Chapter 3 - Operational Approval Criteria
- 3.1 GENERAL
- 3.2 OPERATIONAL APPROVAL CONSIDERATIONS
- 3.3 ACCELERATED ETOPS APPROVAL
- 3.4 FLIGHT PREPARATION AND IN-FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS
- 3.5 TRAINING AND EVALUATION PROGRAM
- 3.6 OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS
- 3.7 OPERATIONS MANUAL
- 3.8 OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS
3.1.1 In considering an application from an air operator to conduct ETOPS operations, an assessment must be made of the air operator’s overall safety record, past performance, flight crew training, flight dispatcher training, maintenance training and maintenance reliability programs. The data provided with the request must substantiate the air operator’s ability to safely conduct and support these operations and must include the means used to satisfy the criteria outlined in this section and in Chapter 4 (ETOPS Maintenance and Reliability Requirements) of this manual.
3.2.1 BENIGN AREA OF OPERATION
a) Consideration is given to air operators requesting approval to conduct ETOPS operations within a Benign Area of Operation with minimal or no in-service experience with the airframe-engine combination. Although an ETOPS type design approval is not required, the airframe-engine combination is reviewed to determine if there are any factors that would affect the safe conduct of operations. Furthermore, flights must be operated at a weight that permits the flight, at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed and power setting, to maintain-flight altitude at or above the Minimum Enroute Altitude (MEA);
b) These approvals must be limited to a maximum diversion time of 75 minutes; and
c) The maintenance control system must address factors that are significant to the 75 minutes Benign Area of Operation but a service check prior to the return flight may not be required.
3.2.2 DEMANDING AREA OF OPERATIONS
Each air operator requesting approval to conduct ETOPS operations within a Demanding Area of Operation must have, prior to commencement of ETOPS Operations, an ETOPS approved airframe-engine combination and approved Operation and Maintenance Control system which follow the standards prescribed in this manual. Furthermore, the requirements of Section 3.3 or the following minimum requirements must be satisfied:
1. For 90 minute approval
i) A minimum of 3 months of domestic operating experience with the aeroplane-engine combination for which approval is requested;
ii) An ETOPS type design approved for a minimum 120 minutes ETOPS criteria;
iii) An approved CMP; and
iv) A Minimum Equipment List requirement for 120 minutes "ER".
2. For 120 minute approval
i) A minimum of 6 months of ETOPS operating experience with the aeroplane-engine combination for which approval is requested;
ii) An ETOPS type design approved for a minimum 120 minutes ETOPS criteria;
iii) An approved CMP; and
iv) A Minimum Equipment List requirement for 120 minutes "ER".
3. For 138 minute approval
a) Extension of ETOPS 120 minute approval;
i) A minimum of 3 months of 120 minute ETOPS operating experience with the aeroplane-engine combination for which approval is requested;
ii) Approved on a case by case basis;
iii) An ETOPS type design approved for a minimum 120 minute ETOPS criteria;
iv) An approved CMP;
v) An aeroplane time limited system capability not be less than the authorized 138 minute diversion time in still air conditions at the approved one engine inoperative cruise speed plus 15 minutes to allow for a hold, an approach and a landing;
vi) A Minimum Equipment List requirement modified to satisfy the MMEL policy for system component/relief for ETOPS operation beyond 120 minutes; and
vii) Flight crew, flight dispatcher and maintenance personnel training provided to address the differences between 120 minute and 138 minute approval.
b) Use of 180 minutes ETOPS approval;
i) A minimum of 3 months of 120 minute ETOPS operating experience with the aeroplane-engine combination for which approval is requested;
ii) Exercised on an unlimited basis;
iii) An ETOPS type design approved for a minimum 180 minutes ETOPS criteria;
iv) An approved CMP;
v) A Minimum Equipment List requirement beyond 120 minutes "ER"; and
vi) Flight crew, flight dispatcher and maintenance personnel training provided to address the differences between 138 minute and the 180 minute approval.
4. For 180 minute approval
i) A minimum of 12 months of 120 minute ETOPS operating experience with the aeroplane-engine combination for which approval is requested;
ii) An ETOPS type design approved for a minimum 180 minute ETOPS criteria;
iii) An approved CMP; and
iv) A Minimum Equipment List requirement beyond 120 minutes "ER".
