TP 14334 - Keep Your Eyes on the Hook! Helicopter External Load Operations-Ground Crew Safety

Title: Keep Your Eyes on the Hook!
Helicopter External Load Operations
Ground Crew Safety

NOTE: (All on-screen text is blue / all transcriptions of interviews are in black) 


The following program is designed to promote ground crew safety when working under and around helicopters during external load operations.

2) This is not a safety-training program and is only intended to be used with the participation of a ground crew safety officer, trainer or other qualified personnel.

3) All training and refresher courses must be done in accordance with federal and provincial regulations and the Canada Labour Code.


4) Bryce Fisher
Manager, Safety Promotion and Education
Transport Canada

5) “Helicopters are versatile machines. Nowhere is this more evident than in long lining and external load operations.  While most people are aware of the danger with helicopter rotors, long lining and external load operations have their own set of hazards, especially for ground crew.  

6) The purpose of this video is to sensititize ground crews to the hazards of working around and under helicopters.  We talked with those involved in the industry.  Here is what they have to say.” 

7) A typical day at the office...


8) Keep your eyes on the hook!

9) Helicopter External Load Operations Ground Crew Safety


10) St. Jacques Island, N.L.
October 13, 2002

11) One member of a Canadian Coast Guard ground crew gets tangled in helicopter long line straps while disengaging fuel drums

12) Michel Raymond
Ground Crew
Canadian Coast Guard

13) When the helicopter come with the barrels, when it (the external load)  touched the ground it release the tension on the barrels and on the straps...  And we just grab the straps this way, and we make it loup like that.   I grab them (the straps) with my hands and I signal the pilot that he can go, when everybody is clear.   I probably step back a bit and my foot left the ground this way; and in stepping back, with the down draft of the chopper, the straps on the ground did that (blew around his boots) and caught me like that (tightened around the toe of the boot and pulled him off the ground).

14) When I took off I went straight between the two ramps (tailgate ramps to drive a vehicle onto a flatbed truck).   The guys on the side, they were fishermen from Newfoundland, and they tried to catch me when I was going up but they missed me.   And I was happy they missed because we would be three guys on one rope and one foot.  (Laughs) That was not a good solution.

15) I say well, what can I do now.   And then I thought about my radio - where is it, where is it?   And then I did that (found the cord and looked back) and I saw it was doing that.   So I grab it this way, and then I contact the pilot.   And I took my time because I don’t want him to drop me.  So I say “hello Bob”.  He say “yes Michel?”   “Can you put me down on the ground please? 

16) So he looked down and he couldn’t see me.   So he slow down and he saw me passing (swinging) by underneath.  Well I was about 200 or 250 feet in the air.  After that the helicopter went down slowly and he dropped me on the ground.    And I was lucky I wasn’t hurt at all.
17) The pilot maybe took off a bit fast and it is probably because it is a repetitive action.   He was just watching for me to signal him that he can go and then after that he was looking for the hook to be above my head....  And then he fly.    But he never thought (about the fact) that he had fifteen foot straps underneath.  (Attached to the hook). 

18) I stepped back just maybe to be sure I was clear and that was the mistake, but I never thought the straps would fly away like that.

19) When things go wrong, stay calm, don’t panic...

20) There are situations that you can’t avoid.  I think the key is stay calm and try to do the right things at the right time.    That’s for sure sometimes it doesn’t work.   I did almost everything right but I get caught.  So after that you have to stay calm and do the right thing next - because if you panic, you’re done.

21) Prepare the site...

22) Michelle Polack
Heli-Attack Fire Fighter
B.C. Forest Service

23) We’re a three-person, remote access, Heli-Attack fire fighting crew.   So we work on a lot of the smaller fires and there’s lightning strikes and all that kind of stuff.

24) Ok - There’s a lot of different things we look at when we get to a site.   Safety of course is our first priority.   The first thing we do to prepare a site is - when we get on the ground we’re obviously looking to make sure we’re down slope of the fire and there’s a couple of escape routes set out - not one but two, so that if something happens, we have to do a medi-vac for whatever reason, that we have those escape routes set up.

25) It’s important to clear a site.  We’re looking for holes in the canopy... just to make sure there’s enough room so the helicopter pilot can see a ground crew, that communication stays open...

