Chapter 8 - Fluids
The information contained in this chapter of the document is intended to be generic and not specific to any particular product or company.
The most common techniques for removing frozen precipitation from aircraft critical surfaces and protecting the aircraft against re-contamination are accomplished with aircraft deicing and anti-icing fluids respectively.
Deicing is a procedure by which frost, ice, snow or slush (i.e. the frozen contamination) is removed from an aircraft by use of a heated Aircraft Deicing Fluid (ADF), to provide clean surfaces. Anti-icing is a procedure in which an Aircraft Anti-Icing Fluid (AAF) is applied to a surface free of frozen contaminants in order to protect the surface from the accumulation of frozen contaminants for a limited period of time.
De/anti-icing fluids are only required until the aircraft becomes airborne, after which the on-board de/anti-icing system then operate. The rotation speed of an aircraft is important as it determines which de/anti-icing fluid is most appropriate for use. Serious aerodynamic consequences can result with incorrect fluid use. Consult the manufacturers Pilot Operating Handbook, Aircraft Flight Manuals, or Maintenance Manuals for complete details.
8.1.2 Fluid Description
Aircraft deicing fluids are typically ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol or propylene glycol based containing water, corrosion inhibitors, wetting agents and dye. These fluids are formulated to assist in removing ice, snow and frost from the exterior surfaces of aircraft. They also provide a short period of anti-icing protection. In North America the TypeI fluids are typically used for the deicing function.
Anti-icing fluids are similar in composition except that they also contain polymeric thickeners. They are formulated to prevent formation of unabsorbed frozen contamination for a longer period of time than deicing fluids; however, the protection is still for a limited period of time. Any of the approved fluids, including TypeI fluids, may be used for anti-icing, however, TypesII, III & IV fluids are typically used in the anti-icing role because they can last for a significantly longer period of time than the TypeI fluids.
8.1.3 Industry Fluid Specifications
The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) have specifications for ADFs and AAFs. The ISO specifications are derived from the SAE specification and are therefore usually dated. Transport Canada recognizes only the most up-to-date SAE specifications, and all fluids applied to aircraft must meet these specifications.
NOTE: The status of ISO ground icing related documents has become uncertain, therefore only current SAE Specifications and documents are recognized by Transport Canada.
The SAE specifications are:
- SAE Aerospace Material Specification (AMS) 1424 "Aircraft Deicing/Anti-icing Fluid SAE TypeI"; and
- SAE AMS1428: "Deicing/Anti-icing Fluid SAE TypeII, III and IV".
NOTE: Users should request certificates of conformance to these SAE specifications from the fluid manufacturers.
8.1.4 Certification Applicable to Qualified Fluids
All fluids approved to the SAE specifications undergo numerous chemical tests at a specialty laboratory. These test are principally for measuring the compatibility of materials used in aircraft construction and physical properties of the fluid, against the appropriate SAE specification.
Also, all fluids approved to SAE specifications undergo a battery of aerodynamic acceptance tests. These test are conducted in a calibrated wind tunnel, in a laboratory, for the purpose of measuring the aerodynamic and "flow off" characteristics of the fluid against the appropriate SAE specification.
Further, all approved fluids undergo HOT testing to assess their HOT characteristics and establish the values for the HOT guidelines for that particular fluid.
8.1.5 Recommended Practices
The fluids must be used in accordance with the Approved Ground Icing Program. Application should respect the fluid manufacturers instructions and be applied in accordance with the most recent version of the SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4737.
8.1.6 TypeI, II, III, & IV Deicing/Anti-icing Fluid Specifications
The SAE documents AMS1424 & 1428 should be consulted for detailed information on fluids specifications.
188.8.131.52 PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES
Properties are fluid specific and knowledge of these properties is critical to safe ground icing operations. The Fluid Manufacturer's recommendations should be followed.
The following are some important considerations relating to fluid use: the freezing point of the fluid, the freezing point of aqueous solutions of aircraft deicing fluids, the freezing point determination, the freezing point buffer, the adjustment of the fluid concentration and the fluid viscosity. Other important factors include: the selection and care of refractometers, checking the zero and calibration of refractometers, and the lowest operational use temperature (LOUT). Following are explanations of these considerations:
The freezing points are determined by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) D1177 method, which measures the temperature of the first ice crystal formation.
