Chapter 5 - Training and Testing

5.1 Training Overview

5.1.1 General

The Service Provider’s Training Program is an element of Ground Icing Operations Program. An Air Operator’s Ground Icing Operations Program must be Transport Canada approved for CAR705 (Airline Operations) operations. The Air Operator is responsible for ensuring that the Service Provider meets all of the requirements of the Air Operator’s program including the training.

In some cases, when there is a single service provider at an airport, Transport Canada has granted a specific approval. For example, at the Toronto and Montreal Airports Central Deicing Facilities, Transport Canada has approved the ground de/anti-icing service. Not withstanding, the Air Operator must ensure that the Service Provider at a Transport Canada approved facility is conducting operations in a manner consistent with Air Operator’s program, including training.

GOFR622.11, DivisionIII - Training, identifies the minimum training elements that are required in an approve ground icing program. This Standard should be consulted to ensure that the training program includes all of the required elements.

5.1.2 Training Reference Material

All personnel engaged in de/anti-icing aircraft must successfully complete a comprehensive training program on methods and procedures. Training for deicing services should meet the requirements of SAE document ARP5149: “Training Program Guidelines for de/anti-icing of Aircraft on Ground”. See Chapter19, References of this document for information on how to acquire ARP5149 and other SAE documents.

5.1.3 Training Outline

The training course outline should address at least the following subjects:

  1. Management plan;
    1. Flight operations.
    2. Ground operations.
  2. Hazards of frost, ice, snow and slush on aircraft surfaces;
  3. Pre take off contamination check requirements;
  4. Aircraft critical surfaces;
  5. Representative surfaces;
  6. Aircraft surface contamination recognition;
  7. Holdover time guidelines;
  8. Deicing and anti-icing fluids;
    1. Storage & handling.
    2. Characteristics.
    3. Hazards.
  9. Health, safety & first aid;
  10. Communications;
    1. Normal.
    2. Alternate/Emergency.
  11. Methods and procedures;
  12. Emergency procedures;
  13. Ground Icing equipment operation;
  14. Environmental considerations;
  15. Initial and recurrent training requirements;
  16. Record keeping;
  17. Lessons learned; and
  18. Examinations (corrected to 100%).

5.1.4 Training Program Administration

The training program should be managed, reviewed and updated annually as required to ensure that:

  1. Both initial and annual recurrent training and testing will be conducted to ensure that all deicing, operations and flight crews obtain and retain a thorough knowledge of aircraft ground de/anti-icing policies and procedures, including new procedures and lessons learned;
  2. A record of the training and testing will be placed on the individuals file; As a minimum, the first and most recent qualification results must be on the individual’s file;
  3. Training will be provided for aircraft types that operate at the facility;
  4. Personnel required to de-ice aircraft with the aircraft engines running will complete additional training in this procedure.

5.2 General Operating and Flight Rules Training and Testing requirements

5.2.1 Content

An operator’s Ground Icing Operations Training Program shall include:

  1. Both initial and annual recurrent training for all operational and ground/maintenance personnel who have responsibilities within the program; and
  2. Testing of crew members and other operations and ground/maintenance personnel who have responsibilities within the program.

5.2.2 Contractor Training

An operator who contracts deicing/anti-icing services from another organization is responsible for ensuring that the training program of the contractor and application of deicing/anti-icing operations standards meet the operator’s own Ground Icing Operations Program criteria. Through the operator, the contractor’s procedures and training programs shall be documented.

5.2.3 Initial Flight Crew and Operations Personnel Training

At a minimum, initial training for flight crew and other operations personnel must cover the following (additional training may be required for larger and more complex organizations):

5.2.3.1 COMPANY POLICY

  1. Must not take-off or attempt to take-off with contamination adhering to critical surfaces;
  2. Individual responsibilities within the program; and
  3. Protection of the environment.