5. For greater than 180 minutes approval
i) Hold a current 180 minutes ETOPS approval with the aeroplane-engine combination for which approval is requested;
ii) During flight planning, attempt to minimize the potential diversion time along the preferred track and plan the ETOPS flight at a maximum diversion distance of 180 minutes of less;
iii) If conditions prevent the use of adequate airports within 180 minutes, as ETOPS alternates, the route may be flown beyond 180 minutes subject the requirements of the applicable specific area of operation specified in this Section;
iv) The airframe-engine combination reviewed as per Chapter 2 of this manual to determine if they are any factors which would affect the safe conduct of the flight to be operated; and
v) A Minimum Equipment List requirement for 180 minutes, including the following systems operational for dispatch;
A) Fuel Quantity Indicating System (FQIS);
B) APU Including electrical and pneumatic supply to its design capability;
C) Auto throttle system;
D) The communication system required by Subsection 3.4.4 of this manual; and
E) One engine inoperative auto land capability (if flight planning is predicted on its use
Four specific area of operations beyond 180 minute approval
For flights operating in the North Pacific area, which for the purpose of this manual, is defined as the area covering the Pacific Ocean areas north of 40ºN latitudes including NOPAC ATS routes and published PACOT track system between Japan and North America;
i) To be operated only a case by case basis based on criteria set in the air operator’s company operation manual when an ETOPS alternate airport is not available within 180 minutes in the North Pacific Area of operation;
ii) The nearest available ETOPS alternate airport must be specified within 207 minutes maximum diversion time;
iii) Air Traffic Services preferred tracking, if available, must be given first consideration;
iv) Application of this approval must be limited to circumstances such as political or military concern, volcanic activity, airport weather below dispatch requirements, temporary airport condition and other weather related events;
v) ETOPS type design must be approved for a minimum 180 minutes ETOPS criteria;
vi) Approved CMP; and
vii) The time required to fly the distance to the planned ETOPS alternate or the alternate, at the approved one engine inoperative cruise speed, in still air and standard day temperature, must not exceed the time specified in the Airplane Flight Manual for the airplane’s most time limiting system time minus 15 minutes.
6. For 240 minutes approval
i) ETOPS type design must be approved for a minimum 240 minutes ETOPS criteria;
ii) Approved CMP;
iii) Applicable to ETOPS operation with a maximum diversion time of 240 minutes on routes in the Pacific oceanic areas between the Canadian and United States west coast and Australia, New Zealand and Polynesia; South Atlantic oceanic areas; Indian Oceanic areas; oceanic areas between Australia and South America; and
iv) Nearest available ETOPS alternates airports along the planned route of flight must be designated.
7. For greater than 240 minutes approval
i) Minimum of 24 consecutive months of 180 minute ETOPS operating experience of which at least 12 consecutive month has been operated at 240 minutes on the airframe-engine combination for which the approval is requested;
ii) Specific to operation between specific city pairs on routes in the Pacific Oceanic areas between Canada’s west coast, Australia, New Zealand and Polynesia; South Atlantic oceanic areas; Indian Oceanic areas; oceanic areas between Australia and South America and South Pole areas;
iii) Nearest available ETOPS alternates airports along the planned route of flight must be designated;
iv) ETOPS type design must be approved for beyond 240 minutes ETOPS criteria; and
v) Approved CMP
3.2.3 The initial in-service experience may be reduced in accordance with an Accelerated ETOPS Operational Approval (see Appendix C of this manual) in situations where an air operator can successfully demonstrate its ability and competence to achieve the necessary reliability required for ETOPS operations.
3.2.4 TCCA may require an increase in prerequisite in-service experience in cases where an abnormally low number of flights and/or ETOPS segments have occurred.
3.3.1 The accelerated ETOPS Approval concept is based on a structured program of compensating factors and a step-by-step approach as outlined in Appendix C of this manual. This is the same philosophy as the technical transfer analysis used to accelerate the aeroplane ETOPS Type Design Approval.
3.3.2 The program is intended for an air operator to be able to demonstrate that the ETOPS process specified in Appendix C, Section 2.1 applicable to a specific airframe-engine combination, can be proven prior to actually operating under a specific ETOPS approval. The content of Appendix C is applicable only in consideration of granting an Operational Approval for an air operator intending to operate an airframe-engine combination, which has been awarded Type Design Approval including ETOPS.