Frequent determinations of the freezing point of fluids are required to ensure that the desired freezing point is maintained.
As the concentration of the fluid is increased from 0% upwards, by volume, the freezing point decreases. At some point as the concentration is increased towards 100%, the freezing point starts to increase. The reason for this tendency is that a solution has a lower freezing point than a pure solvent.
Refractometer use in Determining Glycol Based Fluid Freezing Point
The freezing point can be measured directly, using a method such as ASTM D3321: "Standard Test method for Use of the Refractometer Test Determination of the Freezing Point of Aqueous Engine Coolant"; however, this method is cumbersome for use in the field. The freezing point of glycol-based fluids can be easily monitored in the field by measuring refraction. The magnitude of the refraction is related to the concentration of glycol contained in the solution and therefore to the fluid freezing point.
The fluid manufacturers should be consulted for further operational information on the procurement and the training required for refractometer use in the field.
Freezing Point Buffer
The freezing point of a fluid is normally a function of the glycol concentration. An assessment of the fluid concentration can be performed in the field by measuring the refractive index of the fluid. The magnitude of refraction (how much light bends) is related to the concentration of glycol in the solution and hence the freezing point. Fluid manufacturers provide fluid specification charts that correlate refraction index, also called BRIX, versus fluid freezing point. Since there could be some error in reading the BRIX, or the skin temperature could be lower than the outside air temperature, it was decided to add a safety buffer to all the calculations, and a value of 10°C was agreed for TypeI fluids, by the SAE G-12 Fluids sub-committee, and 7°C for TypesII & IV fluids.
This buffer allows for absorption of precipitation, for errors in application, and for the influence of variations in the weather conditions.
Lowest Operational Use Temperature of TypesI, II, III, & IV Fluids
Just as an aircraft has a specific operating envelope within which it is approved to be operated, de/anti-icing fluids are also tested and qualified for operation within a specific temperature envelope.
The qualification of de/anti-icing fluids, also called freezing point depressants (FPD), is a complex and thorough process, which evaluates a multitude of fluid properties and characteristics. The one of particular interest in this case is the lowest operational use temperature (LOUT).
The LOUT is fluid concentration specific. The fluid concentration may change if the fluid is subjected to sustained heating.
The LOUT for a given fluid is the higher of:
- The lowest temperature at which the fluid meets the aerodynamic acceptance test for a given aircraft type, or
- The actual freezing point of the fluid plus its freezing point buffer of 10°C, for a TypeI fluid, and 7°C for a TypeII, Type III, or IV fluid.
NOTE: Manufacturers state that a fluid must not be used when the outside air temperature or skin temperature is below the LOUT of the fluid.
An example of establishing an LOUT follows:
Consider a TypeI fluid that has met the aerodynamics acceptance test down to -45°C.
The reported freezing point of the fluid (as measured by the service provider) is -43°C.
The OAT is -39°C.
The LOUT for a given fluid is the higher of:
- The lowest temperature at which the fluid meets the aerodynamic acceptance test for a given aircraft type, in this case -45°C; or
- The actual freezing point of the fluid plus a freezing point buffer of 10°C, in this case -43°C + 10°C = -33°C.
For this example the LOUT is -33°C and since the OAT is -39°C, this fluid, as is must not be used.
Lowest On-Wing Viscosity
The TypeII and Type IV fluids, when delivered, have a high viscosity. The application process of pumping the fluid through pump mechanism and through the nozzle is likely to reduce the fluids' viscosity. Lowering the viscosity reduces the HOT of the fluid.
Each manufacturer produces the fluid and guarantees that their delivered fluid lies within a range of viscosity values. The high end of the viscosity range impacts the aerodynamic performance, and the low end of the viscosity range affects the HOT values.
Therefore, it is important to perform a periodic check of the fluid after pumping to establish that the fluid has not be sheared to the point where the viscosity of the fluid does not meet the manufacturers specification.
Deicing and/or anti-icing fluid remaining on the aircraft following the deicing and/or anti-icing operation has an affect on the aerodynamic performance of any aircraft. As the temperature decreases, fluids generally become more viscous and have an increased negative effect on the aerodynamics.
As an aircraft gains speed on its take off run the aerodynamic shear forces cause the fluids to flow off the aircraft's surfaces. The amount of fluid that is sheared off the aircraft depends upon the speeds reached during the take off run and the time it took to reach those speeds.