26) When you come into a place, what happens is any loose branches or debris that is floating around on the ground.... whether that’s anything from flagging tape to loose branches...  has potential of getting sucked up into the helicopter, into the rotors and causing considerable damage to the helicopter as well as jeopardizing the safety of the ground crews and the pilot.    Flagging tape, lunch boxes, you know, water bottles - all that stuff has to be properly stowed and dealt with ...

27) Also when we’re on the ground we’re looking for hazzards to ourselves... so we’re looking for any danger trees.  So we’re looking for widow makers, large branches or limbs hung up in trees, any loose roots on the ground - snags -  We want to make sure all that stuff is cleaned up because of course safety is our first priority.

28) Have a safety briefing with the pilot...

29A) Yea - the first thing we do before we get into a helicopter is of course we sit down with a pilot and we go over hand signals.  Hand signals vary from pilot to pilot, helicopter-company to helicopter-company - just so everybody is on the same page so there are no mishaps with long lining and nobody gets hurt and everybody plays safe.

Brian Sallows
SunWest Helicopters Ltd.

Paul Williams
Heli-Attack Fire Fighter
B.C. Forest Service

30)  (Pilot: - hand signal gesturing...)
(This is.. ) down, down, down, ...stop...  I should be able to see pretty good down there.   And I’ll lower it down - you go - (gestures cut)... 

31)  (Signaler - giving directions) 
You’re right at the tree-line right there... Bring it down.... About twenty more feet... yup you’re level....   Perfect.... Ok six more inches down...  Ok six more inches up....   Alright bring her up...   Level - that’s perfect, perfect... perfect...    Thanks Brad - see ya...

32) Always wear high-visibility clothingand other safety gear...

33) Brent Brooks
Hayes Helicopter Services Ltd.

34) With long lining, our main safety focus is visibility and communication... Just so the pilots are aware of where the individual is and all other people working around that guy, and in the landing (where the logs come in) , where our ground crew has high viz gear and they’re easily identified. Same with the hill guys (they work on the mountain tops). 
35) They have to be easy to spot and their partners are easy to see and everything.    Then the pilot knows he is good to start lifting the turn up.  (lifting the log or logs off the mountain)   Just so we don’t have an accident.  If he doesn’t know if the guy is clear (of the load) then he doesn’t start flying away eh! 

36) We use not only radio communication but we also use hand signals...   We waive our hand over our head and the pilot is looking down at us and that’s telling him to lower the hook...  And then when you give a wave like this, he knows the hook is ready for ya, and that’s when you put the chokers in.  (Cables that tighten around a tree as the helicopter hauls them up)   

37) And then you walk out of the away and get in the clear.  You tell him on your radio that you are clear.  And then he gives you the signal that he is going to start pulling on the turn. 

38) Good foot wear, good sharp caulks, ( special spikes on safety boots for surer footing on uneven surfaces) ) is another thing so we have good footing in the bush and on the ground here in the landing...   So on the mountain and in the landing clothing has to be in good shape, so it doesn’t get caught on branches and stuff.

39) Establish a safe area...

40) Lucas St. Claire
Landing Crew
Hayes Helicopter Services Ltd.

41) Landing size (is important) for me since I work from a landing.   Landing size is critical. Room to deck all the wood also and a good safe area for us to work in the corner...   Put some cones out.... Establish a safety area for the pilots to see...  Keep our heads up too. 

42) From where they touch down, usually a turn and a half away (one and a half times the length of a log) is a good distance and stuff.  Like they are putting them down over there - that is giving us basically the turn (as a safe distance away). 
43) This landing for example, down into the slash, and landing the turn away from us, even though there is not an incredible distance - it is a tight landing - but the turns are landing away from us so if something was to go wrong  - either something come out of the turn or if the helicopter was to lose control, it would all be going that way and out of the way of us.   I think it is the most important thing down here in terms of safety around the helicopter.   

44) (Journalist)
What do you like in a pilot?

45)  (St. Claire:)
Land the turns nice and smooth  right in front of me so I don’t have to run too far over the bang.

46) Have an escape route...

47) Daniele Resicini
Junior Observer
Veritas DGC Land

48) Long lining is the biggest help to seismic (exploration) ever.  Just because previously, before helicopters and long lines, this would all be dragouts.  So all the seismic people would be muling (as in mule - hauling on their backs) this gear in.   So long lining enables us to cut down on manpower, essentially reduce the risks of basically all personal injury.  So the only risk of long lining would be right here at staging, (pick up point) hooking up bags.

