Note: All reported aviation occurrences are assessed by the Transportation Safety Board of Canada(TSB). Each occurrence is assigned a class, from 1 to5, which indicates the depth of investigation. A Class 5consists of data collection pertaining to occurrences that do not meet the criteria of classes 1 through4, and will be recorded for possible safety analysis, statistical reporting, or archival purposes. The narratives below, which occurred between February1,2008, and April 30,2008, are all "Class 5," and are unlikely to be followed by a TSB Final Report.

- On February2,2008, a Beech 100 was on approach to Runway31 at Regina, Sask. The nose gear did not reach full travel when the gear was selected down. After discussion with company maintenance, the crew landed with the nose gear partially extended. The aircraft sustained substantial damage. There were no injuries, and no fire was reported. The company reported that the actuator failed internally. A Service Difficulty Report(SDR) has been submitted. TSB File A08C0033.

- On February8,2008, a Schweitzer 269C helicopter experienced a gradual loss of engine power while en route. The engine did not stop, but rotor RPM could not be maintained, and an autorotation landing was made into deep snow. The pilot-the sole occupant-was able to make a Mayday transmission during the descent. The helicopter yawed and rolled upon touchdown and was substantially damaged. There was no fire, and there were no injuries. The emergency locator transmitter(ELT) activated and was subsequently turned off when another helicopter pilot, who was in the area and had heard the Mayday call, arrived shortly after. TSB File A08P0036.

- On February14,2008, a Cessna 182N with one person aboard was conducting a local VFR flight from the Mascouche, Que., airport. When the pilot returned to land, several aircraft were conducting circuits on Runway11, despite a strong tail wind. The pilot had to pull up because the approach brought the aircraft too far from the runway threshold. The pilot attempted a second approach, but the landing was long. The pilot pulled up, but the main wheels hit a snowbank, and the aircraft nosed over. No one was injured; however, the aircraft sustained major damage. TSB File A08Q0034.

- On February15,2008, a Cessna 150M was on a training flight in Stratford, Ont., with one instructor and student on board. The student was flying the aircraft for the landing. On touchdown, the aircraft wheels contacted an icy area of the runway surface and began to veer to the left. The instructor took control and attempted to go around, but was unsuccessful. The aircraft went off the right side of the runway, tilted to the right, and the right wing struck the ground. The aircraft bounced back and came to a stop on its landing gear. The right wing and propeller were substantially damaged, but neither of the occupants was injured. TSB File A08O0038.

- On February22,2008, a Cessna 172M was conducting a VFR flight in the Val d’Or, Que., area. The pilot attempted a landing on a snowmobile trail next to the Thompson River. On landing, the nose wheel sank into the ground and the propeller hit the snow-covered surface. The nose wheel broke off, and the propeller was damaged enough to cause the engine to shut down. Trying to regain control of the aircraft, the pilot pulled hard on the stick, and the main landing gear hit the ground with force and also broke off. The pilot crash-landed the aircraft a few feet further on its belly. The pilot was uninjured; the aircraft sustained substantial damage. TSB File 08Q0030.

- On February22,2008, an R44 helicopter landed at Jean-Lesage International Airport in Québec City, Que., on the icy surface of a helipad. After the pilot throttled down, the helicopter began to spin to the left. The student-pilot-the sole occupant-released the throttle and pressed the right anti-torque pedal. The governor control increased rotor RPM to 100percent and the helicopter began spinning to the left on its skids several times. The helicopter finally came to a stop when the tail hit a snowbank. A tail rotor blade, the tail rotor driveshaft, and the vertical stabilizer sustained major damage. The student-pilot was uninjured. TSB File A08Q0040.

- On February23,2008, the pilot of a Piper PA-32-300 aircraft was practicing a short field landing at Barrie-Orillia(Lake Simcoe Regional) Airport in Ontario when the aircraft’s main wheels contacted a snowbank at the threshold of Runway28. There was substantial damage to the landing gear and propeller. There were no injuries. TSB File A08O0046.