There are two separate aerodynamic acceptance tests, one for faster aircraft and one for slower aircraft. The objective of the tests is to determine the coldest temperature at which the deicing/anti-icing fluids have acceptable aerodynamic characteristics as they flow off lifting and control surfaces during the take off ground acceleration and climb.
Aircraft manufacturers should be consulted to establish which fluids can be safely used on their models of aircraft.
High Speed Test
The High Speed Aerodynamic test establishes the aerodynamic flow off requirements for fluids used to deice or anti-ice large transport jet aircraft with rotation speeds generally exceeding 100 to 110knots and with ground acceleration to lift of times exceeding 23 seconds.
Some slow take off speed aircraft manufacturers have allowed the use of fluids designed for high-speed aircraft on their models. There are often changes required to take off procedures, to take off configuration or to both. The aircraft manufacturer must be consulted.
Low Speed Test
The Low Speed Aerodynamic test establishes the aerodynamic flow off requirements for fluids used to deice or anti-ice slower aircraft whose takeoff rotation speeds generally exceed 60knots and with ground acceleration to rotation time exceeding 16seconds.
- High Speed Test
NOTE: Consult the aircraft manufacturer to determine if the aircraft to be treated falls within the high speed or the low speed aerodynamic acceptance criterion, to determine which type of fluid can safely be used.
184.108.40.206 OPERATIONAL PROPERTIES
Colours are used as a visual aid in the application of fluids to aircraft surfaces.
SAE fluid specifications indicate the appropriate colour for each of the Types of fluids, as follows:
- Type I fluids: Orange colour.
- Type II fluids: Colourless or a pale Straw colour
- Type III fluids: Light yellow colour (As of April2005, SAE has not yet established a colour specification for this fluid)
- Type IV fluids: Emerald Green colour.
NOTE: If the colour of the fluid being applied to the aircraft is NOT the colour anticipated, the procedure should be stopped and the situation investigated.
The fluid manufacturer should be consulted to establish the acceptable levels of water hardness for use with their brand specific fluids.
220.127.116.11 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
The physical properties of interest include: index of refraction, specific gravity, pH, viscosity, flash point, and surface tension. Contact the fluid manufacturer regarding the physical properties of their fluids.
18.104.22.168 COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL
All runoff from deicing operations shall be contained, collected and disposed of in accordance with federal, provincial and municipal regulations and guidelines. Please note that laws and regulations governing disposal may change. It is the responsibility of the user to assure that disposal is appropriate and is in compliance with legal requirements.
22.214.171.124 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
The local Environment Canada representative should be contacted for information on the detailed requirements for protection of the environment from the adverse effects of deicing fluids. See Chapter13 of this document for further information on environmental issues.
Aircraft deicing or anti-icing fluids that are allowed to enter surface waters can have an adverse effect on aquatic life. For this reason, it is recommended that the runoff from deicing operations be contained and diverted to either a water treatment system or a glycol reclamation system.
126.96.36.199 STORAGE, HANDLING AND TESTING
The Manufacturer's storage, handling and testing recommendations should be followed. Also, consult SAE ARP4737, AMS1424 and 1428 for additional information on storage, handling and testing of fluids.
In addition to information contained in the manufacturer's recommendations and the SAE documents above, the following information should be considered:
- Materials compatibility. What materials can be used to handle and store the fluids including which elastomers can be used for hoses and gaskets.
- UV degradation. Some fluid or fluid components may degrade upon exposure to UV light. Obtain specific recommendations from the fluid manufacturer on how to deal with UV degradation. Fluid contained in site gauges is particularly vulnerable.
- Storage tanks. Materials compatibility needs to be assured. There are specific regulations and standards regarding the construction, installation and operation of storage tank systems for deicing products. They are contained in the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment document number PN1326 (2003) or at the website: http://www.ccme.ca/.
- Receiving/transfer of fluid. Prior to unloading fluid, check the shipping documents, product label, refraction, colour, for suspended matter and any other test recommended by the manufacturer. Make certain that all of these properties are within the range recommended by the fluid manufacturer.
- Label. The contents of storage vessels must be correctly identified on the label.
