Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating Flight Test Guide (Aeroplane) TP 14727
- Assessment of PPC Performance
- Admission To The PPC - Initial/Renewal
- Aircraft/Simulatorand Equipment Requirements
- Flight Crew Concept
- Pilot Not Flying Duties
- Single Pilot IFR Requirements
- The PPC
- Airborne PPC (Filght Check)
- Repeated PPC Item
- Flight Management
- Crew Resource Management (CRM)
- Automationand Technology
- Electronic Aircraft Checklistand Alerting System
- FMS/RNAV Programming
- Auto Flight Systems/Flight Mode Awareness
- Partialand Retest
- Failure Of A PPC
- Request For Review Of An ACP's Assessment Or Performance
- Instrument Rating Groups
- PPC Results
- 4-Point Marking Scale
This Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) and Type Rating Aeroplane Flight Test Guide is published by Transport Canada Certification and Operational Standards to establish the standards for PPC's and Aeroplane Type Ratings. Transport Canada Inspectors and Approved Check Pilots (ACPs) will conduct PPCs in compliance with these standards. Air Operators, Training Pilots and candidates should find these standards helpful in preparation for the PPC.
This Flight Test Guide is available from http://www.tc.gc.ca/
Send comments regarding this publication to:
- Transport Canada Building
Place de Ville Tower C
Certification and Operational Standards
330 Sparks Street
Telephone: 613 731-1824
Fax: 613 954-1602
Attention: Program Manager ACP/AQP
The ACP will conduct flight checks under normal conditions whenever possible and will take into consideration unavoidable deviations from the published criteria due to weather, traffic or other situations beyond the control of the candidate. The ACP will evaluate the candidate on the use of an appropriate checklist related to the specific exercise. Where the ACP deems the use of the checklist, while accomplishing an exercise is unsafe or impractical the candidate may review of the checklist after the elements are complete.
For a pilot proficiency check, the candidate will present;
a. photo identification,
b. a valid Pilot Licence and Medical Certificate,
c. if an initial type and/or initial instrument rating is involved, the application for endorsement forms with it's associated experience, written examination requirements (INRAT, IATRA, SARON/SAMRA) including a written recommendation from a qualified person,
d. training files as applicable,
e. a written recommendation in the training file for all PPCs dated within 30 days prior to the Flight Check. In the case of a re-check, the person who conducted the additional training will sign the letter of recommendation., and
f. aircraft documentation, where applicable (i.e. Certificate of Registration, Certificate of Airworthiness, Journey Log Book etc.).
Except where company procedures are established and accepted by Transport Canada, an ACP will not conduct a PPC if licensing and/or training documents are not available, are not valid, or if the company fails to provide all relevant training to the candidate as specified in the Operator's approved training program. Relevant training is initial or recurrent training required for the aircraft type and type of operation, including ground training, examinations, and flight training but excludes;
a. surface contamination (seasonal),
b. dangerous goods,
c. high altitude indoctrination (HAI),
e. aircraft servicing and handling, and
f. elementary work.
Training must be documented and certified and include a recommendation for the candidate to undergo the PPC. This procedure also applies to a re-ride following a failure. A sample "Letter of Recommendation" is at the back of this guide.
Except as otherwise noted, aircraft used for flight checks will have a valid and current Canadian or Foreign Flight Authority in accordance with CAR 507 and meet the requirements of CAR 605.06 - Aircraft Equipment Standards and Service ability. All required equipment must be serviceable and the maintenance requirements current.
A simulator must have approved seats for all observers. Observer seats will be secured to the floor of the flight simulator fitted with positive restraint devices and be of sufficient integrity to safely restrain the occupant during any known or predicted motion system excursion. If the simulator has unserviceabilities, the ACP will refer to the Simulator Component Inoperative Guide or the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual to ascertain if the flight check can proceed with the unserviceabilities. Where there is insufficient guidance, the ACP will inform the Issuing Authority of the nature of the unserviceable component and request assistance. If unable to contact the Issuing Authority the ACP should use their experience and judgment in making the determination to continue. The CARs, aircraft Minimum Equipment List (MEL) and AOM/AFM are useful tools to make the determination.
Where the flight crew has authority to conduct circling approaches in accordance with the company operations manual (COM), they must demonstrate one approach and manoeuvre to land using a scene approved for circling. Candidates will have a current Canada Flight Supplement and for the area where the flight check is to occur; current maps, enroute, terminal, and approach charts.
