have arisen, and it is essential that the AGIP address these new areas if applicable. Furthermore, some companies may be using special procedures not addressed at the time when GOFR622.11 was written. These must be addressed in the AGIP. The following areas must be addressed in the AGIP.

2.2.1 Introduction and Responsibilities

An AGIP is established to document specific procedures, guidelines and processes for the operation of aircraft under ground icing conditions to ensure that aircraft take-off without contamination adhering to critical surfaces. An AGIP is necessary to ensure that everyone involved in the operations of aircraft under icing conditions understand their respective responsibilities and are properly trained and knowledgeable in their respective areas. Furthermore, an overriding objective in preparing an AGIP is to assist in the creation of an organization that works harmoniously toward the goal of ensuring that no person shall conduct or attempt to conduct a take-off in an aircraft that has frost, ice or snow adhering to any of its critical surfaces.

This section of the AGIP must:

  1. Address the reasons for having a de/anti-icing program;
  2. Clearly define the roles and responsibilities of individuals associated with the operations of aircraft under ground icing conditions.

The individuals with de/anti-icing responsibilities include, but are not limited to:

  1. The Pilot-in-Command;
  2. The cabin crew;
  3. Flight dispatchers, flight followers;
  4. Deicing operators;
  5. Maintenance crew;
  6. Management team; and
  7. Local ATC.

See Chapter3, Roles and Responsibilities for greater detail on this material.

2.2.2 Definitions

It is imperative that those involved in ground icing operations understand several fundamental icing terms. Furthermore, it is vitally important that all individuals have a common understanding of the terminology in use in order to improve communications and minimize understanding errors. Therefore this section of the AGIP must include definitions associated with operations of aircraft under icing conditions.

Subjects in the definition section include, but are not limited to:

  1. Weather conditions such as freezing drizzle, clear ice, freezing fog, frost, rain, rime ice, ice pellets, ice crystals, snow pellets, snow and snow grains;
  2. Aircraft terms and definitions such as critical flight control surfaces, engines, and surfaces that may require deicing;
  3. Representative surfaces;
  4. Deicing fluids;
  5. Anti-icing fluids;
  6. Manual removal methods;
  7. Fluid properties such as lowest operational use temperature (LOUT), refraction, viscosity, pH;
  8. One-step or two-step de/anti-icing process;
  9. Holdover times, their use and limitations;
  10. Aircraft inspection process pre and post deicing.

NOTE: Although not exhaustive the Glossary in Chapter18, contains details of many of the common definitions, in current use.

2.2.3 Air Operator Management Plan

2.2.3.1 APPROVED GROUND ICING PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITY

The operator's management plan must:

  1. Identify the management position responsible for the overall program development, integration, co-ordination, implementation and use;
  2. Identify subordinate positions;
  3. Identify operational responsibilities of flight crew, dispatchers and management personnel and associated procedures;
  4. Identify the chain of command and/or include an organizational chart;
  5. Identify the relationship between Operations, Maintenance and other internal departments;
  6. Ensure that maintenance organization not have sole responsibility for the AGIP;
  7. Ensure integration and co-ordination of the program elements within the organization;
  8. Disseminate the program to all persons with duties, responsibilities and functions within the plan.
  9. Publish a detailed description of the program in the appropriate company manuals;
  10. Ensure sufficient trained personnel, adequate facilities and adequate equipment are available at airports where the program may be applied;
  11. Ensure adequate management supervision of the program;
  12. Identify the individual responsible for initiating and ceasing ground icing operations;
  13. Identify the individual responsible for authorizing and co-coordinating the program with Air Traffic Control (ATC) and airport authorities.
  14. Identify the responsibilities associated with the maintenance organization;
  15. Identify what maintenance personnel, facilities and equipment are required to support the program;
  16. Ensure that quality processes and procedures are in place and maintained for the handling, testing and storage of fluids;
  17. Ensure that there is a program in place to maintain the de/anti-icing equipment in proper working condition;
  18. Identify aircraft-specific procedures;
  19. Identify deicing procedures other than fluid deicing;
  20. Ensure contracted service providers are adequately trained; and
  21. Ensure contracted service providers are audited on a regular basis.

2.2.3.2 QUALITY ORGANIZATION AND SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

A description of the quality organization or, if applicable, the Safety Management System organization which is in place is required.

For greater details refer to Chapter4, Quality Organization.

2.2.3.3 RECORD KEEPING

At a minimum, the organization must ensure the following records are maintained:

  1. A detailed & accurate recording process for fluid management must be developed and maintained throughout the deicing season for safety reasons. The extent and the detail of the records will depend on the complexity of the operation. This process should be open for audit by air operators, Transport Canada, airport authorities, and Environment Canada staff.


    Mishandling de/anti-icing fluids can result in a significant loss of its operational fluid effectiveness (e.g.: storage in incorrect containers, improper pumping).
  2. Initial and recurrent training records for each individual associated with the program.

2.2.4 Training and Testing

Each air operator required to have an AGIP must develop its own deicing training program to reflect operational needs, company resources, operational limitations, and regulatory requirements.

The larger the deicing operation is, the more complex and involved it will be. Personnel responsibilities communication needs to be developed and well understood by all involved personnel.

The Organization must provide initial and annual training and testing for all ground, operations, flight crews and maintenance personnel who have responsibilities within the program.