- Colour. Fluids are colour coded. TypeI fluids are orange; TypeII fluids are colourless or straw colored, TypeIII fluids are also colored (light yellow at this time) and TypeIV fluids are emerald green. If the fluid is different from that defined by the manufacturer, the fluid is considered unacceptable. Do not depend on color alone to determine that the correct product has been delivered or is being used. Always check the label, shipping papers and refraction index.
- Refraction. Obtain the acceptable range of refraction of the fluid from the manufacturer and make sure that the fluid is within the acceptable range. With concentrated TypeI fluids, the user must dilute the fluid concentrate depending upon the need. The user has to set the acceptable refraction range depending upon the outside air temperature (OAT).
- Viscosity. Viscosity is not normally measured on TypeI fluids. However, it is a critical property for TypeII, III and IV fluids. Viscosity in the laboratory is commonly measured using a Brookfield viscometer. However, each manufacturer has his own procedure. As a result there is a proposal to use a standard method to simplify field checking of the viscosity. This SAE standard-AS 9968: "Viscosity Test of Thickened Aircraft Deicing/Anti-Icing Fluids" still uses the Brookfield viscometer, which is not designed to be used in the field. A simplified viscosity measurement method is being sought.
- Suspended matter. Look at the sample, it should be substantially free from suspended matter, and must not have any oily residues within or on the surface. The presence of any oily residue is a form of contamination. Such a contamination may interfere with the setting capabilities of the fluid. A fluid that does not wet well may have significantly shorter holdover times. Do not use a fluid that has any sign of an oily residue.
- pH. The pH can be measured using a portable pH meter. These meters are available from several laboratory equipment vendors. Ask the fluid manufacturer for the acceptable pH range for the fluid in question.
- Sampling. It is important to obtain representative samples, whenever collecting samples. Some fluid manufacturers provide sampling guidelines.
- Records. Keep records of the test results.
Test the fluid from all vessels at least once a year before the deicing season begins and continue to do so on a regular basis. Check the label, color, refraction, suspended matter, and pH of aircraft de/anti-icing fluids to make certain that they have not been degraded or contaminated. Test samples from delivery vessels, storage tanks, and aircraft deicing truck tanks. Use the fluid only if the label, color, refraction, suspended matter and pH are within the accepted range.
Whenever water is mixed with deicing fluids check the color, refraction and suspended matter of the resulting fluid mixture. Use the fluid only if the test results are within the accepted range.
Whenever fluids are transferred, check the label on both the source and receiving vessel. Also check the color, the refraction index and the suspended matter present, of the fluid in the receiving vessel after the transfer. Use the fluid only if the test results are within the accepted range.
Small Sealed Vessels
Sealed totes or barrels are tested when opened.
Tested daily and/or when refilled.
- Bulk Storage
Additional Tests by the Fluid Manufacturer
Fluid samples should be sent to the fluid manufacturer for a full analysis and confirmation of acceptability when:
- The product samples tested fail to meet all of the requirements;
- Contamination is suspected; or
- Any time there is doubt about the integrity of the fluid.
Fluid contamination can generally be avoided by following established procedures and practices:
- Dedicated equipment. Use dedicated storage and handling facilities for deicing fluids. Make certain that loading and unloading lines are clean. Routine inspections are required
- Forbidden mixtures. Do not mix deicing fluids with any other product unless approved by the fluid manufacturer.
- Internal inspection of tanks. Some deicing/anti-icing trucks have the anti-icing fluid tank sharing a common wall with the deicing fluid tank. Some tank walls can develop cracks, allowing deicing and anti-icing fluids to mix. The presence of even small amounts of deicing fluid in the anti-icing fluid can cause significant anti-icing fluid performance degradation and thus effect the HOT times. Valves and hoses can also leak and allow fluid mixing or contamination. Routine inspection is required to help prevent these issues from arising.
- Labeling. Conspicuously label storage tanks, loading and transfer lines, valves, deicing/anti-icing truck tanks, and pumps for instant identification to minimize the risk of product contamination. Before transferring any fluid, check the label on both the source and receiving vessels, as required by WHMIS regulations.
- New equipment. New equipment placed into service should be thoroughly cleaned. Pay particular attention to new deicing trucks, which are often shipped with an antifreeze solution in the pump and piping system. Drain the system and rinse with clean water before filling the truck with deicing fluid and introducing it into service.
- Transfer of fluid. Transfer of fluid from deicing equipment into storage tanks should not be accomplished without appropriately testing the fluid. If the fluids were contaminated this action would result in the contamination of the fluid in the storage tank.
