TP 6533 - Approved Check Pilot Manual

Tenth Edition - April 2017

Foreword

This manual is referred to as the Company Check Pilot Manual in the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) Part VII Standards. It contains the standards, policies, procedures and guidelines that pertain to the approved check pilot (ACP) program. It is published for use by both ACPs and Transport Canada Civil Aviation Safety Inspectors (CASIs).

Transport Canada approves ACPs and authorizes them to conduct pilot proficiency checks (PPCs) and/or line checks. When performing their duties, ACPs are acting as agents of the Minister pursuant to subsection 4.3(1) of the Aeronautics Act. It is imperative that the standards, policies, procedures and guidelines specified in this manual are followed. Transport Canada CASIs will abide by the policies and procedures outlined in this manual when issuing ACP approvals as well as when conducting flight checks.

Initial ACP accreditation and subsequent renewals are based on the need at a particular location or area within a Transport Canada region. Individuals seeking to obtain an ACP accreditation are required to contact their regional Transport Canada office or National Operations to initiate this determination.

All dispensations and exemptions from policies described in this manual should be subjected to a Risk Assessment in accordance with Transport Canada Staff Instruction SI-QUA-008 - Risk Management Process for Aviation Safety Activities.

For more information and to submit suggestions for amendment, please contact:

Transport Canada
Commercial Flight Standards (AARTF)
Place de Ville
Tower C, 6th Floor
330 Sparks Street
Ottawa, ON K1A 0N8

Record of ACP Bulletins

  1. Bulletins are issued from time to time to communicate procedural changes that need to be implemented in a timely manner. These bulletins may be found on the Transport Canada Approved Check Pilot / Advanced Qualification Programs website.
  2. Paper copies of the Approved Check Pilot Manual must incorporate these bulletins. The table below is provided to assist this process.
Bulletin Number Title Effective Date Date Entered Initials

Table of Contents

1.0 Introduction

  1. The approved check pilot (ACP) program is a service which provides prompt, reliable and objective flight checking.
  2. Overall administration of the ACP program, including policy setting and standardization is the responsibility of Transport Canada Commercial Flight Standards (AARTF). ACP selection, on-site assessments, briefings, ACP accreditation and monitoring is the responsibility of Transport Canada’s regional offices and National Operations.

1.1 Purpose

  1. The purpose of the Approved Check Pilot Manual is to provide policy, direction and guidance for the nomination, training, ACP accreditation and monitoring of ACPs. This manual also provides policy, direction and guidance with respect to flight checking, namely Pilot Proficiency Check (PPCs) and line checks.

1.2 Applicability

  1. This document is applicable to all individuals, organizations, and Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA) employees accredited by the Minister as authorized by Part 1, Section 4.3(1) of the Aeronautics Act.

1.3 Change Process

  1. Refer to ACP/AQP bulletins on the Transport Canada Approved Check Pilot/Advanced Qualification Program website.

2.0 References, Definitions and Abbreviations

2.1 Reference Documents

  1. The following are to be used in conjunction with this manual:
    1. Aeronautics Act (R.S., 1985, c. A-2);
    2. Part IV, Subpart 401 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) – Personnel Licensing and Training;
    3. Part VI, Subpart 604 of the CARs – Private Operator and Passenger Transportation;
    4. Part VII, Subpart 702 of the CARs – Aerial Work Operations;
    5. Part VII, Subpart 703 of the CARs – Air Taxi Operations;
    6. Part VII, Subpart 704 of the CARs – Commuter Operations;
    7. Part VII, Subpart 705 of the CARs – Airline Operations;
    8. Transport Canada Publication TP 9685 – Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual;
    9. TP 14727- Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating – Flight Test Guide (Aeroplane); and
    10. TP 14728 - Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating – Flight Test Guide (Helicopter).

2.2 Transport Canada ACP/AQP Website

  1. The Transport Canada Approved Check Pilot/Advanced Qualification Program website provides additional information (such as ACP bulletins) to the ACP community. This website is located at: https://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/civilaviation/standards/commerce-operationalstandards-acp-menu-380.htm

2.3 Cancelled Documents

  1. Not applicable.
  2. By default, it is understood that the publication of a new edition of a document automatically renders any earlier editions of the same document null and void.

2.4 Definitions and Abbreviations

  1. The following definitions are applicable to this document:
    1. Accreditation - An official authorization to conduct flight checks which is conditional upon a person’s qualifications and the continued need for assistance in carrying out the powers, duties and functions of the Minister. See Delegation (by Minister).
    2. ACP (Initial) Course - A course designed for an initial ACP candidate that meets all the competency objectives detailed in the Approved Check Pilot Program – Course Training Standard (RDIMS 5154456).
    3. ACP (Initial) Monitor - An initial assessment to confirm that an ACP candidate can adequately conduct a PPC and/or a line check and complete the necessary documentation. These assessments are conducted by a Transport Canada Civil Aviation Safety Inspector (CASI).
    4. ACP (Recurrent) Course - A course designed for a recurrent ACP candidate that meets competency objectives detailed in the Approved Check Pilot Program – Course Training Standard (RDIMS 5154456).
    5. ACP (Recurrent) Monitor - A recurring assessment to confirm that an ACP candidate can adequately conduct a PPC and complete the necessary documentation. These assessments are conducted by a Transport Canada CASI.
    6. ACP (Simulator Only) - An ACP without a medical certificate who is authorized to conduct PPCs in a simulator only.
    7. ACP (Type A) - An ACP who is authorized to conduct PPCs and line checks (Subpart 705 of the CARs only).
    8. ACP (Type B) - An ACP who is authorized to conduct line checks (Subpart 705 of the CARs only).
    9. ACP (VFR Only) - An ACP who is authorized to conduct PPC/VFR flight checks only.
    10. Airborne PPC - The airborne portion of a PPC that is conducted in conjunction with the simulator portion of the PPC. This may be as a result of a simulator’s level of approval and fidelity, the particulars of an approved training program or the status of the candidate.
    11. Aircraft Operating Manual (AOM) - A pilot operating manual, a pilot operating handbook (POH), a flight crew operating manual (FCOM) or a manual established by the operator for the use and guidance of flight crewmembers in the operations of its aircraft.
    12. Aircraft PPC - A PPC that is conducted entirely in an aircraft.
    13. Approved Check Pilot (ACP) - A person holding an official authorization to conduct flight checks on behalf of the Minister of Transport pursuant to Part 1, Section 4.3(1) of the Aeronautics Act.
    14. Authorized Person - A person who is delegated the authority to act as a Licensing Agent for the purpose of issuing temporary privileges (i.e., type ratings and/or instrument ratings) in the candidate’s Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) or by signing the additional privileges section on the back of the candidate’s temporary license or by completing the certification of an Additional Privileges Card (Form 26-0267).
    15. Canadian Aviation Document (CAD) - Subject to subsection (3) of the Aeronautics Act, any licence, permit, accreditation, certificate or other document issued by the Minister under Part I of the Aeronautics Act to or with respect to any person or in respect of any aeronautical product, aerodrome, facility or service.
    16. Certificate – Certificate means an air operator certificate in this document.
    17. Civil Aviation Inspector (CAI) - Predecessor of Civil Aviation Safety Inspector (CASI)
    18. Civil Aviation Safety Inspector (CASI) - A Transport Canada inspector who is trained and authorized to conduct flight checks and ACP (initial and recurrent) monitors.
    19. Commercial Air Service Standards (CASS) - CARs Standards published under the authority of the Minister that apply in respect of commercial air services operated by air operators. Referred to as the CARs Standard(s) in this manual.
    20. Company Check Pilot Manual (TP6533) - Predecessor of the Approved Check Pilot Manual (TP6533). This document is formally referenced in (i.e., enabled by) the CARs and Standards.
    21. Company Employee - A person that is employed on a part time basis, full time basis or on contract on a seasonal basis.
    22. Competency Check - A check conducted under Subpart 604 or the CARs. See CARs 604.142(4)(c)(ii) for ACP applicability. Also, a check applicable to some operators under Subpart 702 and 703 of the CARs. See CARs 702.66(1) and 703.90(1) for ACP applicability.
    23. Conduct - To take an active role in all phases of a flight check, including pre-flight preparation, the briefing, the control and pace of the various sequences, the assessment of the flight check candidate's performance, the debrief and the completion of the required documents including certification of the candidate's licence.
    24. Contemporary Crew Resource Management (Contemporary CRM) - The current expression of crew resource management (CRM). Contemporary CRM integrates technical skill development with communications and crew coordination training and operational risk management by applying threat and error management (TEM) concepts.
    25. Crew Resource Management (CRM) - The effective utilization of all available resources to achieve safe and efficient operations. The objective of CRM is to enhance communications, human factors and management skills of the crew members concerned. Emphasis is placed on the non-technical aspects of crew performance.
    26. Delegation (by Minister) - An approval by the Minister authorizing any person or class of persons to exercise or perform, subject to any restrictions or conditions that the Minister may specify, any of the powers, duties or functions of the Minister under Part 1 of the Aeronautics Act, other than the power to make a regulation, an order, a security measure or an emergency direction. See Accreditation.
    27. Deviation – A quantifiable measurement of a variation in precision from a specified flight test exercise tolerance. Deviations are incorporated in the aircraft handling skill element of the 4-Point Marking Scale.
    28. Error - A qualitative assessment of an action or inaction by a flight crew that leads to a variation from flight crew intentions or expectations. Errors are incorporated in the technical skills and knowledge element of the 4-Point Marking Scale.
    29. Flight Check - In this manual, refers to a PPC or line check.
    30. Flight Test Exercise - A manoeuvre, task or item listed in the following:
      1. Canadian Aviation Regulations (CARs) Standards;
      2. Transport Canada Publication TP 14727 - Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Aeroplane);
      3. TP 14728 - Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Helicopter); and
      4. Transport Canada Form 26-0249 or 26-0279 - Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form.
    31. Flight Simulation Training Device (FSTD) - A Transport Canada-approved full-flight simulator or flight training device as defined in the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual (TP9685) and certified in accordance with Section 606.03 of the CARs.
    32. Flight Training and Aviation Education (FTAE) - A Transport Canada computer system designed to utilize data compiled from flight test reports and written examination answer sheets.
    33. IFR-Related Sequence - A flight test exercise that is associated with instrument flight procedures such as, but not limited to, flight planning, standard instrument departures (SIDs), holds, standard terminal arrival routes (STARs), instrument approaches and missed approaches.
    34. Instrument Proficiency Check (IPC) - A recurring event to confirm retention of a level of proficiency that meets the standards of performance required for the issuance of an instrument rating. Refer to Advisory Circular (AC) 401-004.
    35. Licensing Agents - see Authorized Person.
    36. Line Check - A flight check conducted in accordance with Paragraph 705.106(1)(d) of the CARs which is undertaken upon completion of line indoctrination.
    37. Line Check Pilot - An individual currently employed as a pilot-in-command by a Subpart 705 of the CARs operator who is appointed to conduct line checks under the operator’s line check program. These line checks exclude those required for extended twin engine operations (ETOPS), cruise relief pilot (CRP) and RNAV operations.
    38. Manager, Simulator Program (MSP) – The person responsible (at Transport Canada) for the overall administration and operation of the National Simulator Evaluation Program (NSEP).
    39. Missing, Malfunction or Inoperative (MMI) Components – Under the FAA, a component of the Flight Simulator Training Device (FSTD) that is required to be present and correctly operate for the satisfactory completion of a manoeuver, procedure, or task.
    40. Non-Technical Skill Elements - In this manual, refers to cooperation, leadership and managerial skills, situational awareness and decision making. Non-technical skill elements are incorporated in the 4-point marking scale.
    41. Operator - means the holder of an air operator certificate under Part VII of the CARs or the holder of a private operator registration document under Subpart 604 of the CARs.
    42. Pilot Flying (PF) - The term pilot flying (PF) refers to the pilot responsible for managing the current and projected flight path of the aircraft in a multi-crew crew cockpit.
    43. Pilot-In-Command (PIC) - In relation to an aircraft, the pilot having responsibility and authority for the operation and safety of the aircraft during flight time.
    44. Pilot Monitoring (PM) - The term pilot monitoring (PM) replaces pilot not flying (PNF). The PM is responsible for monitoring the current and future projected flight path vector of the aircraft in a multi-crew cockpit.
    45. Pilot Not Flying (PNF) – Pilot not flying (PNF) has been replaced by pilot monitoring (PM) in this manual. See pilot monitoring (PM)
    46. Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) - A flight check conducted by an approved check pilot (ACP) or Civil Aviation Safety Inspector (CASI) in accordance with the appropriate PPC Schedule specified in Part VII Standards of the CARs.
    47. Plan of Action – Terminology adopted from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). A plan of action is similar to a scripted PPC, however is less formal. It is a tool for the sole use of the ACP to be used in evaluating the candidate. A plan of action contains a list of all required flight test exercises from the appropriate Part VII Standard of the CARs - PPC Schedule and may also include (as appropriate) one or more scenarios that group several required flight test exercises together.
    48. PPC/IFR – A pilot proficiency check (PPC) conducted under instrument flight rules (IFR). A PPC/IFR is deemed to meet various requirements of an instrument rating including the initial issuance.
    49. PPC/VFR - A pilot proficiency check conducted under visual flight rules (VFR). A PPC/VFR is deemed to meet the requirement for VFR operations only.
    50. Principal Operations Inspector (POI) - A designated Transport Canada Civil Aviation Safety Inspector (CASI) assigned to a CARs Part VII operator.
    51. Professional Suitability - A demonstrated willingness to work cooperatively with Transport Canada to uphold the principles of aviation safety.
    52. Qualified Person - In the case of PPCs conducted in a simulator means:
      1. a pilot who holds a valid PPC (or foreign equivalent) on the same type of aircraft for which the other candidate is being checked on;
      2. a person who has been recommended for a flight check on that aircraft type; or
      3. a qualified training pilot on the same type of aircraft for which the candidate is being checked on, and that person is acceptable to both the operator and the PPC candidate.
    53. Safety Pilot - In the case of a multi-crew aircraft, a training pilot or a pilot who holds a valid PPC on the same type of aircraft on which the candidate is being checked.
    54. Scripted PPC - A document that governs the events presented to candidates during a PPC that is conducted in a simulator. The script provides a detailed plan for the execution of all mandatory flight test exercises (i.e., manoeuvres) in accordance with the Part VII Standard of the CARs– PPC Schedule. Additional information such as Air Traffic Control (ATC) communications and simulator device instructions are provided.
    55. Second-In-Command (SIC) - In relation to an aircraft, a pilot who reports to the pilot-in-command (PIC) on an aircraft type certificated for, or in operations requiring more than one required pilot flight crewmember. Synonymous with first officer (F/O) in this document.
    56. Simulator Component Inoperative Guide (SCIG) – Under Transport Canada, a guide providing relief from initial simulator approval requirements.
    57. Simulator PPC - A PPC conducted in a full-flight simulator.
    58. Special Authorization - The authorizations, conditions and limitations associated with the air operator certificate (AOC) and subject to the conditions in the operations manual. The term special authorization replaces operations specification (Ops Spec).
    59. Standard Operating Procedure(s) (SOPs) - procedures established by an operator enabling the crewmembers to operate the aircraft within the limitations specified in the aircraft flight manual (AFM), aircraft operating manual (AOM), and/or company operations manual (COM).
    60. TCE/ACP - An ACP who gains their qualification on the basis of their FAA (Part 142) training center evaluator (TCE) qualification and experience.
    61. Technical Skill Elements - In this manual, refers to aircraft handling and technical skills and knowledge. Technical skill elements are incorporated in the 4-Point Marking Scale.
    62. Threat and Error Management (TEM) - Threat and error management (TEM) can be considered defensive flying. It equips a pilot with skills and behaviour to recognize and avoid problems which if ignored or left unattended could result in an undesired aircraft state (UAS) and possibly lead to an incident or accident. TEM proposes that threats, errors and even undesired aircraft states (such as an altitude deviation) are everyday occurrences that pilots must manage to maintain safety. TEM is central to contemporary CRM.
    63. Training Pilot - A pilot who meets the requirements of the applicable Part VII Standard of the CARs.
    64. Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada (TATC) - A quasi-judicial body established in 2003 pursuant to the Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada Act. The Tribunal replaced the Civil Aviation Tribunal, which was established under Part IV of the Aeronautics Act in 1986.
    65. Undesired Aircraft State (UAS) - An aircraft position, speed, attitude or configuration that results from a flight crew error, action or omission which clearly reduces safety margins.
    66. Upgrade Training - The training undertaken by a second-in-command (SIC) to qualify as a pilot-in-command (PIC).
    67. Vital action - An action that must be taken by the flight crew to alleviate a situation that could jeopardize safety of flight, taken in a timely manner consistent with the AOM or SOPs as appropriate.
  2. The following abbreviations are applicable to this document:
    1. ACP - Approved Check Pilot;
    2. ADO - Associate Director, Operations;
    3. AFM - Aircraft Flight Manual;
    4. AOM - Aircraft Operating Manual;
    5. ATC - Air Traffic Control;
    6. ATPL - Airline Transport Pilot Licence, AA – Aeroplane; AH – Helicopter;
    7. CAI - Transport Canada Civil Aviation Inspector. Predecessor of Civil Aviation Safety Inspector (CASI);
    8. CARs - Canadian Aviation Regulations;
    9. CASI - Civil Aviation Safety Inspector;
    10. CASS - Commercial Air Service Standards;
    11. COM - Company Operations Manual;
    12. CPL - Commercial Pilot Licence (CA – Aeroplane or CH – Helicopter);
    13. CRP - Cruise Relief Pilot;
    14. CRM - Cockpit Resource Management;
    15. EASA - European Aviation Safety Agency;
    16. ETOPS - Extended Twin Engine Operations;
    17. FAA - Federal Aviation Administration;
    18. FARs - Federal Aviation Regulations;
    19. FCOM - Flight Crew Operations Manual;
    20. FOM - Flight Operations Manual;
    21. FSTD - Flight Simulation Training Device;
    22. HFM - Helicopter Flight Manual;
    23. IAP - Instrument Approach Procedure;
    24. IFR - Instrument Flight Rules;
    25. IFT - Instrument Flight Test;
    26. MAP - Missed Approach Point;
    27. MMI – Missing, Malfunction or Inoperative (components)
    28. OPI - Office of Primary Interest;
    29. PIC - Pilot-in-Command;
    30. PLPM - Personnel Licensing Procedures Manual;
    31. PORD - Private Operator Registration Document;
    32. PPC - Pilot Proficiency Check;
    33. RFM - Rotorcraft Flight Manual;
    34. SCIG - Simulator Component Inoperative Guide
    35. SIC - Second-in-Command;
    36. SID - Standard Instrument Procedure;
    37. SOP - Standard Operating Procedure;
    38. STAR - Standard Terminal Arrival;
    39. TATC - Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada;
    40. TCC - Transport Canada Centre;
    41. TC AIM - Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual (TP 14371);
    42. TEM - Threat and Error Management;
    43. TTL - Technical Team Lead;
    44. UAS - Undesired Aircraft State.