ACPs conducting PPC/IFR or PPC/VFR in a multi-crew aircraft will evaluate the flight crew under the crew concept and not on an individual basis. Under extenuating circumstances such as the conduct of a PPC at a contracted flight training organization and using a qualified person with a foreign license, ACPs may exercise discretion and conduct a PPC on an individual pilot versus the entire flight crew.
A PPC Flight Check is always a jeopardy ride for the individuals involved. Often, a pilot will participate in a PPC ride, acting as a co-pilot, when his PPC is not due. When a pilot that is filling in for a PPC ride commits an error that rates as a "1," he loses his PPC and perhaps his IFR. The ACP is to take action as appropriate including suspending the pilot's PPC and if required his IFR privileges.
A "1" assessed to the Pilot Flying (PF) due to inappropriate Pilot Not Flying (PNF) action may also result in a "1" for the PNF. In such a case, the PPCs of both candidates are failures. A candidate, who fails a PPC Fight Check under the crew concept will require retraining before attempting a re-check and may not act as a crewmember for another candidate until recommended for a re-check.
When attempting an "upgrade to Captain" PPC, candidates who fail for whatever reason demonstrate to the Minister that they do not meet a required standard. As such, they may not continue to fly the aircraft in question regardless of the position they are to occupy until they complete training and pass another PPC.
The standard for the operation of an aeroplane with passengers on board in IFR flight without a second-in-command is;
a. the pilot will have a minimum of 1000 hours of flight time, which will include, if the type to be flown is multi-engine, 100 hours on multi-engine aeroplanes,
b. the pilot will have 50 hours of simulated or actual flight in IMC, and a total of 50 hours flight time on the aeroplane type.
The PPC will be in the aeroplane type flown or if applicable in one of the types grouped for PPC renewals and will include the following;
a. knowledge of the auto-pilot operations and limitations,
b. performance of normal and emergency procedures without assistance,
c. passenger briefing with respect to emergency evacuation, and
d. demonstration of the use of the auto-pilot during appropriate phases of flight.
A strict adherence to procedures associated with each crew position is essential. To check the proper division of duties between the PF and the PNF requires observation during normal and abnormal procedures. ACPs must ensure satisfactory compliance with PNF duties as detailed in the AOM and company SOPs.
Normally an error in PNF duties will be observed during such things as FMS/RNAV programming, checklist procedures or general cockpit duties specified in company SOPs.
Each pilot will demonstrate PNF duties sufficient to determine compliance with and knowledge of aircraft procedures and company SOPs including normal and abnormal procedures. Flight crew may demonstrate PNF duties from a seat position that they do not normally occupy as in the case for PPCs with two Captains or two F/Os. In this situation, the pilots must receive PNF training before the PPC in the seat they are to occupy for the PPC.
A PPC enables the candidate to demonstrate the knowledge and the skill with respect to;
a. the aeroplane, its systems and components,
b. proper control of airspeed, direction, altitude, attitude and configuration of the aeroplane, in accordance with normal, abnormal and emergency procedures and limitations set out in the AOM (where applicable), the aeroplane flight manual, the air operator's COM, the air operator's SOPs, the check list, and any other information relating to the operation of the aeroplane type,
c. departure, enroute and arrival instrument procedures (if applicable), and
d. adherence to approved procedures.
A pilot will fly a captain PPC in the seat normally occupied by the pilot-in-command and a F/O PPC in the seat normally occupied by the second-in-command. The examiner will determine whether a person has demonstrated the knowledge and the skill in accordance with adherence to approved procedures, and qualities of airmanship in selecting a course of action.
A PPC must include a demonstration of instrument flight (IF) proficiency if the candidate possesses a valid Instrument Rating; and the candidate conducts commercial IFR operations on the PPC aeroplane. When a pilot successfully completes the PPC, the pilot successfully meets the requirements for the renewal of the applicable instrument rating. Where an Air Operator's Certificate authorizes single-engine operation in IFR flight, the pilot proficiency check must include all items of the appropriate schedule, which are relevant to single-engine aeroplanes. Whenever practicable, PPC's requiring an Instrument Rating should be conducted in accordance with a filed IFR flight plan. The direct interaction between the candidate and ATS in an IFR controlled environment is preferred.