- Weatherproof covers. Make certain that the truck and storage tank covers are weatherproof and do not allow water into the tank; however, recognize that proper venting is still required. If it is suspected that water or contaminants have entered the tanks, check the product in the tanks to ensure that it continues to meet minimum specification(s), and if necessary, thoroughly clean the tanks and ensure that the covers are repaired to a weatherproof state.
Pumps and Filters
TypeII, III and IV fluids may be degraded during pumping. Check with the fluid manufacturer regarding the types of pumps that are acceptable for pumping their fluids. The viscosity of the fluid generally increases as its temperature is lowered, therefore, additional pumping power will often be required to pump the fluid at temperatures near the fluid freezing point.
The user should always check that the design and construction of the deicing storage system is appropriate for use with the de/anti-icing fluid in use. Some fluids can be filtered and others cannot. Check with the fluid manufacturer regarding the suitability of filters.
Heating TypeI Deicing Fluids
The effectiveness of a TypeI deicing fluid in removing frozen contaminants from an aircraft's critical surfaces is due in large measure to the application temperature of the fluid.
The time of protection provided by TypeI fluids is directly related to the heat input to the aircraft's critical surfaces. Therefore, in order to achieve the published HOT values for TypeI fluids, the fluids must be heated as indicated.
The following points should be noted regarding heating TypeI fluids:
- Standby heated storage. Deicing fluid should not be stored at a high temperature. It may be maintained in heated standby storage before or during the active deicing events to save time when heating to the final application temperature. If heated, the fluid should be kept in the standby mode at a temperature that does not exceed the temperature recommended by the fluid manufacturer. Avoid heating during idle times because this may result in thermally induced degradation.
- Heating for application. Follow the fluid manufacturer's recommendation. Typically, temperatures should be in the range of plus 60°C to plus 82°C.
- Evaporation. When the deicing fluid is heated (either standby heating or heating for application) there may be water evaporation resulting in an increase in the glycol concentration and of the refractive index. The refractive index should be checked regularly to ensure that the deicing fluid refraction index and freezing point are within the acceptable range. Evaporation may be minimized by keeping the lids closed on the fluid tanks, however the vents must be kept open at all times. Water loss by evaporation can be replenished by direct addition to the tank. The addition of the appropriate quantity of water or deicing fluid to the tank must be accompanied by an adequate mixing process, such as recirculation. It is important to measure the refractive index of the solution in the storage tank following any addition of water or deicing fluid, in order to confirm that the fluid retains the proper freezing point.
- Thermal degradation. A lowering of the fluid pH or fluid discoloration is indicative of thermal degradation. Do not use a deicing fluid solution if the pH is not in the accepted range because it may cause aircraft corrosion.
NOTE: Generally, in North America, TypesII, III & IV are not specifically heated but may be heated if required. If a TypeIII is used as a deicing fluid it is is generally applied heated. See SAE ARP4737 and the fluid manufacturer's product information bulletins for more information on this issue.
Shelf Life of De/Anti-icing Fluids
The fluid manufacturers should be consulted for shelf life information on their products.
Generally, properly used and stored fluids are formulated with components that should be stable under unheated storage conditions. However, periodic testing of the fluid is prudent to ensure that the fluid is still acceptable for use. Fluid stored unheated for one year should be sampled and tested for conformance to the specification for colour, suspended matter, pH and refraction. Material not meeting the specification requirements should be sampled and sent to the fluid manufacturer for further testing if in doubt. These measurements should be repeated every year. Sampling guidelines should be available from the fluid manufacturers.
For heated storage conditions, fluids should be checked in accordance with the fluid manufacturer's recommendations.
Areas sprayed with deicing fluid may become slippery. Exercise caution when walking or when operating equipment on apron areas where fluid has been deposited. If an accumulation of fluid occurs on the apron, it is recommended that mechanical means, such as vacuum trucks, should be used to pick up the over sprayed fluid.
Deicing Equipment Inspections
It is suggested that the following routine inspections should be conducted:
Tank inspection. Inspect storage tanks and deicing trucks at least once per year or more often if the need arises (e.g.: if suspect fluid has been added to tank). It is considered appropriate to inspect and test just prior to the winter operating season. If contamination occurs, the cause of the contamination should be identified and steps should be taken to ensure that it does not re-occur.