The flight dispatch criteria specified herein are in addition to, or to amplify, the requirements contained in applicable operational rules and specifically apply to ETOPS operations. Although many of the criteria in this document are currently incorporated into approved programs for other aeroplanes or route structures, the nature of ETOPS necessitates that compliance with these criteria be re-examined in view of the operations to ensure that the approved programs are adequate for this purpose.
18.104.22.168 TIME LIMITED SYSTEM PLANNING
a) For an ETOPS flight operating up to and including 180 minutes, the time required to fly the distance to the planned ETOPS alternate or alternates, at the approved one engine inoperative cruise speed in still air and standard day temperature, must not exceed the time specified in the AircraftFlight Manual for the airplanes most time limited system time minus 15 minutes;
b) Except for the condition set out in Subparagraph 22.214.171.124.c), for an ETOPS flight operating beyond 180 minutes, the time required to fly the distance to the planned ETOPS alternate or alternates, at all engine operating cruise speed correcting for wind and temperature, must not exceed the time specified in the AircraftFlight Manual for the airplane’s cargo fire suppression system minus 15 minutes; or
c) Except for the condition set out in Subparagraph 126.96.36.199.b), for an ETOPS flight operating beyond 180 minutes, the time required to fly the distance to the planned ETOPS alternate or alternates, at the approved one engine inoperative cruise speed correcting for wind and temperature, must not exceed the time specified in the AircraftFlight Manual for the airplanes most time limited system time (except for cargo fire suppression) minus 15 minutes;
3.4.2 MINIMUM EQUIPMENT LIST (MEL)
a) The specific ETOPS MEL criteria need not be applied for ETOPS operational approval in Benign Area of Operation (75 min.). For all ETOPS operations, the MEL must be based on the information contained within the aeroplane MMEL, the Type Certificate (TC) Supplement and the CMP document;
b) System redundancy levels appropriate to the intended ETOPS Operations must be reflected in the Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) and/or TC Supplement. An air operator’s MEL may be more restrictive than the MMEL considering the kind of ETOPS Operation being considered, and equipment and service problems unique to the air operator. For aeroplanes already in operational service, the existing MEL must be re evaluated and adjusted to reflect system redundancy level requirements for ETOPS; and
c) For the purpose of ETOPS, a flight is deemed to be "Dispatched" from the moment the airplane starts its takeoff roll (Ref TP 9155 Section 3.15). It is only from this point that the Minimum Equipment List requirements do not apply.
3.4.3 ETOPS SIGNIFICANT EVENT DURING FLIGHT
a) A list of systems that are considered ETOPS significant systems to the type and/or area of operation may be developed. If developed, it should be published in an appropriate document readily accessible to the flight crew, flight dispatchers and maintenance personnel. This list should contain applicable CMP standards, limitations and procedures in addition to information stating requirements and also reflect the type certificate holder’s recommendations for any segments of the flight;
b) This document should, based on available options at the time of the failure, give specific direction, for action required during any phases of flight. It is not intended to mandate MEL requirements for in-flight system failures, but to enhance the guidance to be provided to the flight crew after the completion of the applicable check list(s) (i.e. QRH, ECAM, ICAS, etc...) This list should consider all ATA Chapters. For items fully addressed by the check list (i.e. QRH, ECAM, ICAS, etc...) the list should contain a statement to that effect;
c) In the occurrence of any ETOPS significant event in-flight prior to the ETOPS entry point, all available means of communication must be used by the flight crew to ensure assistance from the flight dispatcher to update and/or revise, if applicable, the flight plan as a result of re-evaluating the aeroplane’s system capability to ensure that the flight can safely continue into the ETOPS area of operation; and
d) A statement must be included to ensure that the Pilot in Command has the final authority in all phases of flight.