49) All our bags are pre-packed from the last job.   Then we just load them up on this hi-boy (flat bed trailer) just so we can get to our next job and be pretty much prepared to go.  So all we gotta do is add in our special bags and we’re good. 

50) I would say the first thing you wanna do is look up.  You wanna see which way his bird is facing (helicopter) Wherever his 12 (o’clock) is,   you want to be at his 9 (o’clock) or his 3.    If you’re off at his 3 o’clock, then he’s got a visual of you no matter where you are, cause that is where the pilot usually sits.  Always watch - as soon as you hook him up to something, take a look up, see where his bird is facing...  And then step away.   Just let him have his path.  

51) And always have an escape route.   You see it is somewhat cleared out there so I do have one escape route and where else?  I can go up there see...   Well we’ve got the back gate down here, and basically as soon I hook up the rack and I see which way he’s facing....  If he is facing that way then I know I’ve got my out (escape) right through here... 

52) And if he wants to turn to the wind - (chuckles) you see that’s the nice thing - you got to feel where the wind is coming from too, right...    Cause the bird will always be facing the wind, so I know almost every time that he’ll be heading out that way right now. 

53) Because these batteries are pretty heavy, I’ll bring a truck over and load the batteries onto there and just put everything aside.     Once it’s up on the deck then I’ll come up here, move all my equipment up that I need outa my path, so I can exit.  I don’t want to be caught with him with a full load... 

54) Watch the obstructions around your feet... 

55) Cam Heitt
Ground Crew
Veritas DGC Land

56) Well we need the long line to manoeuver our gear through the bush.   It’s too much gear for the guys to pack (carry) through the bush so we put it in bags and drop it at separate locations throughout our line...   Well you’ve got to keep your eye on that bag-runner at all times, make sure there are no obstructions around your feet, so you’re not tripping over ropes and what not that we hook up to the bag runner.    

57) Make sure you are as quick and as safe as you can be to get that chopper on its way as soon as you can.    I never really count seconds.  I make sure it is done properly, the more you rush the more time (possibility) for errors.   Just be aware of the surroundings around you...   Gotta be on your toes... make sure you know where that bag runner is and have a little confidence in your pilot. 

58) Be aware of static discharge...

59)  (Daniele Resicini)

60) You must have a hard hat, obviously - the eye protection because of all the dust that gets kicked up, hearing protection because after awhile you will go deaf...   And a certain few unsaid rules I suppose...  Most of it is protocol but - when he (chopper) comes in usually if I feel it unsafe to grab it, just because of weather, perhaps clouds and all the static that might come off the gravel pit, then I will ask him to ground the bag runner.   He will just basically set it right on this bed right here, and then as soon as I grab it it is pretty much gone (the static charge) and is good
to go.

61) Have I had a shock?  Yea I have had a shock - it’s not too nice sometimes.  How we do it?  That is really the only way, is when he grounds that bag runner.   Unless you think you are good to grab it you can grab it but you better hold on...   It’s never really a big issue you know - Cause it’s once every thousand times maybe you’ll grab that bag runner, but for the most part he’ll ground it first. 

62) Watch out for the empty hook...

63) Dave Weir
Skyline Helicopters Ltd.

64) It’s called heli-portable seismic.  So it is the exploration for oil and gas using explosive charges to read what is going on under the ground.  The helicopter utilizes the long line to pick up the drilling equipment and place it where the drillers want their shots to be put in the ground and we bring it to them.   

65) Using the external load window that we have we fly the helicopter from the left side, so we can actually hang our body out of the bubble window that you see there.   We rest on our elbow and look straight down, and we can do vertical reference flying with the bubble window, and place the load basically where they want them.

66A) Just as far as a safety concern goes, often you know when the actual load is coming in, or leaving the drop zone, is when people pay the most amount of attention.  If you’re bringing a load in, and place the load on the ground, and release the load; at that point usually people think that whatever hazard is going on is over.  And often the empty hook is kinda more hazardous than people make it out to be.  

66B) So it can float through the drop zone and hit somebody in the head or it can actually come up and snag a branch on the way up and rip the branch right off which would then fall and hit somebody.   Or even if there is multiple people in the drop zone and one person responsible for hooking the load, and the other people aren’t paying attention to what the empty hook is doing as it comes in.  And it can swing around in the drop zone and hurt people.  

67) Have one person on the radio with the pilot...