ACPs may only conduct PPC's when the weather condition is appropriate to the operation of the aircraft, the aircraft is airworthy and the candidate and aircraft's documents, as required by the CARs, are valid. It is the sole responsibility of the ACP to make the final decision as to whether or not to conduct all or any portion of the PPC. The ACP will assess the candidate's airmanship along with other factors in determining the mark awarded for each item. This will include items such as looking out for other aircraft, the use of checklists, consideration for other aircraft on the ground and in the air, choice of run-up areas and choice of runways. The candidate must demonstrate good airmanship and complete accurate checks.
Some operators need to operate the same aeroplane in both single crew and multi-crew operation. In the case where a pilot must demonstrate single pilot proficiency in addition to multi crew proficiency, the candidate will complete a multi crew PPC in accordance with PPC schedule 1 and as a minimum will demonstrate proficiency in completing the following sequences without assistance from the co-pilot;
a. a normal take off in accordance with the AFM establishing simulated IFR at or before reaching 200 feet above airport elevation,
b. a simulated engine failure after take-off, as per the PPC schedule 1,
c. one instrument approach performed in accordance with procedures and limits published in the CAP or in the equivalent foreign publication, and
d. one landing and manoeuvring to that landing with a simulated failure of 50 percent of available engines.
Where a 704 PPC is conducted following initial training in a level A or B training program, the following flight checking is required within 30 days after the PPC in a synthetic flight training device, and may be performed concurrently with the flight training requirements on the aeroplane type in the applicable training program:
The following will be demonstrated:
a. interior and exterior aeroplane pre-flight checks;
b. ground handling for pilots-in-command;
c. normal take-off, visual circuit where possible, and landing;
d. a simulated engine inoperative approach and landing;
e. simulated engine failure procedures during take-off and missed approach to be conducted at a safe altitude and at no less than V2 + 10 airspeed'
f. no electronic glide slope approach and landing; and
g. a circling approach, if a circling approach could not be simulated in the synthetic training device.
Except for the following, do not repeat a PPC item or manoeuvre:
1.Discontinuance: Discontinuance of a manoeuvre for valid safety reasons; i.e., a go-around or other procedure necessary to modify the originally planned manoeuvre.
2.Collision Avoidance: ACP intervention on the flight controls to avoid another aircraft, which the candidate could not have seen due to position or other factors.
3.Misunderstood Requests: Legitimate instances when candidates did not understand an ACP's request to perform a specific manoeuvre. A candidate's failure to understand the nature of a specified manoeuvre does not justify repeating an item or manoeuvre.
4.Other Factors: Any condition under which the ACP was distracted to the point that he or she could not adequately observe the candidate's performance of the manoeuvre (radio calls, traffic, etc.).
Note:These provisions are in the interest of fairness and do not mean that instruction, practice, is permitted during the PPC evaluation process. The repeating of an item or manoeuvre that was unacceptably demonstrated is discussed later in this chapter.
Flight management refers to the effective use of all available resources, including working with such groups as dispatchers, other crewmembers, maintenance personnel, and air traffic controllers. Poor performance of an exercise or task is often a result of weaknesses in flight management competencies.
Problem Solving and Decision Making
a. anticipates problems far enough in advance to avoid crisis reaction
b. uses effective decision-making process
c. makes appropriate inquiries
d. prioritizes tasks to gain maximum information input for decisions
e. makes effective use of all available resources to make decisions
f. considers "downstream" consequences of the decision being considered
a. actively monitors weather, aircraft systems, instruments, ATC communications
b. avoids "tunnel vision"-awareness that factors such as stress can reduce vigilance
c. stays "ahead of the aircraft" in preparing for expected or contingency situations
d. remains alert to detect subtle changes in the environment
a. provides thorough briefings
b. asks for information and advice
c. communicates decisions clearly
d. asserts one's position appropriately (Multi-crew)
a. organizes cockpit resources well
b. recognizes overload in self
c. eliminates distractions during high workload situations
d. maintains ability to adapt during high workload situations
CRM "refers to the effective use of all available resources; human resources, hardware, and information." Human resources "include all other groups routinely working with the cockpit crew (or pilot) who are involved in decisions that are required to operate a flight safely. These groups include, but are not limited to: dispatchers, cabin crewmembers, maintenance personnel, and air traffic controllers." CRM is not a single task. CRM is a set of competencies, which must be evident in all exercises in this flight test guide as applied to the single pilot or the multi-crew operation. CRM competencies, grouped into three clusters of observable behaviour, are:
1. Communications Processes and Decisions
d. Communication with available personnel resources
e. Decision making
2. Building and Maintenance of a Flight Team
b. Interpersonal Relationships
3. Workload Management and Situational Awareness
c. Workload Distribution
d. Distraction Avoidance
e. Wake Turbulence Avoidance
CRM deficiencies usually contribute to a "below standard" performance of an exercise. Therefore, the competencies provide an extremely valuable vocabulary for debriefing. CRM evaluations are still largely subjective. Certain CRM competencies are well suited to objective evaluation. These are the CRM-related practices set forth in the aircraft manufacturer's or the operator's approved operating or training manuals as explicit, required procedures. Those procedures may be associated with one or more exercise in this flight test guide. Examples include required briefings, radio calls, and instrument approach callouts. The examiner simply observes that the individual complies (or fails to comply) with requirements.