- On February24,2008, the pilot of a Diamond DV 20-A1 aircraft was building hours toward a night rating and had completed about one hour of night circuits at Fredericton, N.B. On the last approach, the pilot was cleared as number three for a full-stop landing on Runway27. The first aircraft carried out a touch-and-go, but the second aircraft executed a stop-and-go. In an attempt to slow the aircraft down and allow time for the second aircraft to take off, the occurrence pilot reduced power, and the aircraft descent rate increased. Realizing the aircraft was low, the pilot initiated a missed approach and then heard a bang. The pilot thought the gear had hit something, so an immediate landing was requested and granted. The aircraft landed without further incident. It was only afterward that the pilot-in-command(PIC) realized the right wing was damaged. The aircraft struck some approach lights as it transitioned to the climb, and part of the approach-light system was found embedded in the right wing of the aircraft, approximately halfway along the leading edge. The operator has since amended its night-flying training program to include more information and place more emphasis on the use of precision approach path indicators(PAPI). Also, although not mandated by regulation, the operator now requires every instructor to receive a night-training supervision flight. TSB File A08A0033.

- On February24,2008, a student pilot on a Robinson R22 helicopter departed Bolton Heliport for a solo flight to Volk, Ont. After 1.6 hr of flight, the student returned to Bolton Heliport and parked the aircraft on the company helipad. A flight instructor was performing a daily inspection prior to the next instructional flight and noticed buckling of the aircraft skin under the left door. Upon further inspection, other blemishing and bowing in the aircraft skin were noticed. The student was contacted and asked if there had been anything unusual about his flight to Volk. He reported that an uneven hard landing from the right skid and then onto the left skid occurred when the helicopter landed at Volk. Company maintenance staff have inspected the airframe further and determined that the hard landing caused flexing of the airframe, fuel tank and engine mounts. The aircraft has been removed from service for skin repairs and non-destructive testing(NDT) of the mainframe. There is no damage to the rotor system, tail rotor system, engine or drive train. A hard landing inspection will also be performed. Since the aircraft is due for overhaul, all the required hard landing inspections will be conducted at the same time as the complete overhaul. TSB File A08O0050.

- On February26,2008, the pilot of a Robinson R44 helicopter was landing on the snow-covered surface of Thurston Lake, Alta. Visual reference was lost in blowing snow, and as the pilot was slowly descending the last few feet to touchdown, he didn’t notice that the helicopter had started to drift towards the right. The right-hand skid contacted a snowdrift, and the helicopter experienced a dynamic rollover. There were no injuries to the three occupants, but the helicopter was substantially damaged. TSBFileA08W0049.

- On March13,2008, a Bell 206L helicopter departed Montréal/Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport(CYUL) for a 20-min flight to Montréal/Les Cèdres Airport. A few minutes after takeoff from CYUL, the helicopter was lost on radar. The helicopter collided with the ice surface of Lake St-Louis, approximately 5 NM southwest of CYUL. Whiteout conditions existed at the time of the occurrence. Weather at CYUL was 8 NM in snow, ceiling 2 500 ft, winds 030° at 10 kt. The pilot sustained minor injuries and was able to call for assistance via a cell phone. The pilot was rescued 2.5 hr after the occurrence. The aircraft was destroyed. TSB File A08Q0053.

- On March22,2008, the pilot of a Cessna 172 aircraft with one passenger on board was landing on Watch Lake, B.C., when the aircraft wheels broke through the crusted snow surface covering the frozen lake. The aircraft nosed over and overturned. The Cessna was not equipped with skis, but the pilot had previously landed on another lake nearby without incident and expected the same result at Watch Lake. Royal Canadian Mounted Police(RCMP) were dispatched to the site to assess environmental concerns. They contacted Prince George Fire/Rescue and Ambulance Services. The aircraft was substantially damaged; however, both occupants were not injured. There was no apparent fuel leakage. The aircraft was recovered and moved to the owner’s property along the lakeshore. TSB File A08P0064.

- On March23,2008, a Stinson S108 with three people aboard was conducting a recreational flight from Gatineau, Que.,(CYND). Over the Montebello, Que., area, the aircraft descended to 1 500 ft. As the aircraft tried to level off from the descent, the power of the engine(Lycoming O-435-A) could not be increased above 1 500 RPM. A forced landing was executed on the Ottawa River and the aircraft nosed over as the wheels went through the layer of snow covering the ice. No one was injured; however, the aircraft sustained significant damage. TSB File A08Q0056.

