Chapter 6 - Personnel Safety

6.1 Occupational Health and Safety

The following is a synopsis of the minimum safety and health requirements mandated by the Canada Labour Code, (the Code), PartII and its pursuant Canadian Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (COHSR). The salient points of the Code which pertain to the deicing and anti-icing operation are discussed herein.

The purpose of the Code is to prevent accidents and injury to health arising out of, linked with or occurring during the course of employment. It is the duty and responsibility of the employer to ensure that the safety and health of every employee is protected and ensure that employees know about hazards in their work place including any foreseeable health or safety hazards.

6.1.1 Roles and Responsibilities of the Employee

The employees' obligations are to:

  1. Use safety materials, equipment, devices and clothing provided for their protection;
  2. Comply with employer's instructions and follow safety and health procedures;
  3. Report accidents, occurrences and contraventions of the Code to the employer, as well as any circumstances likely to be hazardous in the work place.

6.1.2 Roles and Responsibilities of the Employer

6.1.2.1 TRAINING

Employers shall provide employees:

  1. With information on health and safety; their rights and responsibilities as explained in the Canada Labour Code, PartII;
  2. With instruction, training and procedures in performing their job without compromising their health or safety;
  3. With training for supervisors and managers relative to the Canada Labour Code, PartII and its pursuant regulations in order to be informed of their responsibilities in health and safety as the employer's representative.

6.1.2.2 PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT - SAFETY MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT, DEVICES AND CLOTHING AND SAFETY RESTRAINING DEVICES

The employer shall provide the employee with the necessary personal protective equipment that fits properly and comfortably and is designed to protect the person from the hazardous exposure or potential hazard. Safety materials, equipment, devices and clothing used to protect the health and safety of the employee must be CSA approved.

  1. Protective headwear and Headsets;
  2. Footwear (boots);
  3. Eye and face protection (masks, goggles);
  4. Respiratory Protection, as required
  5. Skin protection (coveralls, rainwear, neoprene gloves);
  6. Fall protection systems (harness, lanyards); and
  7. Reflective Safety Vests.

Protective Equipment shall be selected, maintained, inspected and tested and kept in a clean and sanitary condition. This involves establishing a purchasing and issuance system and life cycle management of the protective equipment.

Employers shall instruct the employees in the proper and safe use of the personal protective equipment and to effectively deal with emergency situations.

6.1.2.3 HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

Employers are required to:

  1. inform employees of existing or foreseeable hazards including those where there is exposure to hazardous substances;
  2. establish an education program which includes instruction and training in:
    1. product identifier, hazardous substance information, Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS), Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) for controlled products;
    2. procedures to implement and follow for the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances; and
    3. accessing computerized versions of MSDS, where applicable.
  3. maintain control of hazardous substances.
  4. obtain a current MSDS and any other available product safety information from the fluid supplier or manufacturer and take the necessary steps to ensure that the product is used safely and in an environmentally acceptable manner.
  5. comply with the information contained in the manufacturer’s publication and in the current MSDS; and
  6. ensure that the least hazardous products are used for the intended purpose where possible.

Safety information should be provided to employees, contractors, and customers, or any other users of the product(s), and they should be advised to follow the same precautionary measures.

6.1.2.4 MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT

Motorized or manual deicing/anti-icing vehicles shall:

  1. be designed and constructed to protect the health and safety of individuals;
  2. be inspected, tested and maintained on a frequency specified by the employer while the mobile cranes must meet CSA standards; and
  3. be operated within the areas marked for use including vehicle safety zones.

6.1.2.5 JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS

As the authority on the deicing and anti-icing operation, the employer is obliged to assess all the health and safety risks and develop safety procedures that eliminates or mitigates risks before an employee is required to carry out work. It is recommended that each employer follow a Job Safety Analysis evaluation process to establish best practices and safe job methods while identifying the hazards in the deicing/anti-icing operations.

NOTE: Refer to HRDC document DSS Catalogue number CC273-2/01-4E, dated 2001, and entitled: Job Safety Analysis Made Simple.

6.1.2.6 WORK PLACE INSPECTIONS

The deicing/anti-icing area shall be inspected at least once a year by the work place occupational health and safety committee or the OH&S representative. All elements of the operation in this area shall be assessed including work place conditions, all work place activities, communication, coordination and procedures as well as review of the relative policies and implementation monitoring.

6.1.2.7 ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, RECORDING AND REPORTING

Employers are obligated to:

  1. investigate, record and report accidents, occupational diseases or other hazardous occurrences affecting employees;
  2. telephone or telex the safety officer within 24 hours where the occurrence results in: death, disabling injury to two or more, loss of body member or loss of usefulness, permanent impairment of body function, explosion, or damage to elevating device or freefall of the elevating device;
  3. provide written report within 14 days to the safety officer where the occurrence resulted in: disabling injury, electric shock, toxic or oxygen deficient atmosphere, implementation of emergency procedures or fire or explosion.

6.1.2.8 FIRST AID

A qualified first aid attendant and first aid supplies and equipment shall be provided at work places where there are two or more employees for remote workplaces, and where there are six or more employees at other workplaces. A list of qualified First Aid personnel shall accompany the First Aid kit.

First aid information such as procedures relative to rendering any injury, first aid locations, emergency telephone numbers, transportation procedures shall be readily available.

6.2 Safety

6.2.1 Jet Blast

Engine Exhaust-Caution must be exercised when in the engine exhaust heat and velocity hazard areas. The hazard areas exist in a reverse funnel fashion, which extends past the tail of the aircraft. Aircraft manufactures specify the hazards area dependent on the engine type. Even when an aircraft engine is running at low thrust or idle equipment, operators must maintain safe distances from the aircraft.

6.2.2 Engine Inlet

Engine inlet vortices are normally only visible when water or steam exhaust is present in them. Foreign objects are capable of being ingested and causing damage to aircraft engines. Personnel can also be ingested when in close proximity to operating engines, which can be fatal. Aircraft manufactures specify the hazardous area dependent on the engine type.

6.2.3 Safety Zones

Safe Zones are designated areas used for manoeuvring deicing equipment and provide clearance for aircraft to transition through the deicing pad.

6.2.4 Slippery Apons

Areas sprayed with deicing fluid may become slippery. Exercise caution when walking or when operating equipment on apron areas where fluid has been deposited. If an accumulation of fluid occurs on the apron, it is recommended that mechanical means, such as vacuum trucks, should be used to pick up the over sprayed fluid.

6.2.5 Visibility/Wind/Weather

Extreme weather conditions may warrant the change of vehicle patterns due to safety concerns. Deicing equipment may have operating restrictions under high wind conditions; consult the equipment manufacturers for restrictions. Under poor visibility conditions deicing operations may need to be slowed or ceased until conditions improve.

6.2.6 Aircraft and Vehicle Movement

The vehicle movement patterns around aircraft must be established with regard to the facility/area in which they are operating. Adherence to established procedures will sustain a consistent and safe operation.

6.2.7 Aircraft Positioning

Positioning "Light" aircraft behind "Heavy" aircraft with engines operating should be avoided when operationally feasible. The Pilot-in-Command must be advised to use "minimal break away power", in the event that a "Light" aircraft is positioned behind a "Heavy" aircraft".

6.2.8 Procedures

Front line employees must follow the deicing procedures as defined by their employer. If a problem with a process or procedure is identified then the employee is responsible for reporting the problem, without delay, to his or her immediate supervisor.

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