How the Examiner Applies CRM
Examiners are required to exercise proper CRM competencies in conducting tests, as well as expecting the same from candidates. A fail judgment cannot be based solely on CRM issues since CRM may be entirely subjective. Those Pass/Fail judgments that are not subjective and apply to CRM-related procedures in Transport Canada approved operations manuals that must be accomplished, such as briefings to other crewmembers. In such cases, the operator (or the aircraft manufacturer) specifies what should be briefed and when the briefings should occur. The examiner may judge objectively whether the briefing requirement was or was not met. In those cases where the operator (or aircraft manufacturer) has not specified a briefing, the examiner will require the applicant to brief the appropriate items from the following note. The examiner may then judge objectively whether the briefing requirement was or was not met.
Note: The majority of aviation accidents and incidents are due to resource management failures by the pilot/crew; fewer are due to technical failures. Each candidate will give a crew briefing before each takeoff/departure and approach/landing. If the operator or aircraft manufacturer has not specified a briefing, the briefing will cover the appropriate items, such as runway, SID/DP/STAR/FMSP/IAP, power settings, speeds, abnormals or emergency prior to or after reaching decision speed (i.e., V1 or VMC), emergency return intentions, missed approach procedures, FAF, altitude at FAF, initial rate of descent, DA/DH/MDA, time to missed approach, and what is expected of the other crewmembers during the takeoff/DP and approach/landing. If the first takeoff/departure and approach/landing briefings are satisfactory, the examiner may allow the applicant to brief only the changes, during the remainder of the flight.
Electronic flight instruments, navigation instruments, automated flight management and guidance systems and electronic aircraft monitoring systems represent a significant level of automation in cockpit design. Because of these features, training and checking programs must address each element of automation represented in the applicable aircraft. The ACP must also address the complete integration and relationship of these systems to aircraft operation.
We define situational awareness for the purpose of flight check assessment as "the crew's knowledge and understanding of the present and future status of the aircraft and its systems with regard to its horizontal and vertical position relative to the required position for each phase of flight." The ACP must observe the crew's management of automation and its effect on horizontal and vertical situational awareness during flight checks. Flight path, terrain, system status, aircraft configuration and energy awareness are all important aspects of situation awareness required for the operation of modern aircraft.
All modern passenger aircraft have different levels of automation. The ACP will assess each pilot on their knowledge and ability to effectively use and interpret the aircraft checklist and alerting equipment, flight management and navigation equipment, auto flight system and the flight mode annunciation.
Aircraft manufacturers have developed different levels of automation for crew alerting devices. Candidates must demonstrate a satisfactory knowledge of aircraft checklist and alerting systems appropriate to the aircraft type. Adherence to company SOPs and demonstration of knowledge, ability and discipline during normal and abnormal procedures will confirm the crew's effective use of the electronic checklist and alerting system.
Each crewmember must demonstrate satisfactory knowledge of FMS/RNAV procedures. ACPs must ensure the crew is competent to operate these systems in all phases of flight as appropriate to the aircraft type. On initial proficiency checks each pilot will demonstrate FMS/RNAV programming for departure, enroute, arrival, approach, alternate, change of destination and holding procedures. In addition, each crew will demonstrate programming for lateral offset and altitude crossing restriction manoeuvres. During recurrent proficiency checks, crews must demonstrate satisfactory knowledge of sufficient FMS/RNAV procedures to complete the flight check scenario.