3.0 ACP Program and Services

3.1 ACP Authorities

  1. ACP Services to Part VII of the CARs Operators:
    1. An ACP may be authorized to conduct flight checks on select aircraft for which they hold an appropriate (blanket or individual) type rating and which are operated under the following Subparts of the CARs:
      1. Subpart 702;
      2. Subpart 703;
      3. Subpart 704; and
      4. Subpart 705.
  2. ACP (Type A) and (Type B):
    1. ACPs are classified as either Type A or Type B.
    2. ACPs (Type A) are authorized to conduct pilot proficiency checks (PPCs) in an approved simulator and/or an aircraft. They may also be authorized to conduct line checks in aircraft operated under Subpart 705 of the CARs.
    3. ACPs (Type B) are authorized to conduct line checks only as required under Subpart 705 of the CARs. ACP (Type B) authorizations are granted when an air operator requires checks of the following:
      1. enroute area navigation (RNAV) proficiency;
      2. cruise relief pilot certification; and/or
      3. extended range twin-engine operations (ETOPs) certification.
      Note: Refer to CARs Subpart 705.106(1)(d), the CARs Standards and AC 705-003 for more information.
    4. Below is a summary of possible ACP authorities:
      ACP Authorities (Type A) (Type B)
      PPC/IFR
      PPC/VFR
      PPC/IFR (Simulator Only)
      Line Checks
      (Subpart 705 of the CARs Only)
    5. Where an ACP’s (Type A) authority becomes invalid due to an expired ACP monitor, the ACP (Type B) authority to conduct line checks will remain in effect.
  3. Approved Aircraft Types - Aeroplanes
    1. Maximum Number
      1. An ACP’s accreditation will specify a maximum of three (3) aeroplane types.
      2. An ACP or ACP candidate may request an additional two types for a maximum of five (5) aeroplane types. In this case, an ACP or ACP candidate will be required to submit information in support of a risk assessment for the fourth and fifth aeroplane types.
    2. Other Possible Limitations
      1. Specific Series / Model(s) of Existing Aeroplane Types
        1. Specific series / model(s) of existing aeroplane types may carry significant differences from other series and models captured under the same pilot type rating.
      2. Automation and Technology
        1. Models of aeroplane equipped with integrated avionics suites, FMSs, EFIS, RNAV/GPS systems, or other advanced flight management and guidance technologies require a large amount of specific end-user knowledge from the ACP.
      3. Types and Complexity of Flight Operations
        1. For complex flight operations, the use of SOPs becomes increasingly important requiring ACPs to have a comprehensive knowledge of procedures used by the crews being evaluated.
      4. Any other reason deemed significant by Transport Canada.
    3. All non-high performance, single and multi-engine land and (if endorsed) seaplanes for which an individual type rating is not required are to be considered one (blanket) aeroplane type. Approvals to conduct flight checks on an aeroplane within this blanket type rating may be limited based on knowledge, experience and subject to other conditions detailed in this manual.
  4. Approved Aircraft Types - Helicopters
    1. Maximum Number
      1. The maximum number of helicopter types that an ACP is authorized to conduct PPCs on will depend if the helicopter is a multi-engine or a single-engine.
      2. PPCs that include an instrument procedures portion of the Schedule are conducted on a certified IFR helicopter.
      3. An ACP’s accreditation will specify one of the following:
        1. A maximum of three (3) helicopter types, if two (2) helicopters are twin-engines and one (1) is single-engine.
        2. A maximum of four (4) helicopter types, if one (1) helicopter is twin-engines and three (3) are single-engine.
        3. A maximum of five (5) helicopter types, if all five (5) are single-engine.
      4. The Minister may further limit the maximum number of types based on the complexity of the helicopter.
      5. An ACP, or ACP candidate, may request an additional type but only if the type requested is similar to one of the types already listed of the ACP accreditation and the ACP will be required to submit information in support of a risk assessment.
    2. Other Possible Limitations
      1. Specific Series / Model(s) of Existing Helicopter Types
        1. Specific series / model(s) of existing helicopter types may be deemed to carry significant differences from other series and models captured under the same type rating.
      2. Automation and Technology
        1. Models of helicopter equipped with integrated avionics suites, Flight Management Systems, EFIS, RNAV/GPS systems, or other advanced flight management and guidance technologies require a large amount of specific end-user knowledge from the ACP.
      3. Types and Complexity of Flight Operations
        1. For complex flight operations, the use of SOPs becomes increasingly important thus requiring ACPs to have a comprehensive knowledge of procedures used by the crews being evaluated.
      4. Any other reason deemed significant by Transport Canada.
  5. PPCs Conducted for the Sole Purpose of Issuing a Type Rating
    1. ACPs (Type A) are permitted to conduct a PPC on personnel not associated with a Canadian operator provided they are authorized to do so by Transport Canada.
    2. Under these circumstances, the candidate must have:
      1. completed a recognized program of ground and flight training on the aircraft type. This training may have been delivered by an approved Type Rating and Training Organization (TRTO) or FAR Part 142 Training Center;
      2. presented a minimum of 250 hours pilot flight time on aircraft; and
      3. passed a pilot proficiency check (PPC) conducted in accordance with Part VII of the CARs as they apply to the aircraft type.
    3. Upon successful completion of the PPC, the ACP may assign temporary privileges that include an individual type rating and/or an instrument rating provided the requirements of section 401.06 of the CARs are met.
    4. Consult Chapter 7 of this Manual – Administrative Procedures when completing the Flight Test Report – Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) for special completion requirements.
  6. PPCs Conducted for the Sole Purpose of Issuing an Instrument Rating
    1. ACPs (Type A) are permitted to conduct a PPC on personnel who are not associated with a Canadian operator, provided they are authorized to do so by Transport Canada.
    2. A successful PPC/IFR meets the skill requirements necessary for the issuance of an instrument rating.
    3. ACPs (Type A) may be authorized to issue an instrument rating for pilots employed by an operator but who are not required to pass a pilot proficiency check (PPC). This includes operations that permit a competency check.
    4. In this instance the ACP conducts a PPC event.
    5. Consult Chapter 7 – Administrative Procedures when completing the Flight Test Report – Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) for special completion requirements.
  7. Additional ACP Authorities
    1. In addition to the ACP authorities identified in this manual under Part VII of the CARs, ACPs are authorized under different parts of the CARs to conduct the following flight checks:
      1. Competency check under Subpart 604 of the CARs; and
      2. Instrument proficiency check (IPC) in accordance with Advisory Circular (AC) 401-004.
    2. Details of these authorities are not provided in this manual or the letter of ACP authority.
  8. Candidates who are ACPs
    1. An ACP may conduct a PPC on an ACP or CASI candidate without special authorization from Transport Canada.

