1.5Definitions

  1. Airport
    1. Adequate - for the purpose of ETOPS, an adequate airport is an airport, which the operator and TCA consider to be adequate, having regard to the performance requirements applicable at the expected landing weight. In particular, it should be anticipated that at the expected time of use:
      1. the airport will be available, and equipped with the necessary ancillary services, such as ATS, lighting, communications, weather reporting, navaids and emergency services; and
      2. at least one letdown aid will be available for an instrument approach.
    2. Suitable - for the purpose of ETOPS, a suitable airport is an adequate airport with weather reports, forecasts or combination thereof, indicating that the weather conditions will be at or above minima outlined in this document and field condition reports indicate that a safe landing can be accomplished during the period of intended operation.

      Note: Additional information contained in 3.4.6 and AppendixB.
  2. Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)

    A gas turbine engine intended for use as a power source for driving generators, hydraulic pumps and other aeroplane accessories and equipment and/or to provide compressed air for aeroplane pneumatic systems.
  3. Benign Area of Operation

    An area that provides numerous adequate airports and a high level of reliability and availability of communication, navigation and ATC services and facilities. Furthermore, an area where prevailing weather conditions are stable and generally do not approach extremes in temperature, wind, ceiling, and visibility.
  4. Configuration, Maintenance and Procedures (CMP)

    A document containing the minimum requirements for the aircraft configuration including any special maintenance tasks, life limits and Master Minimum Equipment List (MMEL) constraints necessary to establish and maintain the suitability of an airframe-engine combination for extended range operations.
  5. Demanding Area of Operation

    An area that has one or more of the following characteristics:
    1. prevailing weather conditions can approach extremes in winds, temperature, ceiling, and visibility for prolonged period of time;
    2. few alternate airports;
    3. due to remote or overwater area, a high level of reliability and availability of communications, navigation, and ATC services may not exist.
  6. Engine

    The basic engine assembly plus its essential accessories as supplied by the engine manufacturers.
  7. Engineering Judgement

    A subjective decision required due to the complexity of an issue based upon a qualitative analysis of relevant data.
  8. Extended Range (ER) or ETOPS Operations

    For the purpose of this document, extended range operations are those operations conducted over a specified route that contain a point further than 60minutes flying time at the specified single engine cruise speed (under standard conditions in still air) from an adequate airport.
  9. ER (or ETOPS) Area of Operation

    The area in which an operator is authorized to conduct a flight under ETOPS regulations. It is defined by circles centred on the adequate airports, the radius of which is the allowed maximum diversion distance (maximum diversion distance equals approved maximum diversion time multiplied by the approved single engine cruise speed).
  10. ER Entry Point (EEP)

    The EEP is the point located on the aircraft's outbound route at one hour flying time at the approved one-engine inoperative speed (in ISA conditions and still air) from the last adequate airport prior to entering the extended range segment. It marks the beginning of the extended range segment.
  11. ER segment

    The extended range segment starts at the EEP and ends at the point where the route is continuously within the 60-minute area from an adequate airport for the duration of the flight.
  12. ER Sensitive Event

    not limited to, in flight shutdowns; diversions or turnbacks; uncommanded power changes or surges; inability to control the engine or obtain desired power; and problems with systems critical to ETOPS.
  13. Fail-Safe

    Fail-safe is the design methodology upon which Airworthiness Standards for Transport Category Aeroplanes are based. It requires that the effect of failures and combinations of failures must be considered in defining a safe design.
  14. In-Flight Shutdown (IFSD)

    When an engine ceases to function in flight and is shut down, for any reason (i.e., including flameout, internal failure, crew-initiated shut-off, foreign object ingestion, icing, inability to obtain and/or control desired thrust, etc.)
  15. Power Plant

    A system consisting of an engine and all ancillary components installed on the engine prior to installation on the aeroplane to provide and control power/thrust and for the extraction of energy.

    Single Engine Cruise Speed (or One-Engine-Inoperative Cruise Speed)
    1. The approved single engine cruise speed for the intended area of operation shall be a speed, within the certified limits of the aeroplane, selected by the operator and approved by Transport Canada Aviation.
    2. The operator shall use this speed in:
      1. establishing the area of operations and any dispatch limitations;
      2. calculation of single engine fuel requirements under section3.4.5 (Fuel and Oil Supply) of TP6327; and
      3. establishing the level off altitude (net performance) data. This level off altitude (net performance) must clear any obstacles en route by margins as specified in applicable operating rules.
  16. System

    equipment such as that required to supply power for the equipment operation.
    1. Airframe System - any system on the aeroplane that is not a propulsion system.
    2. Propulsion System - the aeroplane power plant installation including each component that: is necessary for propulsion, affects the control of the major propulsion units or affects the safety of the major propulsion units (Airworthiness Manual 525.901(a)).
  17. Unacceptable Thrust Loss

    Total thrust loss or loss of thrust to an extent that precludes continued controlled flight to an adequate airport.
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