68) Dan Eddy
Ground Crew
Canadian Coast Guard

69) Oh you have to have one guy on the radio for sure - that is a must...  Things happen on the ground that the pilots can’t see...   There has to be one guy on the radio in communication with the pilot to let him know what’s going on - that is really important. 

70) Sometimes things will happen and a rope will get jammed or a bucket will get jammed or lumber will get jammed and sometimes the odd person gets caught up and you have to have a guy on the radio to make sure everything is free so he can give the signals to the helicopters that he can go so he can go.  It comes natural. 

71) The load comes down and sits on the ground.  I’ll be pulling the rope down.  My partner’s on the radio in communication with the pilot.  It works so well.  The main thing I stressed before is communication with the pilot - that is top priority.

72A)  (Simultaneously we hear this the same time as the above interview) ...fifteen... ten... five... four... hold...  Down... three... two... one... on deck... hold - we’re going to send some chokers back... Ok you’re clear...

72B) Dave Laitinen
Ground Crew
Canadian Coast Guard

73) Never walk under the load...

74) Ron Nicholson
Bertram Drilling Corp.

75) This is a heli-portable drop zone here, and basically what you see here - this little bit of a slope on it here and as the helicopter brings it in we’ll always kinda stay off to the side from the side that the helicopter will bring it in.   In this case he will be bringing it in from this direction over here.  

76) So we’ll kinda stay off to the side here....   And always uphill from where the drill is going to be in case there’s a problem when it comes off the long line or what not.  And, just pretty much keep an eye on the load at all times and...  You can’t take (it)for granted...  You may have done it a thousand times but nothing can be taken for granted. 

77)  And if you have the luxury of a larger tree, maybe putting your back to it, if you can... at the same time keeping in mind to give yourself an escape route, just in case of deadfall - if the wind blows anything down.  And this is one of our biggest dangers - that load - never - number one - never walk under that load when the helicopter is bringing it in.   Yea safety is the number one issue for sure.  Everything else is secondary.

78) Take your time - Don't rush...

79) Rob Gallagher
Systems Safety Manager
Skyline Helicopters Ltd. 

80) I’ve been under the machines when our crews are flying them and to me it’s like a war zone...  It’s typically loud, there’s heavy equipment over top of you all the time.  It’s a very, very dangerous environment, and people need to be vigilant about that environment.  In repeat heavy-lift whether your logging or seismic, or any of those repeat heavy-lift jobs, it’s amazing the complacency that can happen with crews on the ground. 

81) We stress to both the flight crew and the ground crew, it’s not a walk in the park out there.   You’re working a very dangerous environment.   You have to stay on your toes at all times. 

82) A typical reaction to that environment is for people to rush.   We tell our flight crews to remind the ground crews on the radio that if they start to see a trend happening where guys are rushing, forgetting things, remind them that we are here to play safe first and still continue the job.  Remind them to slow down and take the time to do it properly.    

83) Inspect equipment dailyfor damage or wear...

84) Matthew Cooper
Aircraft Maintenance Engineer 
Skyline Helicopters Ltd.

85) We go through a line every day.  We have to do a daily inspection on this assembly  just like the aircraft. 

86)  (Journalist)
What do you check for?

87)  (Matthew)
Any sort of sign that he snagged a tree... any sort of damage that is obvious.  It could cause a problem.  The line will get pulled on the inside....  The line is just a spector weave. 

88) This stuff - it will pull it right apart.  Well you check through the shackle area, and all the mounting assemblies.  You look at all the suspension points, make sure nothing is cracked or obviously damaged.

89) This is the main suspension bolt here.  The eye of the spector comes through here.  And if any of this is damaged, you swap it out with your other line and attend to this one.   Same at this end...  This is your main eye up at the top.  You look for deformities and wear.  You check out  your electrical connections.    

90) Prepare site for downwash...

91) Bill Yearwood
Regional Manager, Aviation Accident Investigations
Transportation Safety Board of Canada

92) Yea another example of things that the ground crew should be really aware of is the force of the down wash.  They should be aware of debris.  And when I say debris I don’t mean just little bits of dust and cardboard and stuff lying around...  (I mean)  down wash from a helicopter trying to lift close to 10,000 pounds. 

93) It (the helicopter) is up around 22,000 pounds.  It’s like a hurricane, so if you can imagine what would blow around in a hurricane, that’s what you can imagine and what you should be prepared for when you are preparing a site and make sure that stuff is not coming at you.   

94) Know the first aid procedures...