3.2 Core Responsibilities

  1. An ACP is responsible for all aspects of their ACP accreditation which also includes administrative duties.
  2. An ACP may not exercise their accreditation and must notify Transport Canada if they are involved in any of the following situations:
    1. an aviation accident or incident;
    2. found to be in violation of the Aeronautics Act or in contravention of the CARs;
    3. their own flight check is unsuccessful;
    4. no longer in possession of a valid medical certificate; or
    5. a status change that may create a potential conflict of interest as outlined in this manual.
  3. An ACP is to make themselves available to Transport Canada when required for direct communication as it relates to the performance of the ACP’s duties.
  4. Conduct and Service
    1. ACPs both support and represent the Minister of Transport in delivering service under the ACP program.
    2. An ACP is expected to honour appointments unless circumstances warrant cancellation or postponement. It is the ACP’s responsibility to reschedule a flight check if the postponement is at the ACP’s request. If an ACP cancels a flight check without rescheduling, the ACP should recommend another ACP or at the very least, direct the operator or individual pilot to the appropriate Transport Canada regional office.
    3. As agents of the Minister, ACPs are required to be polite and respectful with flight check candidates and the operators they are employed with. At the same time, ACPs are required to exercise a duty of care and comply with the conflict of interest policy.

3.3 Conflict of Interest

  1. Conflict of interest is defined as any relationship, whether family, financial or otherwise, that might influence an ACP to act, either knowingly or unknowingly, in a manner that does not hold the safety of the flying public as the primary and highest priority.
  2. Perceived versus Real Conflict of Interest
    1. All ACPs are considered to be in a perceived conflict of interest if they are simultaneously employees (regular or contract) of the operator and delegates of the Minister when performing flight check duties.
    2. To avoid a real conflict of interest, it is imperative that ACPs strictly adhere to the policy and guidelines contained in this manual. Lack of adherence to these policies and guidelines may result in a suspension or cancellation of an ACP's accreditation.
  3. The following are examples of situations that could be considered a conflict of interest:
    1. a financial interest in the company;
    2. a direct involvement in company ownership;
    3. holding an upper management position, such as that of an accountable executive, director of flight operations or chief pilot;
    4. owning a substantial number of voting shares of the company;
    5. involvement with a pilot union or association;
    6. a particular relationship between an ACP and the flight check candidate such as when the candidate is an operations manager, accountable executive, chief pilot, supervisory pilot or another ACP;
    7. having family ties with company owners; and
    8. any privileges or favours which could bias an ACP's ability to conduct his or her duties.
  4. Declaring Potential Conflicts of Interest
    1. An interest, financial or otherwise in a company will not automatically disqualify a candidate from being granted ACP authority. Transport Canada will assess each case with consideration to all circumstances involved.
    2. To determine whether an ACP candidate’s conflict of interest is real or perceived, he or she will declare to Transport Canada any potential conflict of interest of which they have knowledge. ACPs must be prepared to discuss (at any time) a change to their status with respect to a potential conflict of interest.
    3. Should any ACP encounter a situation that they feel might constitute a real conflict of interest, a full report of the circumstances must be immediately submitted to Transport Canada.
    4. The final authority for deciding whether there is a conflict of interest that might affect the ACP’s ability to conduct an impartial flight check rests with Transport Canada.
  5. Obligation to Report Attempts to Obstruct or Influence
    1. An ACP must immediately notify Transport Canada of any effort by any person(s) to obstruct or influence them in the conduct of their ACP duties. Should this occur, Transport Canada will investigate the incident and take appropriate action.

3.4 Liability

  1. In providing services, ACPs are regarded as agents of the Crown to the extent that they act on behalf of the Minister.
  2. The Government of Canada, under the provisions of the Crown Liability and Proceedings Act will indemnify ACPs against personal liability incurred by reason of any act or omission within the scope of their duties.
  3. The Government of Canada will make no claim against an ACP for damages the Crown has to pay based upon personal liability provided the ACP acted honestly, without malice, within the scope of their ACP accreditation and with a standard of care that a reasonable person in their position engaged in the same activity would take.
  4. Additional information regarding ACP Liability can be obtained by consulting the document entitled: Liability through the exercise of Delegated Authority (TP11825).

3.5 Authorized Persons (Licensing Agents)

  1. The authorized person accreditation allows an individual to act as a licensing agent for Transport Canada for the purpose of issuing temporary privileges and streamlining the licensing process. ACPs (Type A) are normally delegated this privilege with certain restrictions.
  2. ACPs (Type A) with an authorized person accreditation may annotate temporary privileges (i.e., a new aircraft type rating and/or new instrument rating) on a pilot’s license. This allows a pilot to immediately exercise a new privilege while waiting for formal documentation to be issued by Transport Canada.
  3. Scope of Activities
    1. Unless stated otherwise in a letter of ACP accreditation, an ACP’s scope of activities as an authorized person is limited to the aircraft types listed in the letter of ACP accreditation.
  4. Required Knowledge
    1. ACPs (Type A) acquire authorized person knowledge on the ACP (initial or recurrent) course. This training includes information on the following:
      1. issuing individual type ratings (Aeroplane or Helicopter) as applicable;
      2. issuing initial instrument ratings; and
      3. completing the Application for Endorsement of a Rating (Form 26-0083).
  5. Documentation
    1. ACP authorized person privileges are issued with the letter of ACP accreditation.
  6. Validity Period
    1. Any extension to the validity period of an ACP (initial or recurrent) course automatically extends authorized person accreditation privileges to the same date with a new validity period calculated in the same manner.
  7. ACPs exercising authorized person privileges by processing an application for additional privileges must do the following:
    1. forward applicable documentation to Transport Canada within five (5) working days; and
    2. maintain copies of all documentation supporting the issuance of a rating for which temporary privileges have been granted, for a period of not less than two (2) years.

3.6 Sponsorship

  1. With the prior concurrence of Transport Canada, ACPs may be sponsored by an operator they are employed with. Regardless of the relationship between the ACP and their operator, ACPs act on behalf of the Minister when providing flight check services. Ultimately the responsibility of adhering to ACP program policies and guidance rests with the ACP and not the sponsoring organization.
  2. Communications
    1. Transport Canada will communicate directly with the ACP, the sponsoring organization or both in relation to an ACP’s duties or performance.
  3. Operator Assistance to Transport Canada
    1. The operator may assist Transport Canada with the following:
      1. establishing the need for ACPs within that organization;
      2. facilitating ACP nominations; and
      3. providing ACP training.
  4. Administrative ACP Support
    1. ACPs sponsored by an operator may, with the concurrence of Transport Canada use the operational infrastructure of a third party such as an operator’s system of scheduling flight checks, ACP monitors, and record keeping that meets the intent of this manual.
  5. Authorization from the Operator
    1. Although representing the Minister while providing flight checking services, ACPs also require the authority of an operator to conduct flight checks on its employees. This authority must be formal and a record of such an authority maintained.

3.7 Requesting ACP Services

  1. Canadian operators or individual pilots may obtain ACP services by:
    1. Assigning an ACP sponsored by an operator (preferred);
    2. Contracting an ACP using the Transport Canada Delegations Information System (DIS) – Approved Check Pilot Search website; or
    3. Contracting an FAA TCE/ACP at a FAR Part 142 Training Center.
    Note: This option is currently available at select FAR Part 142 Training Centres located in the United States.
  2. In the event that an operator or individual pilot is unable to coordinate the services of an ACP, they are encouraged to contact Transport Canada.
  3. Information to be Provided
    1. When requesting the services of an ACP, an operator or individual pilot must provide the following information to the ACP:
      1. type of fight check (i.e., PPC or line check);
      2. type of PPC (i.e., Initial, Renewal, or Upgrade) as required;
      3. pilot’s crew status during the flight check (i.e., pilot-in-command or second-in-command);
      4. pilot’s crew position (left seat or right seat);
      5. type rating and/or instrument rating required;
      6. Special Authorizations (formerly known as Ops Specs) requirements for the pilot being assessed (i.e., 600 or 1200 RVR, CAT II/III instrument approaches, GPS instrument approaches, minimum crew without second-in-command, etc.)
  4. ACPs must maintain the information above regarding a request for flight check services as part of their record keeping responsibilities.

3.8 Flight Check Notification Requirements

  1. Transport Canada must be notified in advance of flight checks conducted by ACPs. While seven (7) days is considered a minimum, procedures vary according to the following:
    1. whether an ACP is sponsored or not, and
    2. which Transport Canada region (or National Operations) is responsible for oversight.
  2. ACPs sponsored by an operator must follow notification requirements established between their operator and Transport Canada. ACPs not sponsored by an operator must establish notification requirements directly with their Transport Canada ACP representative.
  3. As a minimum, an ACP’s flight check schedule must be available upon request to Transport Canada as part of its oversight activities.

3.9 Training Center Evaluator / Approved Check Pilot (TCE/ACP) Initiative

  1. Many Canadian pilots receive aircraft type training from training centers located in the United States which are certified under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 142 and service US operators under Parts 91, 135 and 121.
  2. The training center evaluator/approved check pilot (TCE/ACP) program was developed to improve ACP services to Canadian operators and takes advantage of the knowledge already acquired by Part 142 TCEs with respect to specific aircraft types and flight checking (namely PPCs). This program is currently administered by Transport Canada’s Ontario region.
  3. Qualification Requirements
    1. Where Transport Canada considers delegating the conduct of flight checks under the CARs to individuals qualified to perform similar duties (i.e., Training Center Evaluator (TCE)), such applicants are expected to meet the intent of the various licensing, qualification, experience and currency requirements detailed in the ACP program.
    2. This is accomplished by holding licenses and qualifications, possessing a similar level of experience and maintaining currency in a form and manner that would be deemed equivalent by Transport Canada.
  4. Training
    1. In meeting the requirements of the ACP program, a unique ACP (initial and recurrent) course may be designed to provide transition training between the FAA and Transport Canada programs taking advantage of common knowledge and skills.
  5. Administrative Responsibilities
    1. Transport Canada authorized person (i.e., licensing agent) training may or may not be provided under the TCE/ACP program. TCE/ACPs not receiving this training and subsequent authorized person accreditation are precluded from issuing temporary licensing privileges.
    2. In cases where the TCE/ACP is not an authorized person, the following applies:
      1. Flight Test Reports
        1. A copy of the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) is provided to the client/operator for their records.
        2. The original Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) is sent to Transport Canada’s Ontario region for processing.
      2. Application for a Rating
        1. The original Flight Crew Permit / Licence - Application for Endorsement of a Rating form (Form 26-0083) is provided to the client/operator who will be required to contact Transport Canada.
      3. In order to obtain temporary privileges, pilot candidates are required to present the above documentation together with their completed training documents (e.g., record of training reports) to one of the following authorities for:
        1. authorized person within the company they are employed with;
        2. Transport Canada’s Ontario region; or
        3. any TCC personnel.
    3. In cases where the TCE/ACP is an authorized person, normal administrative procedures including the issuing of temporary privileges detailed in this manual apply.