Crew co-ordination associated with flight mode indications is essential to safe operations for all highly automated aircraft. Reference to the flight mode annunciation as well as a thorough understanding of all status, armed and engagement indications is essential to the successful operation of the auto-flight system. The ACP needs to monitor the sometimes-subtle mode changes that can occur with regard to flight path management and the auto-throttle system.
ACPs must ensure flight crews have a sound knowledge of mode awareness and mode transitions as they occur, whether initiated by the flight crew or by a system response to design logic. Crews must satisfactorily demonstrate an understanding of the means to transition to and from the various levels of automation and the conditions or situations in which it is appropriate to do so.
Except for a situation that results in a simulator crash or as in the case of an airborne PPC, a situation that if allowed to continue could result in loss of control of the aircraft, the ACP may allow a candidate to repeat a failed item if no other sequence in the PPC is rated a "(2)" or "(1)." The ACP will apply the following;
1.without commenting on the error committed, allow the candidate to complete the PPC to ascertain that there are no other weaknesses in piloting skills. If another sequence is rated "(2)" or "(1)" the ACP will stop the check ride, the original mark of "(1)" will apply and necessary administrative action will be required. If no other weakness is noted then at the end of the flight test;
2.without specifying what the error was, advise the candidate that a partial retest is required;
3.immediately repeat the sequence in question;
4.where the pilot achieves "(3)" or better on the repeated sequence, assign a mark of "(2)" for the sequence. The flight will be deemed a "partial and retest" which will not be recorded as a failure against the candidate's record. Annotate the flight test report and debrief accordingly; and
5.where the pilot does not achieve "(3)" or better the original mark of "(1)" will apply and require administrative action.
6.Annotate the flight test report and de-bridge accordingly.
If it is not possible to repeat the sequence due to time constraints or other reasons, the ACP will apply the original mark of "(1)" and assess the PPC as a "fail."
When an ACP assesses at least one sequence or item as "(1)", the flight check will receive a General Assessment of "Failed". A PPC that has five or more sequences or items assessed as "(2)" will also receive a General Assessment of "Failed" A PPC that has less than 5 sequences or items assessed as "(2)" and the remainder of sequences rated as "(3)" or "(4)" will receive a General Assessment of "Pass."
During a PPC, an assessment of "(1)" for an Instrument Rating related sequence constitutes a failure of the PPC and the Instrument Rating. The ACP will;
1.assess the PPC and IFR as "failed" at the bottom of the Flight Test Report Pilot Proficiency Check (form 26-0249),
2.initiate the suspension process by drawing a line through the rating privileges on the holder's licence (both English and French),
3.write "Instrument Rating Suspended" followed by his signature and the date, and
4.contact the Regional Office no later than the next working day to report the failure.
Following notification of a failure, the issuing authority will send to the candidates a formal notice of suspension.
During a PPC, an assessment of"(1)" for a PPC related flight sequence that is not related what so ever to an instrument flight sequence constitutes a failure of the PPC only. In this case, administrative action is limited to the suspension of the existing PPC and the Instrument Rating remains valid. In order to return to any flight duties on the line in the subject aircraft, the pilot must successfully complete another PPC.
Once an ACP decides that a pilot has failed during the course of a PPC, he will terminate the flight check. This need not be immediately upon witnessing a "(1)" as in the case of a partial and retest.
For the admission to a re-test following the failure of a PPC, the candidate will be receive additional training as required and meet the requirements set out in "Admission to a PPC - Initial/Renewal".