3.4.4 COMMUNICATION AND NAVIGATION FACILITIES
An aeroplane must not be dispatched on an ETOPS flight unless the requirements of the applicable regulations of the appropriate Subpart of the CARs have been met, and:
1) For all ETOPS operations where voice communication facilities are available, voice communication must be provided. While planning an ETOPS flight, an air operator must consider potential route and altitudes necessary for diversion to ETOPS alternate airports in determining whether voice communications facilities are available. Where voice communication facilities are not available or is of poor quality and voice communication is not possible, communications using alternative system must be substituted;
2) For ETOPS operation beyond 180 minutes, the aeroplane must be equipped with an additional communication system that is capable of providing immediate satellite based voice communication (SATCOM). The system must provide communication capability between the flight crew and air traffic control and the flight crew and the air operator’s operational control center. While planning an ETOPS flight beyond 180 minutes, an air operator must consider potential route and altitudes necessary for diversion to ETOPS alternate airports in determining whether immediate, satellite based voice communications are available. Where immediate, satellite based voice communications are not available or are of poor quality, communications using alternative system must be substituted;
3) Communication facilities are available to provide, under normal conditions of propagation at the normal one engine inoperative cruise altitudes, reliable two-way communications between the aeroplane and the appropriate ground communication facility over the planned route of flight and the routes to any ETOPS alternate airport to be used in the event of diversion. It must be shown that current weather information, adequate status monitoring information and crew procedures for all aeroplane and ground facilities’ critical systems are available to enable the flight crew to make go/no-go and diversion decisions;
4) Non-visual ground aids are available and located so as to provide, taking account of the navigation equipment installed in the aeroplane, the navigation accuracy required over the planned route and altitude of flight, and the routes to any alternate and altitudes to be used in the event of an engine shutdown;
5) Visual and non-visual aids are available at the specified ETOPS alternate airports as required for the authorized types of approaches and operating minima;and
6) Flights that are planned to be operated in an area of known or expected area of solar flare activity, cosmic radiation or radio blackout that may affect the operation of the aeroplane must be planned to avoid these areas based on criteria established in the air operator’s company operation manual.
3.4.5 FUEL AND OIL SUPPLY
1) Unlike the area of operation, which is determined under standard conditions in still air, the fuel planning must consider the expected meteorological conditions along the planned route. Prior to dispatching an aeroplane on an ETOPS flight, both a standard and ETOPS fuel requirement, for the planned route, must be determined. The fuel quantity required for dispatch is the greater of the two resulting fuel requirements.
2) An aeroplane must not be dispatched on an ETOPS flight unless it carries sufficient fuel and oil to meet regulatory requirements of CAR 602.88 and CAR 705.25, including additional contingency fuel reserves that may be determined in accordance with Paragraph 3.4.5 b) (Critical fuel reserves). In computing fuel and oil requirements, at least the following must be considered:
i) Current forecast winds and meteorological conditions along the expected flight path at one engine inoperative cruising altitude and throughout the approach and landing;
ii) Any requirement for operation of ice protection systems and performance loss due to ice accretion on the unprotected surfaces of the aeroplane;
iii) Icing encounters must be conservatively factored to account for the likelihood of an encounter, threat severity, encounter duration and anticipated flight crew action;
iv) Any required operation of auxiliary power unit (APU);
v) Loss of aeroplane pressurization and air conditioning, with consideration must be given to flying at an altitude meeting oxygen requirements in the event of loss of pressurization;
vi) Upon reaching any of the ETOPS alternate airports, holding at 1500 feet above field elevation for 15 minutes and then initiating an instrument approach and landing;
vii) Navigational accuracy required;
viii) Any known Air Traffic Control (ATC) constraints; and
ix) APU oil consumption and servicing must be considered in accordance with CMP document requirements.
b) Critical fuel reserves
In establishing the critical fuel reserves, the fuel necessary to fly from the most critical point to an ETOPS alternate airport under the conditions outlined in Paragraph 3.4.5 c), (Critical fuel scenario) must be determined. These critical fuel reserves should be compared to the fuel that will be on board at the most critical point based on a departure with the normal fuel required by regulations for the proposed trip. If it is determined by this comparison that the fuel that will be on board at the most critical point* is less than the critical fuel reserves, then additional fuel must be loaded to ensure that the fuel on board at the most critical point is equal to or greater than the critical fuel reserves.
* Note: In some rare cases, the minimum fuel to go from the second to last Equal Time Point (ETP) to the applicable ETOPS alternate airport is the same as the minimum fuel to go from the last ETP to the another ETOPS alternate airport. In those case each ETP constitute a critical point. The first critical point is the most critical until such time that the aeroplane has past the first critical point enroute to the second critical point, at which time the second critical point becomes the most critical point.