5.2.3.2 EFFECTS OF CONTAMINATION

  1. The detrimental effects of contamination on critical surfaces including aircraft performance and stability, additional weight, engine performance, aircraft sensors, etc.;
  2. The effects of precipitation (frost, freezing fog, snow, freezing drizzle and freezing rain, high humidity on cold-soaked wings) on critical surfaces and under wings; and
  3. Identification of critical aircraft surfaces by aircraft type.

5.2.3.3 WEATHER CONDITIONS REQUIRING DE/ANTI-ICING

  1. Company procedures that must be followed to determine if ground-icing conditions exist and when the conditions cease to exist;
  2. Identifying the person that is responsible for deciding that ground deicing operations must begin and when they will end;
  3. Procedures for reporting contamination on arrival to the person responsible for co-coordinating de/anti-icing operations;
  4. Identifying the various freezing precipitation weather conditions that impact flight operation; and
  5. The significance of: freezing rain vs. freezing drizzle; frost – upper wing and lower wing; different snow conditions such as pellets, grains, wet and dry snow.

5.2.3.4 FLUIDS & FLUID APPLICATION METHODS AND TECHNIQUES

  1. Types, purpose, characteristics (e.g.: Lowest Operational Use Temperature LOUT) and uses of deicing and anti-icing fluid;
  2. Composition and identification of fluids;
  3. Fluid properties such as LOUT, viscosity, refraction, Brix;
  4. The effects of deicing and anti-icing fluids on aircraft performance and handling;
  5. The procedures associated with deicing and anti-icing an aircraft in a safe and efficient manner;
  6. Fluid application methods (e.g. techniques for TypeI, II, III and IV fluids);
  7. Supervisory responsibilities of flight crew at locations where previously arranged contracted services are unavailable; and
  8. Aircraft and location specific procedures where applicable.

5.2.3.5 HOLDOVER TIME CONSIDERATIONS

  1. Hold over time guidelines, including source of HOT data, precipitation category, visibility in snow, relationship of change in precipitation to HOT, etc.;
  2. HOT guidelines relationship between holdover time and fluid concentration;
  3. When holdover time begins and ends; and
  4. Procedures that must be followed when HOT is exceeded, including any required inspections and alternate means of determining whether surfaces are contaminated.
  5. Communication procedures, which cover: how to inform the Pilot-in-Command of the type of fluid used, the start time of the final fluid application, and any requirements for coordination.

5.2.3.6 INSPECTION PROCEDURES

  1. Identification of critical surfaces and representative surfaces (where applicable) that must be inspected;
  2. Types of inspections;
  3. Techniques for detecting/recognizing contamination and loss of fluid effectiveness including loss of gloss, snow or ice accumulation, surface freezing, etc;
  4. Communication procedures between flight crew and deicing personnel.

5.2.3.7 SAFETY

  1. Safety precautions in and around aircraft during fluid application with aircraft engine running; and
  2. Appropriate communication procedures including the information that must be exchanged between the flight crew and the service provider, which includes, at a minimum, the type of fluid used (and concentration if required) and the start time of the final application.

5.2.4 Recurrent Flight Crew and Operations Personnel Training

At a minimum, recurrent training for flight crew and other operations personnel who have responsibilities within the AGIP, must cover the following (additional training may be required for larger and more complex organizations):

  1. A review current deicing and anti-icing operations and inspection procedures;
  2. A review of any changes to the program;
  3. A review of the latest available research and development on ground deicing and anti-icing operations;
  4. Issuance of information circular prior to commencement of the winter operations to all involved personnel. The circular must review procedures and present any new information.

5.2.5 Initial Ground Icing and Maintenance Personnel Training

At a minimum, initial training for ground deicing crews and maintenance personnel must cover the following (additional training may be required for larger and more complex organizations):

5.2.5.1 COMPANY POLICY

  1. Must not take-off or attempt to take-off with contamination adhering to critical surfaces;
  2. Individual responsibilities within the program; and
  3. Protection of the environment.

5.2.5.2 EFFECTS OF CONTAMINATION

  1. The detrimental effects of contamination on critical surfaces including aircraft performance and stability, additional weight, engine performance, aircraft sensors etc;
  2. The effects of freezing precipitation (frost, freezing fog, snow, rain, high humidity on cold-soaked wings) on critical surfaces and under wings; and
  3. Identification of critical surfaces by aircraft type.