4.0 Approved Check Pilot (ACP) Accreditation

4.1 General ACP Requirements

  1. An ACP candidate must possess the following:
    1. Pilot Licence
      1. A valid Canadian commercial pilot licence or airline transport pilot licence (ATPL) – aeroplane or helicopter.
      Note: ACP candidates seeking authority to conduct PPC/IFRs require an Airline Transport Pilot License (ATPL).
    2. Instrument Rating(s)
      1. An appropriate and valid instrument rating(s) where IFR operations are involved; or
      2. hold a valid Group 4 instrument rating (helicopter) where IFR or night VFR helicopter operations are involved.
    3. Type Rating(s)
      1. A type rating on each aircraft type requested on the candidate’s application form, where that aircraft requires an individual type rating;
    4. Pilot Proficiency Check(s) - Aeroplanes
      1. A valid pilot-in-command PPC on the most complex type of aeroplane as determined by the issuing authority.
      2. Appropriate and valid certifications if evaluating capabilities (e.g., special authorizations) such as RNP and/or RNP AR, RVR 1200/600/300, CAT II/III, heads up display (HUD), enhanced vision systems (EVS), etc., on the most complex type of aeroplane as determined by the issuing authority.
      3. On the remaining aeroplane types, the ACP must demonstrate operational experience or recent exposure within the last 24 months. For each type the following will satisfy this requirement:
        1. successfully passing a PPC (or foreign equivalency);
        2. recurrent ground school;
        3. simulator or aircraft training; or
        4. checking experience as a FAA TCE or EASA SFE.
    5. Pilot Proficiency Check(s) - Helicopters
      1. If authorized to conduct PPCs on a multi-engines helicopter, a valid pilot-in-command PPC on one of the multi-engine helicopter listed on the authorization.
      2. If no authorization on multi-engine helicopters, a valid pilot-in-command PPC on one of the single-engine helicopters listed on the authorization.
      3. For recency requirement on the remaining helicopter types listed on the authorization, the ACP must be able to demonstrate operational experience or recent exposure within the last 12 months. For each type the following will satisfy this requirement:
        1. piloting as a crew member;
        2. passing a PPC (or foreign equivalency);
        3. receiving flight training on the type of helicopter or simulator;
        4. giving flight training on the type of helicopter; or
        5. checking experience as a FAA TCE or EASA SFE.
      4. Appropriate and valid certifications if evaluating capabilities (e.g., special authorizations) such as CAT II/III, heads up display (HUD), enhanced vision systems (EVS), night vision imaging systems, etc. on the appropriate helicopter type as determined by the issuing authority.
    6. Pilot-In-Command Experience
      1. Be or have been employed as pilot-in-command on the type(s), category and class requested under the appropriate CARs Subpart.
      Note: a PPC held as pilot-in-command will be required for conducting PPCs involving CAT III operations.
    7. Training and/or Checking Experience
      1. Have experience as a training pilot or have demonstrated equivalent knowledge, skill, and ability (for example) as a flight instructor/pilot examiner, simulator instructor or military instructor/examiner;
    8. Knowledge
      1. Have knowledge of company operations manual(s), standard operating procedures, special authorization(s) (formerly known as Ops Specs), Aircraft Flight Manuals (AFMs), Minimum Equipment Lists (MELs), Safety Management System (SMS) and any other pertinent operational publications.
    9. Minimum Flight Experience
      1. 3000 hours of total flight time;
      2. 1500 hours of pilot-in-command time;
      3. Where multi-engine authority is requested, 500 hours pilot-in-command multi-engine time (with a minimum of 100 hours logged as pilot-in-command) in the applicable aircraft category; and
      4. Where PPC/IFR authority is requested;
        1. 300 hours of instrument time, of which a 150 hours PIC will be actual instrument flight time (aeroplanes); or
        2. 200 hours of instrument time, of which a 100 hours PIC will be actual instrument flight time (helicopters).
    10. Aircraft Exposure(s)
      1. Operational, training and/or instructional experience on each type is required. Transport Canada may consider line indoctrination, flight time, operational exposure, aircraft complexity and instructional training to establish the minimum experience required for each aircraft sought.
    11. History
      1. No history of any conviction under subsection 7.3(1) of the Aeronautics Act.
      2. No history of two or more convictions or administrative penalties, occurring during separate unrelated events, under the Canadian Aviation Regulations.
      3. Integrity and dependability in the aviation community.
      4. Professional suitability as defined by Transport Canada.
      5. A reputable safety record as a pilot, based on factual recorded events in regard to accidents or incidents (such as CADORs), where such records exist.
    12. Conflict of Interest
      1. No conflict of interest that could undermine the candidate’s ability to fulfill the responsibilities of an ACP is acceptable.
      2. Any potential conflicts of interests must be identified and documented along with the measures taken to ensure that the candidate’s ability to fulfill the responsibilities of an ACP is not compromised.

4.2 ACP Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) Requirements

  1. CARs Subpart Applicability
    1. An ACP’s PPC is conducted under a CARs Part VII Subpart applicable to the operator or pilots to which they provide checking services. Any CARs Part VII Subpart, however will allow an ACP to service any CARs Part VII Subparts. For example, an ACP whose PPC is conducted under Subpart 704 of the CARs is able to conduct PPCs under Subparts 702, 703 and 705 of the CARs, subject to the authorities listed on the letter of accreditation.
  2. Sponsored ACPs
    1. ACPs who are sponsored by an operator will have their PPC conducted at the frequency interval indicated by the training program of the operator with which they are associated. This will be in accordance with the CARs Subpart the operator operates under.
  3. Unsponsored ACPs
    1. ACPs who are not sponsored by an operator, will have their PPC conducted at the frequency interval indicated by the CARs Subpart as authorized by their ACP accreditation.

4.3 ACP Medical Certificate Requirements

  1. A valid PPC, which includes a valid medical certificate (Medical Category 1), is an essential ACP requirement for the purpose of obtaining and maintaining an ACP accreditation.
  2. During aircraft PPCs, ACPs will (as a minimum) participate as a flight crewmember (i.e., not a passenger) and contribute to safety of flight. As is expected of any pilot occupying a flight crew position, ACPs must refrain from conducting an aircraft PPC when aware of a medical condition that makes them unfit for duty whether or not temporary loss of medical privileges have been imposed.
  3. ACPs are required to advise Transport Canada in writing if they become unfit for an extended period of time (whether the medical certificate needed to be suspended or not) and then when they become fit again.

4.4 ACP (Simulator-Only)

  1. The ACP program recognizes situations where ACPs conducting simulator-only PPCs may not require a valid medical certificate (Medical Category 1).
  2. Where an ACP’s medical certificate (Medical Category 1) expires or where Transport Canada has suspended or refused to renew an ACP’s medical certificate (Medical Category 1), the ACP may obtain authority to continue ACP duties in a simulator only provided an application for simulator-only authority is submitted.
  3. ACPs granted ACP (Simulator-Only) authority must:
    1. have held a valid ATPL pilot license, an instrument rating and applicable type rating;
    2. have experience as a line pilot with an operator; and
    3. have Pilot-in-Command (PIC) experience on the aircraft type requested.
  4. ACPs granted ACP (Simulator-Only) authority are subject to normal ACP pilot proficiency check (PPC) requirements with the exception that, following a PPC, the Flight Test Report – Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) is not submitted to Transport Canada but is instead held on file by (or on behalf of) that ACP.

4.5 Establishing Need

  1. In order to mitigate administrative expenses and ensure due diligence while overseeing the ACP program, Transport Canada must establish need at a particular location or area within a Transport Canada region (or within National Operations) when considering an ACP candidate’s application.
  2. Establishing need is applicable to both initial and renewal applications for an ACP accreditation.
  3. Establishing need is determined by:
    1. number of flight checks expected to be conducted annually by the ACP candidate; and
    2. number, proximity and availability of other ACPs who can provide the same service.
    Note: An ACP’s proficiency at conducting flight checks is paramount. ACPs are expected to conduct a minimum of six (6) PPCs per year.

4.6 Initial ACP Accreditation

  1. There are five basic steps to an initial ACP accreditation:
    1. Step 1 – Initial ACP Accreditation Request & Candidate Pre-Assessment;
    2. Step 2 – ACP (Initial) Course;
    3. Step 3 – Knowledge Assessment;
    4. Step 4 – ACP (Initial) Monitor; and
    5. Step 5 – Transport Canada Brief.

4.7 Step 1 - Initial ACP Accreditation Request & Candidate Pre-Assessment

  1. Prior to enrolling in an ACP (initial) course, candidates seeking an ACP accreditation must first contact Transport Canada. ACP candidates will be asked to complete and forward an initial application.
  2. Transport Canada will consider the following with respect to an ACP candidate:
    1. need;
    2. expectations and requirements;
    3. professional suitability; and
    4. other factor(s) unique to the ACP candidate.
  3. Following this consideration, Transport Canada will respond to the ACP candidate with a decision as to whether an ACP accreditation can be pursued.
  4. Transport Canada must be contacted no later than 30 days in advance of any proposed ACP monitoring and/or assessment activities by Transport Canada.

4.8 Step 2 – ACP (Initial) Course

  1. ACP candidates must successfully complete a Transport Canada approved ACP (initial) course (both academic and practical phases) prior to proceeding to the knowledge and skills assessment conducted by Transport Canada. The academic phase is provided in a classroom setting whereas the practical phase is conducted in a simulator or aircraft.
  2. The curriculum for the ACP (initial) course is detailed in the document entitled Approved Check Pilot Program - Course Training Standard (RDIMS 5154456).
  3. Additional Flight Check Exposures
    1. To further enhance and develop their ACP competencies, ACP candidates should be scheduled to observe additional flight checks beyond the practical training prescribed in the Approved Check Pilot Program - Course Training Standard (RDIMS 5154456).
    2. These additional exposures should be scheduled prior to the knowledge and skill assessment conducted by Transport Canada. They should also be relevant to their intended ACP authorization (i.e., CARs Subpart, IFR versus VFR, and ACPs (Type A) versus ACPs (Type B)).
    3. Additional exposures should always be pursued with the consent of the pilot candidate(s) and operator involved.
  4. Course Availability
    1. Pilots who are sponsored by an operator will often attend an approved ACP (initial) course delivered by the operator itself. This training may also be outsourced.
    2. Approved ACP (initial) courses available to ACP candidates not sponsored by an operator (i.e., public courses) are listed on the Transport Canada ACP/AQP website.
  5. ACP (Initial) Course Validity Period
    1. The validity period of the ACP (initial or recurrent) course is 36 months. The valid-to date is calculated as follows:
      1. 23:59 local time on the first (1st) day of the thirty-seventh (37th) month following the completion date of the ACP (initial or recurrent) course.
    2. An ACP (initial or recurrent) course may be renewed within the last 90 days of its validity period. In this case, the ensuing validity period is extended by 36 months based on the original valid-to date.
  6. Course Variations
    1. The most common and widely applicable ACP (initial) course is that designed for ACPs (Type A) who will conduct PPC/IFRs in a simulator.
    2. Both the academic and practical phases of the ACP (initial) course may differ in order to accommodate:
      1. ACPs (Type A, VFR Only);
      2. ACPs (Type B);
      3. ACPs who service CARs Subparts 702 and 703 operators; and
      4. ACPs (Type A) who conduct helicopter PPCs.
    3. ACP (Type A, VFR Only) Training
      1. Academic Phase
        1. ACP (Type A, VFR Only) candidates have the option of attending either an approved ACP (initial) course designed to address PPC/IFRs or a course specifically designed to address PPC/VFRs.
        2. The academic phase of an approved ACP (initial) course may be delivered through an approved alternative ACP training program. An approved alternative ACP training program does not require candidates be present in a classroom but does require a self-study assignment (corrected to 100%) to be completed.
      2. Practical Phase
        1. ACP (Type A, VFR Only) candidates are only required to be trained and assessed on how to conduct a PPC/VFR.
        2. With written permission from Transport Canada, the practical phases of this training may be altered from what is detailed in the Approved Check Pilot Program - Course Training Standard (RDIMS 5154456).
    4. ACP (Type B) Training
      1. Academic Phase
        1. ACPs (Type A) and ACPs (Type B) must possess a number of similar skills and competencies. The academic phase of an ACP (initial) course designed to address PPC/IFRs likely addresses the requirements of an ACP (Type B) candidate. An ACP course providers should be consulted.
      2. Practical Phase
        1. ACP (Type B) candidates are only required to be trained and assessed in conducting a line check.
      3. Additional information concerning ACP (Type B) training requirements is found in Advisory Circular (AC) 705-003.
    5. Training For ACPs Who Service Subparts 702 and 703 of the CARs Operators
      1. Academic Phase
        1. The academic phase of an approved ACP (initial) course may be delivered under an approved alternative ACP training program. An approved alternative ACP training program does not require candidates be present in a classroom but does require a self-study assignment (corrected to 100%) to be completed.
      2. Practical Phase
        1. With written permission from Transport Canada, the practical phases of this training may be altered from what is detailed in the Approved Check Pilot Program - Course Training Standard (RDIMS 5154456).
    6. Training for ACPs (Type A) who conduct helicopter PPCs
      1. Academic Phase
        1. There are no changes to the policy concerning the academic phase of training.
      2. Practical Phase
        1. With written permission from Transport Canada, the practical phases of this training may be altered from what is detailed in the Approved Check Pilot Program - Course Training Standard (RDIMS 5154456).