95) Brad Vardy
Editor, Aviation Safety Vortex
Transport Canada

96) Part of your operational briefing should be first aid and what you are going to do in the event of an accident or an injury.  You need to know the location of all your first aid equipment on the site, who is qualified to give first aid on the site, who you are going to contact in the event of an accident - what agency - what medical facility...
and the location of the communications equipment you are going to use to contact that agency. 

97) Inspect the cargo net after use...

98) Mitchell Smith
Aircraft Maintenance Engineer 
Canadian Coast Guard

99) The first thing we will check is to make sure they’re (cargo nets) not wet. If they are wet we will hang them up to dry before we put them away.  Second we will check to make sure there are no rips and tears in the webbing - ah...  Small tears we can repair.  If a lot of the webs are ripped we will have to send it back to the manufacturer and he’ll repair it for us. 

100) I check all the connections where the hooks go on...   This particular one can be unscrewed but this one is tight...  I look at all the other hooks to make sure the keepers are in good shape...   I look at) just sort of general condition.

101) The Special Challenges of Winter

102) Bob Whittle
Aircraft Maintenance Engineer
Cougar Helicopters Inc.

103) Winter conditions... you’re dealing with wind chill, first of all.  Even on bright sunny days there’s a wind chill factor to consider.  Slippery conditions... ice, snow,
deep snow, especially in remote areas...  Blowing snow when the helicopter is hovering around, landing, taking off... all those conditions we have to deal with. 

104) Static discharge in winterIs especially intense...

105) Captain Michael McNulty
Supervisory Helicopter Pilot
Canadian Coast Guard

106) If you are doing long lining in snow, (what to watch out for) it’s static electricity...  Nobody wants to hang on to a load when it is just a few feet off the ground and get zapped.   So there is more attention paid to grounding the load.  Then once it is grounded you can pick it up and slide it into position without any problem.   I’ve seen a person knocked right off a load unconscious.... they fell right off the top of a sling load to the ground... and it was the static charge that caused it.

107) Pack down snow in the drop zone...

108)  (Rob Gallagher)
There are additional winter hazards when doing long line work...  Footing is key.   Typically when you are working in snow with heavy equipment, it makes it that much more difficult to walk...   So we ask the ground crews to stamp out the drop zone - it is typically a four metre by  four metre size area which may potentially eliminate trips and falls.        

109) Watch for frostbite...

110)  (Rob Gallagher)
Also, typically you are working in -10, - 20, sometimes up to -30 (Celsius ).   That rotor wash can make it feel like it is -40 or -50, so we ask the crews to watch each other for frostbite, cause quite often when you are working you are not realizing you are getting frostbite.   Vigilance and training.  You can’t go wrong with either.

111) Manage the risk...

112)  (Brad Vardy)
The biggest risk for the ground crew is to lose your situational awareness because it’s windy under there, it’s loud... there’s pressure to get the job done.   Usually the risk comes from doing things too quickly... a crew member may slip and fall, hurt themselves, or cut themselves...or get hit with the load because they don’t know the load is coming in... they turn their backs to the load.  

113)   (It’s) very important that you keep your eyes on the load or the empty hook at all times when you are a ground crew member.     

114) Stay aware and fight complacency...

115) Geoff Goodyear
President / Chief Operating Officer
Universal Helicopters Newfoundland Ltd.

116) We’ve covered a lot of the specific points, so rather than belabour those, the only thing I can do is reinforce (what’s been said), to stay very aware.  And I hate to overuse that word but complacency is a terrible thing, particularly with crews who are veterans, or who have been on the job a long time on any given day...

117)  (Don’t think) that it’s worked fine for the past fifty pick-ups... there’s no reason why it should be any different for the fifty-first.  Well every time you start a new pick-up operation, all the hazards that were there with number one are there with number fifty-one, and that’s the reason why you have to stay aware all the time.


A) Watch out for the empty hook..

B) Take your time—Don’t rush...

C) Have an escape route...

D) Inspect the cargo net after use...

E) Never walk under the load...

F) Be aware of static discharge...

G) Static discharge in winteris especially intense...

H) Prepare the site...

I) Establish a safe area...

J) Ensure equipment is working properly...

K) Prepare the site for downwash...

L ) Watch the obstructions around your feet...

M) When things go wrong, stay calm, don’t panic...

N) Have a safety briefing with the pilot...

O) Have one person on the radio with the pilot...