2.2.4.1 At a minimum, initial training for flight crew and other operations personnel who have responsibilities within the AGIP must cover the following (additional training may be required for larger and more complex organizations):

  1. Company policy
  2. Effects of contamination
  3. Weather conditions requiring de/anti-icing
  4. Fluids & fluid application methods and techniques
  5. Holdover time considerations
  6. Inspection procedures
  7. Safety

2.2.4.2 At a minimum, recurrent training for flight crew and other operations personnel who have responsibilities within the AGIP, must cover the following (additional training may be required for larger and more complex organizations):

  1. A review current of deicing and anti-icing operations and inspection procedures;
  2. A review of any changes to the program;
  3. A review of the latest available research and development on ground deicing and anti-icing operations;
  4. Issuance of an information circular prior to commencement of the winter operations to all involved personnel. The circular must review procedures and present any new information.

2.2.4.3 At a minimum, initial training for ground deicing crews and maintenance personnel must cover the following (additional training may be required for larger and more complex organizations):

  1. Company policy
  2. Effects of contamination
  3. Weather conditions requiring de/anti-icing
  4. De/Anti-icing vehicle and equipment
  5. Fluids & fluid application methods and techniques
  6. Holdover time considerations
  7. Inspection procedures
  8. Safety

2.2.4.4 At a minimum, recurrent training for ground deicing crews and maintenance personnel must cover the following (additional training may be required for larger and more complex organizations):

  1. A review of current deicing and anti-icing operations and inspection procedures;
  2. A review of any changes to the program;
  3. A review of the latest available research and development on ground deicing and anti-icing operations; and
  4. Issuance of an information circular prior to commencement of winter operations to all involved personnel. The circular must review procedures and present any new information.

All trained personnel must be tested on all information covered in their respective initial and recurrent training programs.

An air operator that contracts deicing/anti-icing services from another organization is responsible for ensuring that the training program of the contractor and application of deicing/anti-icing operation standards meet the operator's own AGIP criteria. The operator is responsible for documenting the contractor's procedures and training.

Detailed training requirements are contained in Chapter5, Training and Testing.

2.2.5 Personnel Safety

Management and employees with responsibilities in this program must receive personal safety training. Initial and then annual recurrent training should be given on these items relating to personal safety. A healthy safety culture within the service provider organization should be a principle objective.

NOTE: Work Place Hazardous Material Information System (WHMIS) training must be given to all employees.

Personnel safety is covered in greater detail in Chapter6, Personnel Safety.

2.2.6 Communications

Effective communication before, during and after deicing operations between all parties is crucial. Specific communication procedures must be defined for various operational scenarios including, at a minimum:

  1. On gate deicing;
  2. Off gate deicing;
  3. Engines on versus engines off deicing;
  4. End of runway deicing;
  5. Vehicle operators or man in bucket communications;
  6. Call signs as applicable;
  7. Pad control communications;
  8. Communication to the flight crew;
  9. Equipment and personnel safely away from the aircraft calls; and
  10. Emergency procedures.

See Chapter7, Communications for further details on ensuring and implementing adequate communications.

2.2.7 Aircraft Deicing/Anti-icing

2.2.7.1 FLUIDS

Operators need to know how to test, store, use, contain and track all fluids available to them.

Details with respect to fluids can be found in Chapter8, Fluids.

2.2.7.2 EQUIPMENT

Operators need to know how to test, inspect and operate all equipment available to them. All de/anti-icing equipment shall be maintained in a fit and safe condition in order to perform its intended function.

The details associated with equipment maintenance and operation are contained in Chapter9, Equipment.

2.2.7.3 PROCEDURES AND PREVENTATIVE MEASURES

Flight and maintenance crews need to understand the various preventative measures that can be used to minimize frozen contamination accretion while on the ground. This can include the use of temporary shelters, hangars or covers.

Flight maintenance crews and de/anti-icing operators must understand the various methods available to remove frozen contamination and, if necessary, methods to protect recently cleaned surfaces.

The details associated with these measures and procedures are contained in Chapter10, Preventative Measures and Aircraft De/Anti-icing Procedures.

2.2.8 Holdover Times

Flight crews, flight dispatchers, maintenance crews and deicing operators must have a clear understanding of Holdover Time guidelines.

The details associated with the use and interpretation of HOT guidelines, are contained in Chapter11, Holdover Time Guidelines & Associated Procedures.

2.2.9 Operational Issues

The de/anti-icing operation is by its very nature a complex and fast paced environment with tight deadlines. All these factors together yield a higher than normal risk level and a higher potential for accidents to occur.

Given this environment, flight crew, operational control, cabin safety, and other operational issues can be expected. These operational issues are discussed in greater detail in Chapter12, Operational Issues.

2.2.10 Environmental Responsibilities

The air operator, service provider or Central Deicing Facility shall observe all applicable environmental rules. Details on environmental considerations are contained in Chapter13, Environmental.

2.2.11 Use of Contractor Services

The contracting out of de/anti-icing services can be broadly divided into services provided by a CDF and services provided by a service provider which is not a CDF.

The contracting of deicing and anti-icing services shall be clearly defined in the AGIP. The procedures to be followed in using the contracted services must be clearly defined within the AGIP.

Greater detail on the use of contracted services is contained in Chapter14, Facilities.

2.2.12 Emergencies

Should an emergency occur during the deicing process, or within the designated deicing area, an emergency response plan must be in place. There must be a means of communicating (by visual/audio means, etc.) the emergency situation between those involved. At a minimum, the following subjects should be included:

  1. Medical emergency on board the aircraft;
  2. Ground equipment fire;
  3. Aircraft fire;
  4. Aircraft evacuation;
  5. Aircraft hijacking;
  6. Aircraft bomb threat;
  7. Ground vehicle to aircraft contact;
  8. Aircraft to aircraft contact;
  9. Personnel injury;
  10. Major fluid leak and
  11. Other situations that may arise and which may be site specific.

Further details on an emergency response plan are contained in Chapter15, Emergencies.

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