- On March24,2008, a Cessna 152 with a student-pilot on board was on a training flight from St-Hubert, Que.,(CYHU). When the pilot returned to land, he was instructed to exit the runway via a taxiway located 6 100 ft from the runway threshold. After landing, the pilot maintained an accelerated speed to minimize the amount of time on the runway. As he exited the runway, the pilot missed the turnoff and hit a snowbank, causing significant damage. No one was injured. TSB File A08Q0057.

- On March29,2008, a wheel-/ski-equipped Cessna 206U aircraft had landed on Runway02 at MacMillan Pass(CFC4) following a flight from Faro, Y.T. The runway was not subject to winter maintenance and was snow-covered, with the first 1 000 ft smooth, followed by a rough surface of hard snow beyond that point. After dropping off cargo, the crew took off on Runway20 with 1 600 ft of available runway. During the take-off run, the aircraft bounced into the air on a snowbank and settled back onto the runway. After two more bounces, the aircraft settled into brush off the end of the strip. The aircraft came to rest in a nose-down position, and the occupants exited with no injuries. Fuel leaking from the right-wing tank fed a post-impact fire, which eventually consumed most of the aircraft. No emergency locator transmitter(ELT) signal was received by the Search and Rescue Satellite Aided Tracking(SARSAT) system. The crew used a satellite telephone to inform the Whitehorse flight service station(FSS) of the accident. Rescue coordination centre(RCC) service was declined, and an aircraft from another company dropped supplemental survival equipment. The occupants spent the night in an unheated shelter at the strip and were picked up by a helicopter the next morning. TSB File A08W0070.

- On April 2,2008, the pilot of a Cessna 180 floatplane was conducting one hour of solo flying toward her floatplane endorsement. While landing on glassy water on the Fraser River, just east of Fort Langley, B.C., the aircraft struck the water in a nose-low attitude. The left float dug in, and the right wing struck the water and was torn off outboard of the lift strut. The engine cowls, floats and propeller were also damaged; the engine stopped, but the aircraft remained upright and drifted west of Fort Langley. The pilot, who was not injured, radioed for assistance and was picked up by a local boat. The aircraft was towed to its base at Fort Langley. TSB File A08P0079.

- On April 5,2008, a ski-equipped de Havilland Twin Otter DHC-6-300 aircraft was on a flight from Nain, N.L., to deposit a cache of seven fuel drums on a frozen lake located 86 mi. to the north. After arriving at the co-ordinates given for the fuel cache, the crew considered a few lakes for the landing. On the first lake, the crew conducted a touch-and-go to test the conditions and found them unacceptable. On the second lake, as the crew conducted a touch-and-go, the nose gear struck a snowbank and broke off. The aircraft came to a stop approximately 100 ft further on. The tie-down ring securing the fuel drum broke, and the fuel drums moved forward up against the cockpit bulkhead. There were no injuries to the two crew members or to the one passenger who was seated behind the fuel drums in the rear of the aircraft. The area was described as treeless and featureless. TSB File A08A0047.

Answers to the 2008 Self-Paced Study Program

1. Yes.
2. flight information service en route (FISE); remote aerodrome advisory service (RAAS)
3. 24; 1-866-WXBRIEF
4. 7–10 kt
5. hatched areas enclosed by a dashed green line
6. 25–50
7. 30
8. plus 6 SM with a 40 percent probability of 2 SM in mist
9. 1000; 9
10. power-driven, heavier-than-air aircraft
11. Clear of cloud and 1 mi. visibility for aircraft other than helicopters; and 1/2 mi. visibility for helicopters
12. Class F advisory
13. 123.2
15. 5; 2; 6
16. 0300; December 23
18. the manufacturer’s recommended
19. high
20. When the ICAO Standard Atmosphere conditions exist.
21. contrast
22. reaction time; decision-making ability
23 Slight dizziness; a feeling of coldness; a sensation like a tight band around the head; pins and needles in the hands and feet
24. 0.05
25. judgement; co-ordination
26. Tent, tarpaulin, mosquito head nets, etc. as per AIR Annex 1.0
27. 200
28. Weight, location of the centre of gravity, power, turbulence, load factor, use of flaps, surface contamination/aircraft condition
29. descending; visual clues
30. Always cross at the tower.
31. forward
32. 30
33. Straight ahead.
34. release the tow rope immediately
35. Cleaning of burner nozzles; removal and replacement of baskets, burners and gas tanks that are designed for rapid change in service.
36. Fly the aircraft first. Light the burner, rather than the pilot light, and make the burn.

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