4.9 Step 3 - Knowledge Assessment

  1. Upon the successful completion of an approved ACP (initial) course, ACP candidates must coordinate an ACP knowledge assessment conducted by Transport Canada. Normally both the knowledge assessment and ACP (initial) monitor would be coordinated at the same time.
  2. An assigned Transport Canada CASI will assess the ACP candidate’s level of knowledge in relation to the ACP accreditation sought (e.g., ACP (Type A, VFR Only) under Subpart 702 of the CARs).
  3. The assessment will be conducted in an interview format using prepared questions. This knowledge assessment will not include a closed book exam and candidates may reference source documentation to respond to questions.
  4. During the knowledge assessment, ACP candidates will successfully demonstrate knowledge of the following topics:
    1. the procedures and technique associated with conducting a flight check;
    2. the technique and standards used in the assessment and evaluation of a flight check;
    3. briefing and debriefing procedures and requirements;
    4. completion of the flight check forms (i.e. 26-0249 or 26-0279);
    5. completion of the Application for Endorsement of a Rating (Form 26-0083); and
    6. the content and application of the following:
      1. Part I of the CARs - Specifically the fee schedule;
      2. Part IV of the CARs - Personnel Licensing;
      3. Subparts 601, 602, 604, 605, 702, 703, 704, 705 of the CARs, and associated CARs Part VII Standards, as appropriate;
      4. Transport Canada Publication TP 6533 - Approved Check Pilot Manual;
      5. TP 14727 - Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Aeroplane), as applicable;
      6. TP 14728 - Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Helicopter), as applicable;
      7. Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual (TC AIM);
      8. Authorized person accreditation (found in the Approved Check Pilot Manual);
      9. Canada air pilot (CAP) or a similar publication acceptable to the minister;
      10. Instrument Procedures Manual, Aviation Publishers Co. Ltd., (ISBN 978-0-9730036-9-7);
      11. Canada Flight Supplement;
      12. Operator's COM, operating certificate and operations specifications, SOPs and AOM(s)/FCOM(s), as applicable;
      13. Appropriate Part VII Standard of the CARs – PPC Schedule(s);
      14. Commercial and Business Aviation Advisory Circulars, Advisory Circulars, ACP Bulletins, and other related pertinent guidance materials.
      15. Knowledge of Conflict of Interest; and
      16. Knowledge of Liability through the exercise of an ACP’s accreditation (found in the Approved Check Pilot Manual)
  5. Unsuccessful Knowledge Assessment
    1. If during the knowledge assessment the ACP candidate is not successful, the ACP candidate will not proceed to the skill assessment (i.e., ACP (initial) monitor).
    2. The ACP candidate will be debriefed on the areas that require remedial training and/or additional self-study and a subsequent knowledge and skill assessment will be required.
    3. During a subsequent knowledge assessment, the candidate will be required to present evidence to the Transport Canada CASI of remedial training and/or additional self-study.

4.10 Step 4 - ACP (Initial) Monitor

  1. The skill assessment requirement is satisfied by way of an ACP (initial) monitor.
  2. During an ACP (initial) monitor, the ACP candidate will be expected to demonstrate their skill to act as an ACP by conducting an appropriate PPC or line check. ACP monitors on PPCs are monitored by a CASI. Line checks are monitored by a CASI.
  3. Flight checks used for this purpose should involve regular line operational crews. The use of other ACPs, training pilots or supervisory pilots is strongly discouraged.
  4. ACP candidates seeking authority for more than one aircraft type must demonstrate the skill to conduct a flight check on (at least) one of the aircraft types for which an ACP authority is requested. Additional ACP monitors on different aircraft types may be required by Transport Canada. The aircraft type(s) chosen will be at the discretion of Transport Canada and based (in part) on the scope of the ACP accreditation being sought.
  5. Upon successful completion of an ACP (initial) monitor, the CASI will sign the appropriate Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) and attach a copy of the Approved Check Pilot (ACP) Monitor Report (Form 26-0387) to the ACP application file.
  6. Role-Playing (As Required)
    1. For some aircraft types and/or configurations, the skills assessment (i.e., ACP (initial) monitor) involving an actual PPC may not be practical. With the consent of the Transport Canada CASI conducting the skills assessment, a CASI may role-play the part of a flight test candidate.
    2. Scenarios should include exercises in which performance is simulated to be:
      1. well executed;
      2. executed with minor or major deviations/errors; and
      3. executed with critical deviations/errors.
  7. Unsatisfactory Skills Assessment (ACP (Initial) Monitor)
    1. In the event that the skills assessment (i.e., ACP (initial) monitor) is assessed as unsatisfactory, the CASI will debrief the ACP candidate on the areas that require remedial training prior to reapplying for a subsequent assessment.
    2. During a subsequent skills assessment, the candidate will be required to present evidence to the Transport Canada CASI of remedial training and/or additional self-study. Additionally, a subsequent skills assessment may necessitate a partial or complete knowledge reassessment.

4.11 Step 5 - Transport Canada Briefing

  1. Upon successful completion of the ACP knowledge assessment, the CASI will provide the ACP candidate the Transport Canada briefing. This briefing is designed to supplement and/or enhance the ACP candidate’s knowledge and may include the following topics:
    1. Delegation by Minister (i.e., ACP accreditation);
    2. Principles of evaluation;
    3. Conducting PPCs and/or line checks on behalf of the Minister;
    4. Administrative procedures; and
    5. Other advice.
  2. The sequencing of this briefing relative to the knowledge assessment and ACP (initial) monitor will depend several factors that may include the following:
    1. whether the ACP (initial) monitor is conducted in a simulator or aircraft; and
    2. which Transport Canada region (or National Operations) is conducting the assessment.
  3. The Transport Canada briefing may be combined with an overall debrief of the knowledge assessment and ACP (initial) monitor or provided following the knowledge assessment.

4.12 Renewal of an ACP Accreditation

  1. There are three basic steps to renewing an ACP accreditation:
    1. Step 1 – ACP Accreditation Renewal Request;
    2. Step 2 – ACP (Recurrent) Course; and
    3. Step 3 – ACP (Recurrent) Monitor.

4.13 Step 1 – ACP Accreditation Renewal Request

  1. Transport Canada will not notify an ACP of an expiring ACP accreditation.
  2. When requesting to renew an ACP accreditation, ACPs must continue to satisfy the following:
    1. need
    2. general ACP requirements;
    3. ACP (recurrent) course requirements; and
    4. ACP (recurrent) monitor requirements.
  3. Renewal of an ACP accreditation must be requested in writing by the ACP at least ninety (90) days prior to the validity period’s expiration date. The request must include the following:
    1. copy of the ACP (recurrent) course’s completion certificate;
    2. list of aircraft types requested; and
    3. the CARs Subparts and areas of ACP activity requested.
    Note: Information provided should be written exactly as the ACP would like it displayed on their ACP accreditation.
  4. Expired Validity Periods
    1. Where the validity period for an ACP course has been expired for 24 months or more, the ACP shall re-qualify by attending the theory and practical portions of an ACP (initial) course.
  5. When a new ACP accreditation is issued, the validity period will be based on the most recent ACP course completion date.

4.14 Step 2 - ACP (Recurrent) Course

  1. The curriculum for the ACP (recurrent) course is detailed in the document entitled Approved Check Pilot Program - Course Training Standard (RDIMS 5154456).
  2. The academic phase (i.e., theory portion) of an ACP (initial) course meets the requirements of an ACP (recurrent) course.
  3. ACP (Recurrent) Course Validity Period
    1. The validity period of the ACP (initial or recurrent) course is 36 months. The valid-to date is calculated as follows:
      1. 23:59 local time on the first (1st) day of the thirty-seventh (37th) month following the completion date of the initial or recurrent ACP (recurrent) course.
    2. An ACP (recurrent or initial) course may be renewed within the last 90 days of its validity period. In this case the ensuing validity period is extended by 36 months based on the original valid-to date.

4.15 Step 3 - ACP (Recurrent) Monitor

  1. The purpose of the ACP (recurrent) monitor is to verify that a uniform standard is applied during the conduct of flight checks. An ACP (recurrent) monitor is very similar to an ACP (initial) monitor with the exception that if qualified, the ACP being monitored will complete and submit the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) and any other required documentation.
  2. PPCs versus Line Checks
    1. ACP (Type A) monitors will always be conducted during PPC events.
    2. ACP (Type B) monitors are not required to maintain an ACP (Type B) accreditation.
  3. Aircraft Type
    1. Where an ACP (Type A) is authorized to conduct PPCs on more than one aircraft type, the aircraft type upon which the ACP monitor is conducted is at the discretion of Transport Canada. One ACP monitor may or may not cover all types.
  4. ACP (Recurrent, Type A) Monitor Validity Period
    1. The validity period of an ACP (recurrent, Type A) monitor is normally twenty-four (24) months. Transport Canada may establish an ACP (recurrent) monitor validity period of twelve (12) months in response to various criteria adversely affecting risk levels. These include:
      1. simulator versus aircraft;
      2. IFR versus VFR;
      3. regulatory subpart(s),
      4. aircraft complexity; or
      5. other factors.
      Note: An ACP (initial, Type A) monitor validity period is always twelve (12) months.
    2. In the case of a twenty-four (24) month validity, the valid-to date is calculated as follows:
      1. 23:59 local time on the first (1st) day of the twenty-fifth (25th) month following the completion date of an ACP (recurrent) monitor.
    3. In the case of a twelve (12) month validity, the valid-to-date is calculated as follows:
      1. 23:59 local time on the first (1st) day of the thirteenth (13th) month following the completion date of an ACP (recurrent) monitor.
  5. ACP (Recurrent, Type A) Monitor Renewal
    1. An ACP (recurrent) monitor may be renewed within the last 90 days of its validity period. In this case the ensuing validity period is extended by either twenty-four (24) or twelve (12) months based on the original valid-to date.
  6. Unscheduled ACP (Type A) Monitor
    1. ACPs and the conduct of flight checks are closely monitored at the discretion of Transport Canada. Transport Canada may choose to monitor any flight check conducted by an ACP (Type A) within the ACP’s monitor validity period.
    2. A revised validity period may or may not be established.
  7. Expired ACP (Type A) Monitor – Revised Validity Period
    1. Where the validity period of an ACP monitor is renewed after the expiry date, the new ACP monitor may expire on the first day of the thirteenth (13th) or twenty-fifth (25th) month following the date on which the ACP monitor was completed.
  8. Extensions to an ACP (Type A) Monitor Validity Period
    1. Transport Canada may extend the validity period of an ACP monitor by up to sixty (60) days where, in Transport Canada’s opinion, aviation safety is not likely to be affected.
    2. Any extension to a validity period must be requested by the ACP in writing prior to the end of the current ACP monitor’s valid-to date.
    3. Where the validity period of an ACP monitor has been extended and subsequently renewed after the original valid-to date, a new valid-to date will be calculated in accordance with the applicable monitoring interval based on when the actual ACP monitor was completed.
    4. ACPs are required to notify Transport Canada well in advance of their ACP monitor valid-to date. Sixty (60) days is recommended as a minimum.
  9. Unsatisfactory ACP (Recurrent, Type A) Monitor
    1. In the event that the ACP (recurrent) monitor is assessed as unsatisfactory, the CASI will debrief the ACP on the areas that require remedial training prior to reapplying for a subsequent assessment.
    2. During a subsequent assessment, the ACP will be required to present evidence to the CASI of remedial training and/or additional self-study. A subsequent ACP (recurrent) monitor may necessitate a knowledge assessment.