In consideration of the items listed in Paragraph 3.4.5 a), for an air operator with an approved fuel consumption monitoring program, the critical fuel scenario must allow for:
1) A contingency figure of 5 percent added to the calculated fuel burn from the critical point to a ETOPS alternate, to allow for errors in wind forecasts and fuel mileage, except when the air operator can demonstrate and justify with an assessment tool and supporting data specific for that route of flight, that each element which has an impact on safety has been identified and appropriate mitigating factors have been applied, use a contingency figure of 5 percent wind speed factor based on the actual forecast wind used to calculate fuel for the most critical fuel scenario in order to account for any potential errors in wind forecasting;
2) Any Configuration Deviation List (CDL) and/or Minimum Equipment List (MEL) items;
3) Fuel for engine anti-icing, and if applicable wing anti-ice, for the entire time during which icing is forecasted except when the air operator can demonstrate and justify with an assessment tool and supporting data specific to the aeroplane type for that route of flight, that each element which has an impact on safety has been identified and appropriate mitigating factors have been applied, fuel for the effect of 10 percent of the time during which icing is forecast including the fuel used by engine and wing anti-ice during this period;
4) Ice accretion on unprotected surfaces if icing conditions are likely to be encountered during the diversion except when the air operator can demonstrate and justify with an assessment tool and supporting data specific to the aeroplane type for that route of flight, that each element which has an impact on safety has been identified and appropriate mitigating factors have been applied, fuel for the effect of 10 percent of the time during which icing is forecast including the fuel used by engine and wing anti-ice during this period; and
5) Any required operation of an auxiliary power unit and/or Ram Air Turbine (RAT).
c) Critical fuel scenario
1) Calculation of the critical fuel reserve requires the determination of the failure scenario that is the most operationally critical, considering time and aeroplane configuration. Any failure or combination of failures not shown to be extremely improbable must be considered. The critical fuel reserve is the fuel required, taking into account the items listed in paragraph 3.4.5 b) and:
i) To proceed from the most critical point to an ETOPS alternate airport following the occurrence of the most operationally critical event(s); and
ii) Upon reaching the ETOPS alternate airport, to descend to 1,500 feet above the airport, hold for 15 minutes, initiate an instrument approach and land.
2) For example, if the critical scenario was determined to be the simultaneous failure of one propulsion system and the pressurization system, then the critical fuel reserves would be the fuel required to:
i) At the most critical point, cruise at 10,000 feet at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed (fuel consumption may be based on continued cruise above 10,000 feet if the aeroplane has sufficient supplemental oxygen in accordance with applicable regulations); and
ii) Upon reaching the ETOPS alternate airport, to descend to 1,500 feet above destination, hold for 15 minutes, initiate an instrument approach and land.
3.4.6 ETOPS ALTERNATE AIRPORTS
a) ETOPS alternate airports must be chosen in order to make it possible for the aeroplane to reach the ETOPS alternate airport, especially with regard to performance (flight over obstacles) and/or oxygen requirements. A list of ETOPS alternate airports and the ETOPS alternate airport pre and post dispatch weather limits must be published in the air operator’s Operations Manual.
An aeroplane must not be released on an ETOPS flight unless the required take off, destination and alternate airports, including ETOPS alternate airports to be used in the event of a system failure which requires a diversion, are listed in the operational flight plan, (e.g. on board copy of computer flight plan).
