3.4Flight Preparation and In-Flight Considerations
The flight dispatch criteria specified herein are in addition to, or to amplify, the requirements contained in applicable operational rules and specifically apply to extended range operations. Although many of the criteria in this document are currently incorporated into approved programs for other aeroplanes or route structures, the nature of ETOPS necessitates that compliance with these criteria be re-examined in view of the operations to ensure that the approved programs are adequate for this purpose.
3.4.2Minimum equipment list (MEL)
System redundancy levels appropriate to the intended Extended Range Operations are to be reflected in the Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) and/or TC Supplement. An air operator's MEL may be more restrictive than the MMEL considering the kind of Extended Range Operation being considered, and equipment and service problems unique to the air operator. For aeroplanes already in operational service, the existing MEL shall be re-evaluated and adjusted to reflect system redundancy level requirements for ETOPS.
The ETOPS MEL criteria need not be applied for ETOPS operational approval in Benign Area of Operation (75min.).
- For other ETOPS operations, the air operator's MEL shall be based on the information contained within the aircraft MMEL, the CMP document, and/or the TC Supplement as applicable.
3.4.3System failure action during flight
The air operator shall develop a list of items that are considered ETOPS sensitive. This list shall be published in an appropriate document (e.g. Quick Reference Handbook QRH) readily accessible to the flight crew. This list shall contain applicable CMP standards, limitations and procedures in addition to information stating requirements prior to entering the ETOPS segment of the flight. Furthermore, this list should contain direction to the flight crew for their action if any of the specified items fail during any phase of flight.
This document shall give specific direction for action required for both ETOPS and non-ETOPS phases of flight, and shall include, but not limited to:
- auto pilot;
- ice protection;
- navigation and communications;
- auxiliary power unit;
- air conditioning and pressurization;
- fire protection; and
enroute alternate weather limits.
- The identified items and relevant procedures shall be acceptable to Transport Canada. A statement will be included to ensure that the Pilot in Command has the final authority in all phases of flight.
3.4.4Communication and navigation facilities
An aeroplane shall not be dispatched on an ETOPS unless:
Communication facilities are available to provide, under normal conditions of propagation at the normal one-engine inoperative cruise altitudes, reliable two-way communications between the aeroplane and the appropriate ground communication facility over the planned route of flight and the routes to any suitable alternate to be used in the event of diversion. It shall be shown that current weather information, adequate status monitoring information and crew procedures for all aircraft and ground facilities' critical systems are available to enable the flight crew to make go/no go and diversion decisions;
non-visual ground aids are available and located so as to provide, taking account of the navigation equipment installed in the aeroplane, the navigation accuracy required over the planned route and altitude of flight, and the routes to any alternate and altitudes to be used in the event of an engine shutdown; and
- visual and non-visual aids are available at the specified alternates as required for the authorized types of approaches and operating minima.
Unlike the area of operation which is determined under standard conditions in still air, the fuel planning must consider the expected meteorological conditions along the planned route. Prior to dispatching an aircraft on an ETOPS flight, the air operator shall determine, for the planned route, both a standard and ETOPS fuel requirement. The fuel quantity required for dispatch is the greater of the two resulting fuel requirements.
An aeroplane shall not be dispatched on an ETOPS flight unless it carries sufficient fuel and oil to meet regulatory requirements of section602.88 and 705.25 of the CARs, including additional contingency fuel reserves that may be determined in accordance with 3.4.5b) (Critical fuel reserves). In computing fuel and oil requirements, at least the following shall be considered:
- Current forecast winds and meteorological conditions along the expected flight path at one engine inoperative cruising altitude and throughout the approach and landing;
any requirement for operation of ice protection systems and performance loss due to ice accretion on the unprotected surfaces of the aeroplane;
Note: Icing encounters shall be conservatively factored to account for the likelihood of an encounter, threat severity, encounter duration and anticipated flight crew action.
- any required operation of auxiliary power unit (APU);
- loss of aeroplane pressurization and air conditioning; consideration shall be given to flying at an altitude meeting oxygen requirements in the event of loss of pressurization;
- an approach followed by a missed approach and a subsequent approach and landing;
- navigational accuracy required; and
any known Air Traffic Control (ATC) constraints.
Note: APU oil consumption and servicing shall be considered in accordance with CMP document requirements.
- Unlike the area of operation which is determined under standard conditions in still air, the fuel planning must consider the expected meteorological conditions along the planned route. Prior to dispatching an aircraft on an ETOPS flight, the air operator shall determine, for the planned route, both a standard and ETOPS fuel requirement. The fuel quantity required for dispatch is the greater of the two resulting fuel requirements.
Critical fuel reserves
In establishing the critical fuel reserves, the operator is to determine the fuel necessary to fly from the most critical point to a suitable alternate under the conditions outlined in 3.4.5c), (Critical fuel scenario). These critical fuel reserves should be compared to the fuel that will be on board at the most critical point based on a departure with the normal fuel required by regulations for the proposed trip. If it is determined by this comparison that the fuel that would be on board at the most critical point is less that the critical fuel reserves, then additional fuel shall be loaded to ensure that the fuel on board at the most critical point is equal to or greater than the critical fuel reserves.
In consideration of the items listed in 3.4.5a), the critical fuel scenario shall allow for:
- a contingency figure of 5percent added to the calculated fuel burn from the critical point to a suitable alternate, to allow for errors in wind forecasts and fuel mileage;
- any Configuration Deviation List and/or Minimum Equipment List items;
- both airframe and engine anti-icing;
- ice accretion on unprotected surfaces if icing conditions are likely to be encountered during the diversion; and
any required operation of an auxiliary power unit and/or Ram Air Turbine (RAT).
