4-Point Marking Scale

When applying the 4-point scale, award the mark that best describes the weakest element(s) applicable to the candidate’s performance of the particular test sequence/item demonstrated.

4

Performance is well executed considering existing conditions:

  • Aircraft handling is smooth and positive with a high level of precision.
  • Technical skills indicate a thorough knowledge of procedures, aircraft systems, limitations and performance characteristics.
  • Situational awareness is indicated by continuous anticipation and vigilance.
  • Flight management skills are exemplary and threats are consistently anticipated, recognized and well managed.
  • Safety margins are maintained through consistent and effective management of aircraft systems and mandated operational protocols.

3

Performance is observed to include minor errors:

  • Aircraft handling with appropriate control input but includes minor deviations.
  • Technical skills indicate an adequate knowledge of procedures, aircraft systems, limitations and performance characteristics to successfully complete the task.
  • Situational awareness is adequately maintained as candidate responds in a timely manner to cues and changes in the flight environment to maintain safety while achieving the aim of the sequence/item.
  • Flight management skills are effective. Threats are anticipated and errors are recognized and recovered.
  • Safety margins are maintained through effective use of aircraft systems and mandated operational protocols.

2

Performance is observed to include major errors:

  • Aircraft handling is performed with major deviations and/or an occasional lack of stability, over/under control or abrupt control input.
  • Technical skills reveal deficiencies either in depth of knowledge or comprehension of procedures, aircraft systems, limitations and performance characteristics that do not prevent the successful completion of the task.
  • Situational awareness appears compromised as cues are missed or attended to late or the candidate takes more time than ideal to incorporate cues or changes into the operational plan.
  • Flight management skills are not consistent. Instrument displays, aircraft warnings or automation serve to avert an undesired aircraft state by prompting or remedying threats and errors that are noticed late.
  • Safety margins are not compromised, but poorly managed.

1

Performance is observed to include critical errors or the Aim of the test sequence/item is not achieved:

  • Aircraft handling is performed with critical deviations and/or a lack of stability, rough use of controls or control of the aircraft is lost or in doubt.
  • Technical skills reveal unacceptable levels of depth of knowledge or comprehension of procedures, aircraft systems, limitations and performance characteristics that prevent a successful completion of the task.
  • Lapses in situational awareness occur due to a lack of appropriate scanning to maintain an accurate mental model of the situation or there is an inability to integrate the information available to develop and maintain an accurate mental model.
  • Flight management skills are ineffective, indecisive or noncompliant with mandated published procedures: and corrective countermeasures are not effective or applied.
  • Safety margins are compromised or clearly reduced.

Using the Elements of the 4-Point Scale

ELEMENT SUB-ELEMENT GOOD PRACTICE POOR PRACTICE
AIRCRAFT HANDLING Quality and Accuracy

- Smooth use of controls; control input appropriate
- Using approved techniques
- Action taken when deviations occur
- Within tolerances

- Unable to fly aircraft smoothly and accurately
- Not always using the best techniques
- Overcorrecting and/or reacting late to deviations
- Outside tolerances; rough use of controls
- Unable to easily control aircraft during abnormal or emergency situations

TECHNICAL SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGE Practical Understanding

- Practical use and understanding of aircraft systems, automation, data, charts, weather and physiological factors
- Competency that gets the job done safely and efficiently

- Lacking in-depth understanding of aircraft systems, automation, data, charts, weather and physiological factors
- Lack of knowledge detracts from outcome
- Poor competency has potential to affect safety

Following POH/AFM or SOPs

- Knowledge of all applicable POH/AFM recommendations or SOPs, as applicable- Follows all rules and regulations

- Not aware of some POH/AFM recommendations
- Does not follow SOPs, where applicable, and rules and regulations

FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SKILLS Problem Definition /Diagnosis

- Gathers information to identify problem

- Nature of problem not stated or failure to diagnose

Option Generation

- States alternative options

- Does not search for information

Risk Assessment

- Considers estimated risk of alternative options

- No consideration of limiting factors

Option Selection

-Determines a selected option / action

- decision path not taken

Outcome Review

- Checks outcome against plan

- Fails to check selected outcome against goal

Providing and Maintaining Standards

- Demonstrates will to achieve top performance

- Does not comply with POH/AFM or SOPs;
- Does not care for performance effectiveness

Workload Management

- Secondary operational tasks are prioritized to retain sufficient resources for primary flight duties
- Allots adequate time to complete tasks
- Notices signs of stress and fatigue

- Secondary operational tasks interfere with primary flight duties
- Workload is increased through inadequate planning
- Ignores signs of stress and fatigue

SITUATIONAL AWARENESS System Awareness

- Monitors and reports changes in systems’ states
- Acknowledges entries and changes to systems

- Does not ask for updates
- Does not signal awareness of changing systems

Environmental Awareness

- Collects information about environment (position, weather and traffic)
- Contacts outside resources when needed (to maintain situational awareness)

- Does not inquire about environmental changes

Awareness of Time and Anticipation of Future Events

- Identifies possible future problems

- Does not set priorities with respect to time limits

SAFETY OF FLIGHT How well maintained?

-Respect for published procedures and limits
-Effectiveness of lookout during visual manoeuvres

- Errors that are serious or have potentially grave consequences
- Breach of regulations
- Intervention required