4.16 Letter of ACP Accreditation

  1. Formal authority for an ACP to conduct flight checks is provided through the issuance of a letter of ACP accreditation.
  2. A letter of ACP accreditation is pursuant to Part 1 Section 4.3(1) of the Aeronautics Act and allows an ACP to act on the Minister’s behalf with certain associated conditions. This letter is considered a Canadian Aviation Document (CAD) and is recognized before the Transportation Appeals Tribunal of Canada (TATC).
  3. In the letter of ACP accreditation, conditions of the ACP’s accreditation are specified which include:
    1. type(s) of ACP accreditation (e.g., ACP (Type A), ACP (Type B), ACP (VFR Only), etc.);
    2. the CARs Subpart(s) under which the ACP is authorized to conduct flight checks;
    3. the aircraft type(s) upon which the ACP is authorized to conduct flight checks and any specific limitations;
    4. Authorized Person privileges if applicable; and
    5. other information deemed important by Transport Canada.
  4. The letter contains a validity period which is subject to conditions of renewal.
  5. An ACP’s accreditation may be cancelled or suspended for any breach of a condition of issuance, administrative reason or for any other reason set out in sections 6.9 to 7.1 of the Aeronautics Act or in the CARs.
  6. Upon completion of a successful ACP (initial) monitor, an ACP can normally expect to receive their letter of ACP accreditation within 15 working days as indicated in TP14984. The ACP should not schedule any flight check activities until in possession of their letter.

4.17 Duration (Validity Period) of an ACP Accreditation

  1. The duration of an ACP accreditation (i.e., validity period) is tied to the ACP (initial or recurrent) course validity period. This applies to all ACP accreditations whether they are an initial, renewal or an amended accreditation.
  2. The duration of an ACP accreditation may be extended up to a maximum of ninety (90) days under certain circumstances.

4.18 Revocation of an ACP Accreditation

  1. Transport Canada will issue a letter of revocation to an ACP under Section 103.07 of the CARs where the ACP advises the Minister that the ACP accreditation is no longer desired or the Minister deems that an ACP accreditation is no longer required.

4.19 Cancellation, Suspension, Refusal to Renew, Refusal to Issue or Amend

  1. Transport Canada may review an ACP’s accreditation for any of the following reasons:
    1. incompetence;
    2. failing to meet the qualification requirements or fulfill the maintenance conditions of the ACP’s accreditation; or
    3. public interest.
  2. Transport Canada may, pursuant to subsection 7.1(1) of the Act, suspend, cancel or refuse to renew an ACP’s accreditation. Transport Canada may, pursuant to subsection 6.71(1) of the Act, refuse to issue or amend an ACP’s accreditation. Prior to making a decision that would affect an ACP’s accreditation in this manner, Transport Canada would ensure the following:
    1. the ACP has been provided the opportunity to respond to the allegations; and
    2. a comprehensive report with recommendations has been created for due consideration.
  3. The ACP is entitled to procedural safeguards, under the Aeronautics Act, including recourse to the Transportation Appeals Tribunal of Canada (TATC).

4.20 Invalid or Expired ACP Accreditation

  1. The responsibility of ensuring that an ACP accreditation is valid while conducting a flight check rests with the ACP.
  2. Flight Check Ramifications
    1. When a flight check has been conducted by an ACP whose accreditation is invalid or expired, the flight check itself will be considered invalid. Transport Canada has the discretion to revalidate the flight check if, upon review it can be determined that the level of or potential risk to the public is minimal.
  3. When reviewing the circumstances of an invalid or expired ACP accreditation, the ACP will be required to submit information explaining the incident. Transport Canada will seek to determine if this was an isolated incident and/or an unintentional oversight. Repeated and/or intentional oversights will be examined further.
  4. In all cases, Transport Canada will request a meeting with the ACP to review the ACP’s qualifications and record keeping responsibilities. Conducting a PPC with an expired ACP monitor could result in a shorter period between monitors and increased surveillance.

4.21 ACP Monitor - Cost Recovery

  1. ACP monitors conducted by CASIs may be subject to current Civil Aviation Directive (CAD) No. 3: Recovering the Incremental Costs of Providing Services Inside/Outside Canada. The following identifies circumstances that influence cost recovery:
    1. within or outside of normal business hours;
    2. inside or outside of Canada; and
    3. Individual or company sponsored.
  2. Cost recovery shall be coordinated prior to an ACP monitor taking place. ACPs are advised to familiarize themselves with the latest cost recovery policies of their region.

4.22 Administrative ACP Monitoring

  1. Transport Canada may investigate and take action if an ACP has not complied with the Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Aeroplane) (TP14727), Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Helicopter) (TP14728) or is found to have any of the following:
    1. passing rates consistently well above or below national averages;
    2. PPC duration (flight) times that are consistently much shorter or longer than the national averages; or
    3. Flight check written comments in the GENERAL ASSESSMENT section of the Flight Test Report – Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) that do not adequately support the mark awarded.
  2. Transport Canada may also investigate and take action if an ACP has been involved in an accident, incident or a violation under the Aeronautics Act.

4.23 Complaints Concerning an ACP’s Conduct

  1. An operator and/or a flight check candidate has recourse to file a complaint concerning an ACP’s conduct that displays inappropriate or unprofessional behaviour. Complaints should be forwarded to the Transport Canada region responsible for the ACP.
  2. The Transport Canada regional office will review the nature of the complaint and determine if remedial action is required. Transport Canada could respond by dismissing the complaint or coordinating a complete re-test without prejudice to the candidate’s record by another ACP.
  3. All complaints will be reviewed carefully, without bias and in the interests of the ACP, operator and/or flight check candidate.

5.0 Principles of Evaluation

5.1 Evaluation Process

  1. Evaluation is the overall process of defining, observing and measuring a candidate's performance. ACPs follow this process in the delivery of flight checking services.
  2. In evaluating pilot performance, ACPs determine whether a candidate meets all required criteria of performance detailed in applicable guidance documentation.
  3. Observed performance must be analysed and form the basis of an assessment. This assessment must focus primarily on the following:
    1. candidate deficiencies; and
    2. specific degrees of skill.
  4. In addition to the candidate's performance, ACPs must consider and report to the operator the following:
    1. areas of weak instruction;
    2. areas of a training syllabus requiring improvement; and
    3. SOPs that are out of date with respect to other primary sources of information (e.g., latest AFM changes).

5.2 Stages of Evaluation

  1. The evaluation process has five stages:
    1. Stage 1 - Aim
      1. The first stage determines the objective of each flight check exercise. Since it would be meaningless to evaluate the candidate's performance without considering what that performance should be, the process of evaluation should begin with clearly defined objectives.
    2. Stage 2 - Standards
      1. To be proficient in evaluating a candidate's performance during a flight check, the ACP must be completely familiar with the standards for each item.
    3. Stage 3 - Performance
      1. During the Flight Check, the ACP assigns the tasks or manoeuvres and observes the candidate's performance in response to the situations presented.
    4. Stage 4 - Observation
      1. The ACP observes the performance and compares it to established performance criteria.
    5. Stage 5 - Assessment
      1. Based on observation of the candidate's performance, the ACP assesses the performance and assigns a mark.

5.3 Factors Affecting Evaluations

  1. Evaluations of pilot performance are subject to the following factors that the ACP must be aware to ensure an unbiased analysis of their observations:
    1. reliability;
    2. validity;
    3. comprehensiveness;
    4. discrimination; and
    5. objectivity.
  2. Reliability
    1. Ideally, two identical performances will result in identical flight check assessments. There are, however human factors that can have a significant effect on flight check reliability.
    2. Human factors include, but are not limited to the following:
      1. Fatigue - insufficient sleep or rest prior to the flight check;
      2. Emotions - work or home related personal problems;
      3. Health - cold or flu, etc.;
      4. Time of day - very early in the morning, or last trip of the day, being rushed; and
      5. Distractions - noise, interruptions, etc.
  3. Validity
    1. Flight checks are valid if they measure what they are supposed to measure and nothing else. The scope of a flight check must be such that when candidates pass, they have met all of the required standards.
  4. Comprehensiveness
    1. A flight check is comprehensive if it conforms to the items required in the flight check guidance documentationwith no additions or deletions.
  5. Discrimination
    1. Discrimination enables the ACP to detect different levels of performance among candidates. Discrimination separates standard performance from above and below standard performance.
    2. A standardized marking scale used during flight checks is designed to assess candidates' performances and allow for a greater degree of discrimination rather than a simple pass or fail of a flight test exercise.
  6. Objectivity
    1. Objectivity ensures the ACP's personal opinions do not affect the outcome or assessment of the flight check.
    2. ACPs must endeavor to remain objective at all times and evaluate flight check performance objectively.

5.4 Evaluation Errors

  1. In order to assess effectively, ACPs requires a firm understanding of possible evaluation errors that can occur during a flight check. Errors in evaluation fall into several categories, they are:
    1. Personal Bias;
    2. Central Tendency;
    3. Generosity;
    4. Severity;
    5. Halo Effect;
    6. Stereotype;
    7. Logical Errors;
    8. Narrow Criterion;
    9. Delayed Grading; and
    10. Standards Errors.
  2. Personal Bias
    1. Personal bias error is indicated by the tendency of an ACP to rate candidates or a particular group of candidates the same. An ACP must not allow personal prejudices to interfere with the objective evaluation of a candidate's performance.
  3. Central Tendency
    1. Central tendency error is indicated by a tendency to rate all or most candidates as average. The ACP may feel that the performance of most candidates is not as good as it should be and therefore underscores good performance.
    2. On the other hand, if the ACP is reluctant to cope with the possible emotional response of a candidate (or a recommending instructor) following a poor performance, an inflated assessment may result. An average versus lower mark is viewed as less contentious.
  4. Generosity
    1. Generosity errors are indicated by a tendency to rate all individuals at the high end of the marking scale. This could be caused by an ACP's desire to be known as a favourable person.
  5. Severity
    1. Severity errors are opposite to generosity errors and result in all or most candidates being graded at the low end of the marking scale. ACP's may feel that published standards are too low and will instead rate performance against their own set of standards.
  6. Halo Effect
    1. Halo effect error occurs when an ACP's impression of a candidate is allowed to influence the assessment of performance. Halo effect error can result in rating an applicant either too high or too low.
    2. One form of halo error is the error of leniency. Leniency has its source in an ACP's likes, dislikes, opinions, prejudices, moods and political or community influence of people. For example, when testing a friend or high profile individual, an ACP may (knowingly or unknowingly) inflate the marks.
  7. Stereotype
    1. Stereotype errors also have their source in likes, dislikes, opinions, prejudices, etc. ACPs might allow personal opinion or prejudice to influence the assessment of the candidate and might (knowingly or unknowingly) deflate or inflate the marks.
  8. Logical Errors
    1. Logical errors occur when an ACP assumes that a high degree of ability in one area implies a similar degree of competence in another area. This is especially true if the two items being assessed are similar or related.
    2. A good mark on one or two flight test exercises does not mean the candidate is competent on all items.
  9. Narrow Criterion
    1. Narrow criterion errors might occur when an ACP has a group of candidates to test. The ACP might, under these conditions rate each candidate against the others within the group instead of against a published standard.
    2. If the group being evaluated is above average, a candidate who is of average ability might be awarded an undeservedly low mark. If the group of candidates is below average, then a candidate who performs the best within this group might be awarded a higher assessment than deserved.
    3. When working with a group of candidates, there might also be a tendency to compare one candidate to another. When conducting a flight test however, compare the candidate's performance to an expressed standard and not to a person who is more or less skilled.
  10. Delayed Grading
    1. Delayed grading error occurs when there is a delay in the assessment of an exercise, resulting in a tendency to award average marks due to the lack of information and/or poor recall. By not assessing an exercise immediately, ACPs might assess performance based on an overall impression of the flight check.
  11. Standard Errors
    1. Standard errors occur when an ACP is not thoroughly familiar with established performance criteria. It is virtually impossible to conduct an accurate evaluation without this knowledge.