Critical fuel scenario
Calculation of the critical fuel reserve requires the operator to determine the failure scenario that is the most operationally critical, considering time and aircraft configuration. Any failure or combination of failures not shown to be extremely improbable must be considered. The critical fuel reserve is the fuel required, taking into account the items listed in paragraph3.4.5b:
- to proceed from the most critical point to a suitable alternate following the occurrence of the most operationally critical event(s); plus,
upon reaching the suitable alternate, to descend to 1,500feet above the airport, hold for 15minutes, initiate an approach followed by a missed approach and then execute an approach and landing.
For example, if the critical scenario was determined to be the simultaneous failure of one propulsion system and the pressurization system, then the critical fuel reserves would be the fuel required to:
- At the most critical point, immediate descent to and continued cruise at 10,000feet at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed (fuel consumption may be based on continued cruise above 10,000feet if the aircraft has sufficient supplemental oxygen in accordance with applicable regulations); and,
- upon reaching the suitable alternate, to descend to 1,500feet above destination, hold for 15minutes, initiate an approach followed by a missed approach and then execute an approach and landing.
- Calculation of the critical fuel reserve requires the operator to determine the failure scenario that is the most operationally critical, considering time and aircraft configuration. Any failure or combination of failures not shown to be extremely improbable must be considered. The critical fuel reserve is the fuel required, taking into account the items listed in paragraph3.4.5b:
An aeroplane shall not be released on an extended range operation unless the required take-off, destination and alternate airports, including en route alternate airports to be used in the event of a system failure which requires a diversion, are listed in the operational flight plan, (e.g. on board copy of computer flight plan).
Suitable en route alternates are also required to be identified, listed and provided to the crew with the most up to date information (e.g. airport data, facilities, weather, etc.) as part of the dispatch release for all cases where the planned route of flight contains a point more than 60minutes flying time at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed from an adequate airport. Since these en route alternates serve a different purpose than the destination airport and would normally be used only in the event of an engine failure or the loss of a primary airframe system, an airport may not be listed as an en route alternate unless:
The landing distances required as specified in the Aircraft Flight Manual for the altitude of the airport, for the runway expected to be used, taking into account wind conditions, runway surface conditions, and aeroplane handling characteristics, permit the aeroplane to be stopped within the landing distance available as declared by the airport authorities and computed in accordance with the applicable regulations;
The airport services and facilities are available and adequate for the operator's approved approach procedure(s) and operating minima for the runway expected to be used;
The latest available forecast weather conditions for a period commencing one hour before the established earliest time of landing and ending one hour after the established latest time of landing at that airport, (Figure1) are equal to or exceed the authorized weather minima for en route alternate airports in appendixB;
For the same period, the forecast cross wind component for the intended landing runway, including gusts, is less than the maximum permitted cross wind for a single engine landing. Where no single engine demonstrated cross wind value exists, 80% of the all engine demonstrated value will be used; and,
During the course of the flight, the flight crews remain informed of any significant changes at en route alternates. Prior to proceeding beyond the ER Entry Point, the forecast weather for the time periods established in subparagraph 3.4.6b)3., aeroplane status, fuel remaining, runway surface conditions, landing distances, airport services and facilities shall be evaluated. If any conditions are identified which would preclude safe approach and landing, then the pilot shall be notified and an acceptable alternate(s) selected where safe approach and landing can be made.
Once the flight has entered the extended range segment, if the forecast for the en route alternate is revised to below the landing limits, the flight may continue at the Captain's discretion.
In addition, the operator's program should provide flight crews with information on adequate airports appropriate to the route to be flown which are not forecast to meet AppendixB en route alternate weather minima. Airport facility information and other appropriate planning data concerning these airports should be provided to flight crews for use when executing a diversion.
Note: The alternate airports should be chosen in order to make it possible for the aeroplane to reach the alternate, especially with regard to performance (flight over obstacles) and/or oxygen requirements. A list of en route alternates and the en route alternate weather limits will be published in the air operator's Operations Manual.
3.4.7Aeroplane Performance Data
No aeroplane shall be released on an extended range flight unless the operator's Operations Manual contains sufficient data to support the critical fuel reserve and area of operations calculation. The following data shall be based on information provided or referenced in the approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM):
Detailed single engine performance data including fuel flow for standard and non-standard atmospheric conditions and as a function of airspeed and power setting, where appropriate, covering:
- Cruise altitude coverage including 10,000feet;
Detailed all-engine operating performance data, including nominal fuel flow data, for standard and non-standard atmospheric conditions and as a function of airspeed and power setting, where appropriate, covering:
- Cruise (altitude coverage including 10,000feet); and
Details of any other conditions relevant to extended range operations which can cause significant deterioration of performance, such as ice accretion on the unprotected surfaces of the aeroplanes, Ram Air Turbine, thrust reverser deployment, etc.; and,
- The altitudes, airspeeds, thrust settings, and fuel flow used in establishing the ER area of operations for each airframe/engine combination must be used in showing the corresponding terrain and obstruction clearances in accordance with applicable regulations.
- The landing distances required as specified in the Aircraft Flight Manual for the altitude of the airport, for the runway expected to be used, taking into account wind conditions, runway surface conditions, and aeroplane handling characteristics, permit the aeroplane to be stopped within the landing distance available as declared by the airport authorities and computed in accordance with the applicable regulations;
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