When a candidate is not satisfied with an ACP's assessment, he may request a re-test. After due consideration of the individual case, the Transport Canada Regional Office responsible for that ACP may authorize a CASI or alternate ACP to conduct a re-test without prejudice to the individual's record. When TC authorises a re-test, the candidate will; complete a new application (where applicable), TC will compile a flight check file and the candidate will undergo a full PPC. The new Flight Check report will determine the candidate's qualification. When TC maintains the ACP's assessment after review, the document holder has the right to request a review of the Minister's decisions, to suspend, cancel, or refuse to issue or renew a CAD, by the Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada (TATC). The TATC is at:
Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada
333 Laurier Avenue West
12th Floor, Room 1201
Tel.: (613) 990-6906
Fax: (613) 990-9153
When a candidate is not satisfied with the ACP's performance, he may forward a complaint to the Transport Canada Regional Office responsible for the ACP. The regional office will review the nature of the complaint and determine if remedial action is required to address any reported deficiency. Should the candidate not be satisfied with the results of the procedure, he or she may choose to follow the procedure outlined in Civil Aviation Issues Reporting System (CAIRS). The document is available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/civilaviation/opssvs/secretariat-cairs-menu-209.htm
The group of instrument rating issued must correspond to the aircraft or simulator type used for the instrument rating flight test. Subject to the privileges of the candidate's licence, an instrument rating is valid for:
|Group1:||all aeroplanes; when the aircraft used for the flight test is in a multi-engine aeroplane other than a center-thrust multi-engine aeroplane;|
|Group2:||all center-thrust multi-engine and single engine aeroplanes; when the aircraft used for the flight test is a center-thrust multi-engine aeroplane;|
|Group3:||all single engine aeroplanes when the aircraft used for the flight test is a single engine aeroplane; or|
|Group4:||all helicopters when the aircraft used for the flight test is a helicopter.|
The Privacy Act protects the privacy of individuals with respect to personal information about themselves held by a government institution. A PPC measures the performance of the candidate for the flight test, the examiner conducting the flight test, the training pilot who recommended the candidate and, through identification of the Air Operator responsible for the training, the performance of the Chief Pilot of that operator. The PPC flight test report identifies all of these individuals.
Section 8(2)(a) of the Act, allows personal information disclosure."for the purpose for which the information was obtained or compiled by the institution or for a use consistent with that purpose". TC gathers flight test information to maintain the safety of aviation in Canada. The specific purposes are to measure whether the candidate meets the minimum skill standard for the PPC or rating, whether the recommending training pilot is performing competently as an instructor, whether the examiner is conducting the PPC in accordance with the standards, and whether the Air Operator is performing in accordance with the general conditions of the operator certificate.
In accordance with 8(2)(a) of the Privacy Act, the candidate for the PPC may receive a copy of the flight test report and the examiner who conducted the check may retain a copy. The training pilot who recommended the candidate for the flight test and the chief pilot responsible for the quality of training for the Air Operator may also receive a copy. Except as provided by the Privacy Act, Transport Canada will not disclose specific information about the results of a flight test to anyone but the individuals named on the flight test report.
When applying the 4-point scale, award the mark that best describes the weakest element(s) applicable to the candidate's performance. Remarks to support mark awards of 1 or 2 must link to a safety issue, a qualification standard (performance criteria), or an approved technique or procedure.
|4||Above Standard||Performance remains well within the qualification standards and flight management skills are excellent.||
|3||Standard||Minor deviations occur from the qualification standards and performance remains within prescribed limits.||
|2||Basic Standard||Major deviations from the qualification standards occur, which may include momentary excursions beyond prescribed limits but these are recognized and corrected in a timely manner.||
|1||Below Standard||Unacceptable deviations from the qualification standards occur, which may include excursions beyond prescribed limits that are not recognized or corrected in a timely manner.||
The following six elements are evaluated with the 4-point scale:
Overall error assessment
a. no errors, or
b. magnitude, significance, or consequence of errors
c. risk of such errors during critical phases of flight
Recognition of errors
a. promptness or delay correcting errors
b. not corrected
Quality of handling
a. smoothness and coordination of controls
b. control input appropriate to the flight situation
a. use of approved technique or procedure
b. performance relative to specified tolerances
c. action taken when deviations occur
d. magnitude of deviations
a. practical use and understanding of aircraft systems and automation, data, charts, weather and physiological factors
b. knowing what to do, how to do it and understanding why
Expected level of competency
a. appropriate to the requirements of the qualification sought
b. competency that would get the job done safely and efficiently
c. above average, average, or below average
a. resides in the candidate's mind and can only be assessed by monitoring behaviour
a. actively monitors weather, aircraft systems, instruments, ATC communications
b. avoids tunnel vision and fixation
c. stays "ahead of the aircraft", stays "with the aircraft", gets "behind the aircraft"
Identification and correction of errors
a. Oops!, Slips and Lapses
b. are some errors going undetected or uncorrected?
Degree of effectiveness
a. makes effective use of available resources
b. anticipates problems far enough in advance
c. uses effective decision-making processes
d. maintains the ability to adapt during high workload situations
e. avoids distractions during high workload situations
To what degree was safety maintained or jeopardized?
a. respect for published procedures and limits
b. effectiveness of lookout during visual manoeuvres
c. errors that are serious or have potentially grave consequences
d. breach of regulations (intervention required)
e. any situation where the examiner had to intervene to ensure the safety of the flight
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