5.5 Oral Questioning

  1. Oral questions during the ground portion of a flight check should be considered and prepared to ensure validity, relevancy and clarity. Good questions are easily understood and composed of common words. They should also measure applicable knowledge and not the use of language.
  2. Questions should also be practical and operational in nature. Trick or irrelevant questions must be avoided as should theoretical questions.
  3. When preparing questions, the correct answer should be considered first and then the question formulated that will elicit that answer. Each question should focus on one idea only. The ACP can guide the candidate through a complex procedure by asking what, why, where, when and how after asking an initial basic question.
  4. Questions (during the ground portion of the check) should encourage the candidate to think. Questions that merely require a yes or no response doesn't effectively reveal a candidate's level of understanding. It is more beneficial to guide the candidate's thought process towards an area to be questioned so that they can situate themselves and provide a more informed response.
  5. Questions posed during the aircraft portion of a check should be limited to situations where clarifications are required. Questions must not distract the candidate from task performance, inject confusion or induce a loss of situational awareness.
  6. Assessing Responses
    1. When assessing a candidate's answer, the ACP's role is different from the instructor's. ACPs are required to observe and evaluate but not correct.
    2. ACPs should avoid confirming an answer either positively or negatively. By responding with, for example, “No, that's incorrect”, a candidate's self-confidence and performance may be undermined. While ACPs should avoid leading candidates to the correct answer, requests for clarification are allowed.

5.6 The 4-Point Marking Scale

  1. The 4-Marking Scale is used during flight checks to document a candidate's performance. The scale includes both technical and non-technical skill elements. It is designed to measure the quality of performance rather than assigning a pass or fail grade to each flight test exercise.
  2. Technical skill elements have formed the basis of flight checking for many years. Although traditionally considered stick and rudder skills, assessments of these skill elements have evolved with, for example the use of automation. Non-technical skill elements reflect more modern assessments of crew resource management within a flight check.
  3. A comprehensive knowledge of the 4-Point Marking Scale's elements and grading matrix is essential so that marks and supportive comments can be derived accurately and withstand scrutiny. The 4-Point Marking Scale - Grading Matrix is provided to assist ACPs.

5.7 The 4-Point Marking Scale Technical and Non-Technical Skill Elements

  1. The 4-Point Marking Scale contains the following technical skills elements:
    1. Aircraft Handling; and
    2. Technical Skills and Knowledge.
  2. The 4-Point Marking Scale contains the following non-technical skill elements:
    1. Cooperation;
    2. Leadership and Managerial Skills;
    3. Situational Awareness; and
    4. Decision Making.

5.8 Technical Skill Element - Aircraft Handling

  1. Aircraft handling is a technical skill element.
  2. Aircraft Handling is comprised of one sub-element:
    1. Quality and Accuracy
      1. Quality of the aircraft's flight path vector is considered by observing smoothness, coordination and appropriateness of control inputs throughout all levels of automation.
      2. The use of techniques or procedures, the performance relative to specified tolerances, actions taken when deviations occur, magnitude of deviations and promptness of corrections are assessed.
      3. The ability to control the aircraft during abnormal or emergency situations is considered.
  3. Aircraft handling flight test exercise tolerances are found in either of the following:
    1. TP 14727 - Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Aeroplane); or
    2. TP 14728 - Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Helicopter)
  4. Assessments of aircraft handling are mostly quantitative.

5.9 Technical Skill Element - Technical Skills and Knowledge

  1. Technical skills and knowledge are a technical skill element.
  2. Technical skills and knowledge is comprised of two sub-elements:
    1. Practical Understanding
      1. The understanding and practical use of aircraft systems, automation interfaces and operating procedures.
      2. The practical use and understanding of all applicable information necessary for safe flight such as performance data, charts, weather information and physiological factors.
      3. A competency that ‘gets the job done' safely and efficiently.
    2. Following SOPs/ Rules/ Regulations
      1. Knowledge of and adherence to SOPs, rules and regulations by the candidate and the flight crew.
  3. Technical skills and knowledge requirements of each flight test exercise are identified in either of the following:
    1. TP 14727 - Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Aeroplane); or
    2. TP 14728 - Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Helicopter); and
    3. other sources such as AFMs/HFMs, SOPs, MMELs etc.
  4. Assessments of technical skills and knowledge are mostly qualitative.

5.10 Non-Technical Skill Element - Cooperation

  1. Cooperation is a non-technical skill element.
  2. Cooperation is defined as the ability to work effectively as a crew. It does not refer to the work itself or the quality and quantity of output.
  3. Good cooperation is largely dependent on active and open communication between crewmembers and external agencies (e.g., ATC).
  4. Cooperation is comprised of four sub-elements:
    1. Team Building and Maintaining
      1. Establishing positive interpersonal relations, open communications and active participation of teammates/crewmembers in fulfilling tasks.
      2. Encouraging input and feedback while not competing with others.
    2. Consideration of Others
      1. Taking notice of the suggestions of other crew members even if not in agreement.
      2. Considering the condition of other crew members.
      3. Providing personal feedback.
    3. Support of Others
      1. Helping other crew members in demanding situations.
      2. Offering assistance.
    4. Solving Conflicts
      1. Remaining calm during interpersonal conflicts.
      2. Suggesting conflict solutions.
      3. Concentrating on what is right rather than who is wrong.
  5. Assessments of cooperation are qualitative.

5.11 Non-Technical Skill Element - Leadership and Managerial Skills

  1. Leadership and managerial skills are a non-technical skill element.
  2. Leadership and managerial skills are the active and goal-directed coordination of the working activities within the crew. While all crew members are expected to initiate safe and efficient achievement of the flight goals, the final and legal responsibility for the operation on the whole rests, undivided, with the pilot-in-command.
  3. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) defines a leader as a person whose ideas and actions influence the thought and the behaviour of others. The leader is a means of change and influence. It is important to distinguish between leadership which is acquired and authority which is assigned. Leadership is one aspect of teamwork and the success of a leader depends on the quality of his/her relationship with the team.
  4. Leadership and managerial skills are comprised of four sub-elements:
    1. Use of Authority and Assertiveness
      1. Balancing between a required assertiveness and fostering crew member participation. If situation requires, decisive actions are expected.
    2. Providing and Maintaining Standards
      1. Ensuring compliance with standards (e.g., SOPs). Mutually supervising and intervening in cases of deviations from standards. Applying non-standard procedures where such deviations are communicated and/or consulted with the flight crew.
      2. A willingness to achieve top performance via adherence to standards.
    3. Planning and Coordination
      1. Participating in planning and task completion by crew members.
      2. Stating and confirming plans. Clearly stating goals and boundaries.
      3. Changing plans where necessary and consulting crew members.
    4. Workload Management
      1. Prioritizing primary and secondary operational tasks.
      2. Distributing tasks appropriately among crewmembers based on sound planning.
      3. Allotting adequate time to accomplish required tasks.
      4. Communicating and taking into account signs of stress and fatigue as factors affecting performance.
      5. Using available external and internal resources (including automation) to accomplish tasks in the required time.
  5. Assessments of leadership and management skills are qualitative.

5.12 Non-Technical Skill Element - Situational Awareness

  1. Situational awareness is a non-technical skill element.
  2. Situational awareness is defined as an ability to accurately perceive what is taking place inside and outside the aircraft, or simply put, knowing what is going on. It precisely relates to the perception of the elements in the environment within a volume of time and space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status in the near future.
  3. Situational awareness is comprised of three sub-elements:
    1. System Awareness
      1. Recognizing and anticipating the mode and state of aircraft systems.
    2. Environmental Awareness
      1. Being aware of an active environment that includes airspace, weather conditions, traffic separation, and terrain clearance.
      2. Collecting information about the environment and contacting outside resources when necessary.
      3. Sharing key information about the environment.
    3. Awareness of Time and Anticipation of Future Events
      1. Being aware of time and anticipated future events relating not only to the aircraft's physical movement and energy state but also fuel management.
      2. Discussing time constraints and contingency strategies.
      3. Identifying possible future problems.
  4. Communication is the medium through which situational awareness can be assessed.
  5. Assessments of situational awareness are qualitative.

5.13 Non-Technical Skill Element - Decision Making

  1. Decision making is a non-technical skill element.
  2. Decision making is defined as the process of making a judgment call or choosing an option.
  3. Various decision points differ enormously in what they demand of the crew, what options and supports exist in SOPs and policies for making decisions, and what features may make the situation difficult or error-prone.
  4. Decision-making is comprised of four sub-elements:
    1. Problem Definition / Diagnosis
      1. Accurately defining a problem is dependent upon one's situational awareness and attending to critical information. It also relies upon avoiding perception errors.
      2. Gathering information to identify a problem is observed.
      3. Reviewing causal factors with other crew members.
    2. Option Generation
      1. Generating options through an unbiased collective effort where possible.
      2. Stating alternative options.
      3. Seeking opinions from crew members.
    3. Risk Assessment
      1. Assessing risks by way of an unbiased and collective effort where possible, subject to time available.
      2. Considering and sharing risks of alternative options.
      3. Talking about potential risks in terms of crew limitations.
    4. Option Selection
      1. Confirming and stating selected option and/or agreed upon action.
    5. Outcome Review
      1. Incorporating a measure of evaluation when a decision is implemented.
      2. Checking outcomes against a plan.
  5. Assessments of decision making are qualitative.

5.14 Definition of Undesired Aircraft State (UAS)

  1. The term undesired aircraft state (UAS) is used extensively within the 4-Point Marking Scale. Understanding the precise definition of this term is critical to distinguishing between a minor, major and critical error.
  2. A UAS is defined as "an aircraft position, speed, attitude or configuration that results from a flight crew error, action or omission which clearly reduces safety margins."

5.15 Definitions of Effective, Adequate, Poor and Unacceptable

  1. The following adjectives are used extensively in the 4-Point Marking Scale. The following definitions of each word are provided:
    1. Effective - Successful in producing a desired or intended result.
    2. Acceptable - Satisfactory or allowable.
    3. Poor - Worse than is usual, expected or desirable.
    4. Unacceptable – Not satisfactory or allowable.

5.16 Deviations and Errors

  1. Deviations and errors are incorporated in the 4-Point Marking Scale.
  2. Deviations
    1. A deviation is a quantifiable measurement of a variation in precision from a specified flight test exercise tolerance.
    2. Deviations are incorporated in the aircraft handling skill element of the 4-Point Marking Scale.
      Deviation Severity Description
      Minor Deviation
      • A deviation that does not exceed a specified tolerance.
      Major Deviation
      • A deviation that exceeds a specified tolerance by less than double; or
      • Repeated minor deviations without achieving stability.
      Critical Deviation
      • A deviation that exceeds a specified tolerance by more than double;
      • Repeated major deviations without achieving stability; or
      • Not identifying and correcting a major deviation.
  3. Errors
    1. An error is a qualitative assessment of an action or inaction by a flight crew that leads to a variation from flight crew intentions or expectations.
    2. Errors are incorporated in the technical skills and knowledge element of the 4-Point Marking Scale.
      Error Severity Description
      Minor Error
      • An action or inaction that is inconsequential to the completion of a task, procedure, or manoeuvre; and
      • Undesired Aircraft State (UAS) did not occur.
      Major Error
      • An action or inaction that is consequential to the completion of a task, procedure, or manoeuvre; and
      • Undesired Aircraft State (UAS) did not occur.
      Critical Error
      • An action or inaction that is consequential to the completion of a task, procedure, or manoeuvre; and
      • Undesired Aircraft State (UAS) occurred.