P) Know the first aid procedures...

Q) Wear proper safety equipment...

R) Inspect equipment daily for damage or Wear...

S) Stay aware and fight complacency

T) Manage the risk…


119) Ronald Moors
Cougar Helicopters Inc.

120) Cory Moss
Aircraft Maintenance Engineer
Cougar Helicopters Inc.

121)  (Ronald)
So the aircraft is serviced and ready to go?

122)  (Cory)
All serviced and ready to go.

123)  (Ronald)
Ok... Thank you.

124) I guess what am I looking at when I get there Bob?

125)  (Bob Whittle)
Well we’re going to take a load of lumber and sling it from the airport out to the site...  The site’s been prepared, we’ve been told.   There are a couple of logs that they want to lay the load on...  They don’t want it on the snow in case it freezes in.

126)  (Ronald)

127)  (Bob)
So it you can lay it on the logs, disconnect it from the load, and you take the cables...  And leave the cargo lifting straps out there...

128)  (Ronald)
Ok...  And who is going to be out there?

129)  (Bob)
There will be a marshaller and two hook up men out there.  We’re going to use tag lines as well because we want to situate it so it lands on the logs...  

130)  (Ronald)
Area had been cleaned of FOD and what not?

131)  (Bob)
Area’s been checked for FOD, there’ been tamp down.   It’s a snow covered area right in against the trees.    We’re going to use standard hand signals.  I’ll bring you in like this where I want the load.  If you have to put the load down...

132) (Ronald)

133)  (Bob)
I’ll tell you where I want the load...

134) (Ronald)

135)  (Bob)
I’ll marshal you forward like this...  I’ll get you into a hover... I want you to move down... I want you to move up...

136)  (Ronald)

137)  (Bob)
I need you to fly away, I will designate which direction I need you to go in. 

138)  (Ronald)
Ok... and to release the load? 

139)  (Bob)
To release the load - across the throat...

140)  (Ronald)

Ok... And that’s only once we have the load safely on the ground.
141)  (Bob)

142)  (Ronald)
I’ll want you in front of the aircraft in the event of an emergency.  I’ll want you to go, turn around and immediately exit to the safe area  which we described in the pick-up area.

143)  (Bob)
In the pick-up area - yea...

144)  (Ronald)
 Ok, and I’ll either back away or go off in the direction that you described... 

145)  (Bob)
And the hook-up men will follow me too so we will congregate in the safe area...   You’ll know where everybody is and (then you can) move off to your designated area. 

146)  (Ronald)
Ok... In the event of an emergency, I’ll put the load back on the ground.  At that time I will become single engine, and I’ll just go into a hover.   In the event of an emergency and I have to fly away, I’ll punch the load off, and I will go to my right. 

147) What I will want you to do is depart back to the safe area, which we’ve already briefed, by the load, and the other guys will follow you, right?   One thing to remember is that even though I have asked you to get away from the aircraft, always be aware of where the aircraft is...  And I’ll want you to exit out the front of the aircraft. 

148)  (Bob)
The guys at the other site have been briefed on that as well.  They know what’s going on.  Again when we get out there the marshaller will be wearing orange and the hook up men will be in yellow vests. 

149)  (Ronald)

150)  (Bob)
Just to differentiate when we get on the ground...  They know we are going to be using standard hand signals... And they have been briefed on the emergency (procedures) too.

151)  (Ronald)
Ok... Check that...

152)  (Bob)

153) (Ronald)

155) For questions or information regarding safety issues and regulations in the workplace, please refer to the following sources…

155) Aviation Occupational Health and Safety Regulations

156) Canada Labour Code, Part ll

157) And the appropriate provincial government labour authorities


158) Produced by Navigator Communications

Written and Directed by Sandy Durocher

Transport Canada wishes to express their
thanks to the following organizations who
gave their help and support to this production...

Abitibi Helicopters Ltd.
B.C. Forest Service
Bertram Drilling Corp.
Cougar Helicopters Inc.
Canadian Coast Guard, Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Hayes Helicopter Services Limited
Helicopter Association of Canada (HAC)
Eurocopter Canada Ltd.
Department of Labour, Newfoundland and Labrador Region, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
Skyline Helicopters Ltd.
SunWest Helicopters Ltd.
Aircraft Services Directorate, Transport Canada
Transportation Safety Board of Canada (TSB)
Universal Helicopters Newfoundland Limited
Veritas DGC Land