Corrosion in carbon steel tanks most often occurs in the vapor space of partially empty tanks above the fluid level. To minimize corrosion, keep the tanks full during the summer months and at other low use periods. An internal inspection of the tanks may be required on a regular basis.
Application equipment inspection. It is recommended that equipment testing occur annually, preferably immediately prior to the operating season. Prior to using deicing fluids, test the application equipment, including but not limited to: spray nozzles, tanks, and hoses.
It is also recommended to test the equipment after any modification or repair to the TypeII/IV applications components has occurred. Examples of this include replacement of pumps/valves and nozzles. The following situations have been reported in the field: pump speed to fast after pump replacement; fluid valves on trucks not opening completely after repairs, causing the fluid to be sheared as it passes through the restricted valve.
- Test Instrument. Routine calibration and recertification of each instrument's performance should be conducted in accordance with the instrument manufacturer's instructions.
- Tank inspection. Inspect storage tanks and deicing trucks at least once per year or more often if the need arises (e.g.: if suspect fluid has been added to tank). It is considered appropriate to inspect and test just prior to the winter operating season. If contamination occurs, the cause of the contamination should be identified and steps should be taken to ensure that it does not re-occur.
Individual aircraft manufacturers may provide specific deicing and anti-icing recommendations for the various models of their aircraft. The aircraft operators should obtain and follow these specific recommendations. Also, industry standard practices should be followed in addition to the guidance contained in the SAE ARP4737.
Fluid manufacturers may also have specific operational procedures to be followed to maximize fluid effectiveness. For example, there may be specific pressures, temperatures and procedures to ensure that the fluid is effective in removing frozen contaminants from aircraft surfaces. Always consult the aircraft maintenance manual for fluid application restrictions such as maximum fluid pressure to be applied to aircraft surfaces.
188.8.131.52 TRAINED PERSONNEL
Only properly trained personnel shall be employed in the aircraft de/anti-icing process. Personnel are required to read, understand and follow the precautions listed in the fluid manufacturer's product information bulletin (known as the Material Safety Data Sheet - MSDS), and on the product label, prior to using these materials.
NOTE: SAE ARP5149 should be consulted for more detailed information on training and training programs for ground de/anti-icing personnel.
Unless otherwise authorized by the aircraft manufacturer, deicing fluids should only be used for application on aircraft exterior surfaces and, in general, should not be used for the following:
- Cockpit windows;
- Aircraft brakes;
- Sprayed directly onto cabin windows, rather the fluid should be directed above the windows and allowed to flow down;
- Directly into engine, particularly the engine core;
- APU inlets;
- Open vents on aircraft;
- Open air conditioning pack valves;
- Open baggage compartment doors;
- When non-deicing personnel are in close proximity to the aircraft;
- Pitot static air ports, engine inlet probes and angle of attack vanes;
- Other areas as specified by the aircraft manufacturer.
8.1.8 Material Safety Data Sheet
When considering the use of any products in a particular application, the latest Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for the product under consideration should be reviewed to ensure that the intended use can be accomplished safely. The MSDS can be obtained from the fluid manufacturer.
The MSDS, in Canada, should conform to the Workplace Hazardous Material Information System (WHMIS) legislation and be available in both official languages. It is important to obtain any other available product safety information from the fluid manufacturer and take the necessary steps to ensure that the product is used and disposed of in a safe and environmentally satisfactory manner.
Government regulations and material use conditions are subject to change, and it is the user's responsibility to determine that they have current and up to date information on the product, on safety, on operational issues, and on environmental regulations and standards.
The user of any product should read, understand, and comply with the information contained in the manufacturer's publications and in the current MSDS. This information shall be available at all times to employees.
8.1.9 Recommended Practices
Application should respect the fluid and aircraft manufacturers' instructions and be applied in accordance with the most recent version of the SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) 4737.
8.1.10 Emergency Service
Transport Canada maintains a 24hour emergency service for information on chemical products and how they should be handled during emergency situations, such as spills and accidental releases to the environment. (Call CANUTEC toll-free at 1-888-CANUTEC or 613-996-6666 collect.)
Many fluid manufacturers also have a 24hour emergency service for their products. The user should obtain the manufacturer's emergency phone number for ready reference.
NOTE: DO NOT WAIT, if in doubt, call a specialist for advice.
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