Exercise 9 - Take-Off and Landing

GROUND SCHOOL POINTS

Dynamic Roll over

Ground Resonance

Flight Manual - checks

PREPARATORY INSTRUCTION

Aim

For the student to learn how to take-off to and land from the hover.

Review

Hovering exercises

Motivation

Full and accurate control of the helicopter in the take-off and landing phase is vital to flight safety.

Airmanship

Pre take-off and hover checks.

Teaching Points

Take-off

    1. Describe the procedures for take-off to the hover into wind as appropriate to type and including:
      1. Pre take-off checks.
      2. Effects of controls during take-off:
        1. cyclic to maintain position over the ground;
        2. collective to gain height; and
        3. pedals to prevent yaw.
      3. Hover check as appropriate to type but including:
        1. centre of gravity check;
        2. power required to hover; and
        3. control response normal.
    2. Point out the dangers of overpitching if appropriate to type, and describe avoidance and recovery action.
    3. Describe the symptoms of incipient dynamic rollover, avoidance and recovery action.

Landing

  1. 4. Describe the procedure for landing from the hover into wind as appropriate to type, and including:

    1. The need to start the manoeuvre from a stable and accurate hover.
    2. The effects of controls during landing from the hover:
      1. cyclic to maintain position. Stress the need to avoid sideways or rearwards drift;
      2. collective to control rate of descent; and
      3. pedals to prevent yaw.
  2. Point out the need to anticipate the increase in ground effect during a landing in light or nil wind conditions.
  3. Point out the need to anticipate ground resonance if applicable to type.

Confirmation

PRE-FLIGHT BRIEFING

AIR LESSON
    1. Demonstrate the take-off to the hover
    2. Demonstrate hover check
    3. Student practice
    4. Demonstrate landing from the hover
    5. Student practice
TIPS FOR INSTRUCTORS
    1. Do not teach this exercise unless the student can consistently maintain a steady hover.
    2. Ensure students keep looking at their reference points in front of the helicopter and not down at the skids.
    3. Monitor the collective closely on the initial attempts to land so as to guard against sudden and excessive movements.
    4. It is generally an advantage to strive for smoothness and accuracy before speed during these manoeuvres. Student technique should nonetheless be developed to the point where contact with the ground is made and broken cleanly, particularly in helicopters prone to ground resonance.
    5. When the student is smooth and accurate, introduce lifting from `skids light' condition to a low hover before going to normal hover height to preclude dynamic rollover.
    6. Be aware that, when getting close to the surface, some students try to `feel' the ground by rocking the cyclic laterally.
    7. As with hovering this exercise is very tiring, break it up by practising other exercises when necessary.
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