All adequate airports that are located within the authorized diversion limits, must be considered when determining the ETOPS alternate airports and the choice and number of ETOPS alternate airports must be made so as to minimize the duration of the diversion;
b) ETOPS alternates airports are required to be identified, listed and provided to the flight crew with the most up to date information (e.g. airport data, facilities, weather, etc.) as part of the dispatch release for all cases where the planned route of flight contains a point more than 60 minutes flying time at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed from an adequate airport. Since these ETOPS alternates airport serve a different purpose than the destination airport and would normally be used only in the event of an engine failure or the failure of a ETOPS significant system, an airport must not, prior to dispatch, be designated as an ETOPS alternate airport unless the following conditions are met:
1) The landing distances required as specified in the Aircraft Flight Manual for the altitude of the airport, for the runway expected to be used, taking into account wind conditions, runway surface conditions, and aeroplane handling characteristics, permit the aeroplane to be stopped within the landing distance available as declared by the airport authorities and computed in accordance with the applicable regulations;
2) The airport services and facilities are available and adequate for the air operator’s approved instrument approach procedure(s) and operating minima for the runway expected to be used;
3) The latest available forecast weather conditions for a period commencing one hour before the established earliest time of landing and ending one hour after the established latest time of landing at that airport, (Figure 1) are equal to or exceed the authorized weather minima for ETOPS alternate airports as specified in Appendix B of this manual and that the periods between which the forecast must be equal to or exceed the authorized weather minima are identified on the operational flight plan;
4) For the same period, the forecast cross wind component for the intended landing runway, including gusts, is less than the maximum permitted cross wind for a single engine landing. Where no single engine demonstrated cross wind value exists, 80% of the all engine demonstrated value is used;
5) i) Subject to Clause 3.4.6.a) 5) ii), for ETOPS operation up to 180 minutes, each designated ETOPS alternate airport must meet a minimum Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) capability equivalent to that specified by ICAO category 4, or higher and for ETOPS operation beyond 180 minutes, each designated ETOPS alternate airport must meet a minimum Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) capability equivalent to that specified by ICAO category 4, or higher provided that the aeroplane remains within the ETOPS authorized diversion time from an adequate airport that meets the minimum capability equivalent to that specified by ICAO category 7, or higher;
ii) If the equipment and personnel are not immediately available at the airport, the airport may still be listed on the operational flight plan, provided that the ARFF capability is available upon the arrival of the diverting aeroplane and remains at the airport as long as the diverting aeroplane requires their services. A 30-minute response time is adequate provided that the initial notification to respond can be initiated while the diverting aeroplane is enroute and the above conditions are met;
iii) Once the flight is dispatched, the flight crew and the flight dispatcher must remain informed of any significant changes at the ETOPS alternates airports and must be updated with the latest weather and airport information of potential adequate airport along the route of flight, that are not listed on the operational flight plan but could be used in case a diversion was initiated; and
A) Prior to proceeding beyond the ETOPS Entry Point, the pilot in command and the flight dispatcher must complete a review of the forecast weather of all the ETOPS alternate airports identified on the operational flight plan and must ensure that the forecasted weather is equal to or exceeds the published landing minima for the time period established in subparagraph 3.4.6 b) 3 for the runway and type of instrument approach expected in order to ensure a safe landing at the expected time of use. If the weather forecast does not meet the landing minima, the pilot in command and the flight dispatcher are advised and the flight plan must be amended to add any other ETOPS alternate airport located within the maximum authorized diversion time, that meet the landing minima in order to allow the flight to proceed into the ETOPS area of operation. If unable, the flight must not enter the ETOPS area of operation; and
B) Prior to proceeding beyond the ETOPS Entry Point, the pilot in command and the flight dispatcher must complete a review of the conditions established in Paragraph 3.4.6 b) (excluding Subparagraph 3.4.6 b) 3) of the ETOPS alternate airport and ensure that no changes have occurred since the flight has been dispatched. If any conditions are identified which would preclude safe approach and landing, then the pilot in command must be notified and an acceptable ETOPS alternate(s) airport selected where safe approach and landing can be made. If any of the ETOPS alternate airport identified on the operational flight plan is not considered to be adequate at the expected time of use, the operational flight plan must be amended to add another ETOPS alternate airport located within the maximum authorized diversion time, in order to allow the flight to proceed into the ETOPS area of operation. If unable, the flight must not enter the ETOPS area of operation.
iv) Once the flight has entered the ETOPS area of operation, if the forecast for the ETOPS alternate airport is revised to below the landing limits, or that the ETOPS alternate airport becomes inadequate, the flight may continue at the Pilot in Command’s discretion.
|ETOPS alternate airport||
Prior to dispatch
After dispatch and prior to ETOPS entry point
Once enter the ETOPS area of operation
6. Flight dispatchers and flight crews must take into consideration the effects of solar flare, cosmic radiation and radio blackout activity that may affect the performance of the flight, when planning or approving the choice of ETOPS alternates airports
3.4.7 AEROPLANE PERFORMANCE DATA
An aeroplane must not be released on an ETOPS flight unless the air operator’s Operations Manual contains sufficient performance data to support all phases of any applicable ETOPS operation. The following data must be based on information provided or referenced in the approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM):
1) Detailed single engine performance data including fuel flow for standard and non-standard atmospheric conditions and as a function of airspeed and power setting, where appropriate, covering:
ii) Cruise altitude coverage including 10,000 feet;
v) Missed approach.