5.2.5.3 WEATHER CONDITIONS REQUIRING DE/ANTI-ICING

  1. Company procedures that must be followed to determine if ground-icing conditions exist and when the conditions cease to exist;
  2. Identifying the person that is responsible for deciding that ground deicing operations must begin and when they will end.
  3. Procedures for reporting contamination on arrival to the person responsible for co-coordinating de/anti-icing operations;
  4. Identifying the various freezing precipitation weather conditions that impact flight operations; and
  5. The significance of: freezing rain vs. freezing drizzle; Frost – upper wing and lower wing; different snow conditions such as pellets, grains, wet snow; and slush.

5.2.5.4 DE/ANTI-ICING VEHICLE AND EQUIPMENT

  1. Required checks appropriate to the vehicles and equipment in use;
  2. Reporting of equipment deficiencies;
  3. Reporting of observed aircraft irregularities;
  4. Reporting of incidents and accidents;
  5. Vehicle positioning techniques; and
  6. Practical training on equipment usage and spraying techniques.

5.2.5.5 FLUIDS & FLUID APPLICATION METHODS AND TECHNIQUES

  1. Types, purpose, characteristics (ex: LOUT) and uses of deicing and anti-icing fluid;
  2. Composition and identification of fluids;
  3. The effects of deicing and anti-icing fluids on RAM-air intakes, aircraft sensors, and other sensitive components;
  4. The procedures associated with deicing and anti-icing an aircraft in a safe and efficient manner and prevention of FOD to engines;
  5. Fluid application methods (ex.: techniques for TypeI, II, III and IV fluids);
  6. Identification of critical aircraft surfaces by aircraft type;
  7. Supervisory responsibilities of flight crew at locations where previously arranged contracted services are unavailable; and
  8. Aircraft-specific application procedures and associated cautions.

5.2.5.6 HOLDOVER TIME CONSIDERATIONS

  1. Hold over time guidelines, including source of HOT date, precipitation category, relationship of change in precipitation to HOT;
  2. HOT guidelines relationship between holdover time and fluid concentration;
  3. When holdover time begins and ends;
  4. Procedures that must be followed when HOT is exceeded, including any required inspections and alternate means of determining whether surfaces are contaminated; and
  5. Appropriate communications procedures including information, which must be exchanged between flight crew and service provider, such as: type of fluid used, start time of final application, as a minimum.

5.2.5.7 INSPECTION PROCEDURES

  1. Definition and identification of critical surfaces and representative surfaces (where applicable) that must be inspected;
  2. Types of inspections; and
  3. Techniques for detecting/recognizing contamination and loss of fluid effectiveness including loss of gloss, snow or ice accumulation and surface freezing, etc.

5.2.5.8 SAFETY

  1. Safety precautions in and around aircraft during fluid application with aircraft engine running; and
  2. Appropriate communication procedures including the information that must be exchanged between the flight crew and the service provider, which includes, at a minimum, the type of fluid used and the start time of final application; and
  3. Personnel safety equipment and its correct use.

5.2.6 Outline for Recurrent Ground Icing and Maintenance Personnel Training

At a minimum, recurrent training for ground deicing crews and maintenance personnel must cover the following (additional training may be required for larger and more complex organizations):

  1. A review of current deicing and anti-icing operations and inspection procedures;
  2. A review of any changes to the program;
  3. A review of the latest available research and development on ground deicing and anti-icing operations; and
  4. Issuance of an information circular prior to commencement of winter operations to all involved personnel. The circular must review procedures and present any new information.

All trained personnel must be tested on all information covered in their respective initial and recurrent training programs.

An air operator that contracts deicing/anti-icing services from another organization is responsible for ensuring that the training program of the contractor and application of deicing/anti-icing operation standards meet the operator’s own AGIP criteria. The air operator is responsible for auditing and documenting the contractor’s procedures and training.

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