2) Detailed all-engine operating performance data, including nominal fuel flow data, for standard and non-standard atmospheric conditions and as a function of airspeed and power setting, where appropriate, covering:
i) Cruise (altitude coverage including 10,000 feet); and
3) Details of any other conditions relevant to ETOPS operations which can cause significant deterioration of performance, such as ice accretion on the unprotected surfaces of the aeroplanes, Ram Air Turbine, thrust reverser deployment, etc.; and
4) The altitudes, airspeeds, thrust settings, and fuel flow used in establishing the ETOPS
area of operations for each airframe-engine combination must be used in showing the corresponding terrain and obstruction clearances in accordance with applicable regulations.
3.4.8 NAVIGATION DOCUMENTATION
The necessary navigation documentation including a mean to determine the location of each Equal Time Point and the Critical Point must be provided to the flight crew.
Flight crew member’s initial and recurrent ETOPS training requirements are specified in the CASS at Subsection 725.124 (36) Extended Twin-Engine Operations (ETOPS) for Flight Crew Members.
Flight dispatcher’s initial and recurrent ETOPS requirements are specified in the CASS at Paragraph 725.124 (21)(t) Extended Twin-Engine Operations (ETOPS) for Flight Dispatchers.
Maintenance personnel’s initial, update and additional ETOPS training requirements are specified in section 4.10 of this manual.
3.6.1 AREAS OF OPERATION
Following satisfactory compliance with these criteria, an air operator may be authorized to conduct ETOPS with a particular airframe engine combination within a particular area of operation. The area of operation is limited by the maximum approved diversion time to an adequate airport at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from any point along the proposed route of flight. The area of operation approved must be specified in an Operations Specification.
3.6.2 FLIGHT DISPATCH LIMITATION
Flight dispatch limitation must specify the maximum diversion time from an ETOPS alternate airport for which an air operator can conduct a particular ETOPS operation. The maximum diversion time at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed must not be any greater than the value specified in the Operations Specification.
3.6.3 USE OF STANDARD MAXIMUM DIVERSION TIME
The procedures established must ensure that ETOPS operation is limited to flight plan routes where the approved maximum diversion time to ETOPS alternate airports can be met under standard conditions in still air. Air operators must ensure that:
1) A procedure must be established that upon occurrence of an in-flight shutdown (IFSD) of an engine, the pilot in command must, subject to the PIC’s authority, promptly initiate a diversion and fly to and land the aeroplane at the nearest suitable* airport, at which a safe landing can be made; and,
2) A procedure must be established such that in the event of a single or multiple ETOPS significant system failure, the pilot in command must, subject to the PIC’s authority, promptly initiate a diversion procedure and fly to and land at the nearest suitable* airport, at which a safe landing can be made, unless it can be established that no substantial degradation of safety results from continuation of the planned flight.
* Suitable means right or appropriate for the particular situation
3.6.4 PILOT-IN-COMMAND AUTHORITY
Contingency procedures or plans should not be interpreted in any way which prejudice the final authority and responsibility of the Pilot In Command for safe operation of the aeroplane
3.7.1 The Company Operations Manual must outline the standard operating procedures applicable to ETOPS operations including, but not limited to, the following:
a) Minimum altitudes to be flown along planned and diversionary routes as applicable;
b) Airports authorized for use, including alternates and associated instrument approaches and operating minima;
c) The information used in determining the critical fuel scenario; and
d) The minimum equipment list (MEL)
3.8.1 Aeroplanes must not be operated on ETOPS Operations unless the air operator has complied with all the provisions of this document and the flight is authorized by an Operations Specification.
3.8.2 An Operations Specification for ETOPS Operations must specifically include provisions covering at least the following:
a) Approved area of operation; and
Note: Flights may be planned to operate through sectors outside of the delimiting arcs, provided the sector crossing is less than 30 track miles;
b) For each ETOPS approved airframe-engine combination, the maximum diversion time, at the approved one-engine-inoperative cruise speed, that any point on the route may be from an ETOPS alternate airport.
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