5.17 4-Point Marking Scale – Grading Matrix

Marks
4 3 2 1
Technical Skill Elements Aircraft Handling
  • No deviation
  • Effective quality and accuracy
  • Regulatory and aircraft limitations compliance
  • Safety of flight assured
  • Minor deviation
  • Acceptable quality and accuracy
  • Regulatory and aircraft limitations compliance
  • Safety of flight maintained
  • Major deviation
  • Poor quality and accuracy
  • Regulatory and aircraft limitations compliance
  • Safety of flight reduced
  • Critical deviation
  • Unacceptable quality and accuracy
  • Regulatory or aircraft limitations non-compliance
  • Safety of flight compromised
Technical Skills and Knowledge
  • No error
  • Effective practical understanding
  • Effective following SOPs, rules and regulations
  • Minor error
  • Acceptable practical understanding
  • Acceptable following SOPs, rules and regulations
  • Major error
  • Poor practical understanding
  • Poor following SOPs, rules and regulations
  • Critical error
  • Unacceptable practical understanding
  • Unacceptable following SOPs, rules and regulations
Non-Technical Skill Elements Cooperation
  • Effective team building and maintaining
  • Effective consideration of others
  • Effective support of others
  • Effective solving conflicts
  • Acceptable team building and maintaining
  • Acceptable consideration of others
  • Acceptable support of others
  • Acceptable solving conflicts
  • Poor team building and maintaining
  • Poor consideration of others
  • Poor support of others
  • Poor solving conflicts
  • Unacceptable team building and maintaining
  • Unacceptable consideration of others
  • Unacceptable support of others
  • Unacceptable solving conflicts
Leadership and Managerial Skills
  • Effective use of authority and assertiveness
  • Effective providing and maintaining standards
  • Effective planning and coordination
  • Effective workload management
  • Acceptable use of authority and assertiveness
  • Acceptable providing and maintaining standards
  • Acceptable planning and coordination
  • Acceptable workload management
  • Poor use of authority and assertiveness
  • Poor providing and maintaining standards
  • Poor planning and coordination
  • Poor workload management
  • Unacceptable use of authority and assertiveness
  • Unacceptable providing and maintaining standards
  • Unacceptable planning and coordination
  • Unacceptable workload management
Situational Awareness
  • Effective system awareness
  • Effective environmental awareness
  • Effective awareness of time and anticipation of future events
  • Acceptable system awareness
  • Acceptable environmental awareness
  • Acceptable awareness of time and anticipation of future events
  • Poor system awareness
  • Poor environmental awareness
  • Poor awareness of time and anticipation of future events
  • Unacceptable system awareness
  • Unacceptable environmental awareness
  • Unacceptable awareness of time and anticipation of future events
Decision-Making
  • Effective problem definition / diagnosis
  • Effective option generation
  • Effective risk assessment & option selection
  • Effective outcome review
  • Acceptable problem definition / diagnosis
  • Acceptable option generation
  • Acceptable risk assessment & option selection
  • Acceptable outcome review
  • Poor problem definition / diagnosis
  • Poor option generation
  • Poor risk assessment & option selection
  • Poor outcome review
  • Unacceptable problem definition / diagnosis
  • Unacceptable option generation
  • Unacceptable risk assessment & option selection
  • Unacceptable outcome review

5.18 Observing and Grading Technical Skill Elements

  1. When grading technical skill elements (i.e., aircraft handling and technical skills and knowledge), ACPs must refer to the 4-Point Marking Scale. Flight test exercise information contained in the Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide and other pertinent documentation such as regulations, AFMs/HFMs, SOPs, MMELs etc. must also be used.
  2. ACP Discretion
    1. ACPs have some (i.e., limited) discretion when assessing the candidate's performance against published tolerances and limitations.
    2. Existing Conditions
      1. Deviations or errors influenced by weather, turbulence, traffic, emergencies or other situations reasonably beyond the control of the candidate may be considered by the ACP when assigning a mark of two (2) versus a one (1).
    3. Corrective Actions and Safety of Flight Not Compromised
      1. ACPs have some (i.e., limited) discretion with respect to deviations or errors when assigning a mark of two (2) versus one (1) provided the following:
        1. corrective measures were applied by the candidate; and
        2. although reduced, safety margins were not compromised.

5.19 Observing and Grading Non-Technical Skill Elements

  1. Assessing non-technical skill elements is more challenging as these assessments must be based on observable behaviour.
  2. Observable behaviour must be seen more than once during a particular flight test exercise in order to assess a certain level of non-technical performance. This is not always possible and therefore not all non-technical skill elements will be assessable during each flight test exercise.
  3. Examples of behaviours that can be directly observed or inferred by crew interaction are as follows:
    1. Active monitoring of weather, aircraft systems, instruments and ATS communications;
    2. Sharing of relevant information;
    3. Statement and acknowledgement of goals and plans;
    4. Proper communication and acknowledgement with respect to workload distribution;
    5. Prioritization of secondary operational tasks;
    6. Recognition of situations leading to task saturation;
    7. Proper planning of time and space with respect to aircraft manoeuvring or the completion of procedures;
    8. Recognition and acknowledgement of aircraft status and mode changes;
    9. Use of recommended terminology as per SOPs with no or limited chatter; and
    10. Recognition and avoidance of potential distractions caused by automation or crew workload.
  4. Minimum Non-Technical Skill Element Mark
    1. The minimum mark that can be assigned to a non-technical skill element is two (2).

5.20 Related Non-Technical Concepts

  1. The non-technical elements incorporated in the 4-Point Marking Scale are CRM based. Over time traditional human factors programs like CRM have evolved to highlight new areas of interest (e.g., communications and automation) and different approaches to human error management (e.g., threat and error management (TEM)).
  2. Although not expressly identified within the 4-Point Marking Scale at this time, the following are related non-technical concepts:
    1. Communication;
    2. Automation; and
    3. Threat and Error Management.
  3. While these related non-technical concepts are expressed somewhat within established non-technical skill elements, it is important that ACPs be familiar with these concepts and be able to observe and facilitate further discussions during debrief.
  4. The following introductory information on communications and automation was obtained from the recently developed National Defense document titled Human Performance in Military Aviation (HPMA) Handbook, A-PD-050-HPM/PT-001.

5.21 Related Non-Technical Concept - Communication

  1. Communication is the process of exchanging ideas through a common system of verbal and non-verbal signals. Effective communication ensures that the other person has understood what has been said and not just received it.
  2. While it would be ideal if all communications were face-to-face thus engaging all of our senses (i.e., verbal, tone/volume, and body language), the aviation environment places limits on these modes of expression. It is imperative that certain techniques, strategies and procedures (e.g., SOPs) be employed to maximize effectiveness.
  3. An analysis of effective communications in a team environment has identified five essential skills that may or may not occur naturally. These five skills are:
    1. Inquiry;
    2. Advocacy/Assertion;
    3. Active Listening;
    4. Conflict Resolution; and
    5. Critique/Feedback.
  4. Lack of assertiveness has been identified as a contributor in many incidents, accidents and performance problems.
  5. PACE is a practical communications tool that gives all team members a process for initiating discussion on what is happening in the current situation. It represents a simple four-step approach of non-threatening escalation of assertiveness intended on improving group awareness of a situation.
    1. P – Probe for a better understanding;
    2. A – Alert to any problems;
    3. C - Challenge suitability of present situation;
    4. E - Emergency action to reduce dangers.
  6. Effective communication is essential to optimize individual, team and leadership performance and is strongly linked to the non-technical skill elements of cooperation, leadership and managerial skills, situational awareness and decision making.

5.22 Related Non-Technical Concept - Automation

  1. Automation is becoming more and more prevalent and relied upon in aviation. In the cockpit, automation generally refers to autopilots, flight director guidance, flight management systems (FMS) and integrated flight information systems. Outside the cockpit, automation is incorporated into activities such as scheduling, flight planning and maintenance.
  2. Levels of Aircraft (Cockpit) Automation
    1. Within an aircraft’s cockpit, levels of automation can be classified as follows:
      1. Level 4 - Auto-pilot Coupled to LNAV and VNAV Guidance;
      2. Level 3 - Auto-pilot Coupled to Heading / Course Guidance;
      3. Level 2 - Manual Flight with Flight Director Guidance; and
      4. Level 1 - Manual Flight without Flight Director Guidance.
    2. Pilots must be proficient at all available levels of automation and be fully knowledgeable in the selection of the most appropriate level for the situation. In general, this will create an environment where pilots will experience the least demanding workload and the highest level of situational awareness.
  3. Aircraft automation has strong links to the non-technical skill elements of situational awareness and decision making as well as the related non-technical concepts of communication and threat and error management.
  4. Link to Situational Awareness
    1. To be able to use automation to its fullest potential and maintain situational awareness, pilots must be able to answer the following questions at any time:
      1. What did we tell the aircraft to do?
      2. What is the aircraft doing now?
      3. What is the aircraft going to do next?
    2. Automation situational awareness is often referred to as mode awareness in automated aircraft.
  5. Link to Decision Making
    1. Applying well developed SOPs and automation policies can reduce the time required deciding on the most appropriate use of automation.
  6. Link to Communication
    1. Automation communication relates to programming, inputting data, selecting modes and giving commands to a system. Feedback is provided from displays and executed commands or tasks. To optimize feedback, SOPs will often designate which pages and displays are to be selected during various phases of flight.
  7. Link to Threat and Error Management
    1. It is critical that automation errors be avoided, trapped and mitigated. The following are examples of some principles in applying automation threat and error management:
      1. Use the most appropriate guidance and level of automation for the task;
      2. When things are not going as expected, pilots must take control by disengaging or reverting to a lower level of automation;
      3. Pilots must be aware of armed or selected modes and any mode changes on the primary flight displays;
      4. One pilot must remain heads-up, looking out and round at all times. All eyes must not be buried in the cockpit sorting out automation issues.

5.23 Related Non-Technical Concept - Threat and Error Management (TEM)

  1. The Approved Check Pilot Manual (TP 6533) has provided guidance on threat and error management (TEM) over several editions. While not yet formally identified as a non-technical skill element in the 4-Point Marking Scale, ACPs are expected be knowledgeable, observant and skilled at facilitating a discussion on TEM. This is especially important as TEM is paramount in contemporary CRM.
  2. In its simplest form, TEM is defensive flying. TEM equips a pilot with skills and behaviour to recognize and avoid problems which if ignored or left unattended could result in an undesired aircraft state (UAS) and possibly lead to an incident or accident.
  3. TEM proposes that threats, errors and even undesired aircraft states (such as an altitude deviation) are everyday occurrences that pilots must manage to maintain safety.
  4. Threat Management
    1. A threat is an event, condition or error that:
      1. occurs outside the influence of the crew;
      2. increases the operational complexity of the flight; and
      3. requires crew attention and management if safety margins are to be maintained.
    2. Threat management is how flight crews anticipate and respond to threats. Flight crews can manage threats and prevent errors by (for example) reading weather advisories, conducting thorough pre-flight inspections, planning alternate routes or carrying extra fuel if weather is poor.
  5. Error Management
    1. An error within the context of threat and error management is a flight crew action or omission that:
      1. leads to a deviation from crew or organizational intentions or expectations;
      2. reduces safety margins; and
      3. increases the probability of an adverse operational event occurring.
    2. An error that is not detected cannot be managed. An error that is detected and effectively managed should have no adverse impact on the flight. Alternatively, a mismanaged error reduces safety margins by creating or inducing additional errors which could lead to an undesired aircraft state.
  6. Threat and Error Management (TEM) Techniques and Tools
    1. TEM stresses three basic concepts:
      1. anticipation;
      2. recognition; and
      3. recovery.
    2. The key to anticipation is accepting that while something is likely to go wrong, knowing exactly when that might happen is unknown. Efforts to remain vigilant to recognizing potential threats and errors are assisted by skillful use of hard and soft safeguards.
    3. Hard Safeguards
      1. Modern automated aircraft can offer tremendous assistance in anticipating and recognizing threats and errors. Examples of systems that assist pilots by providing chimes, alerts and warnings include autopilots, flight management systems (FMS), traffic collision avoidance system (TCAS) and enhance ground proximity warning system (EGPWS).
      2. Automated systems such as these provide hard safeguards. While beneficial, these systems alone are not sufficient to ensure effective threat and error performance at all times.
    4. Soft Safeguards
      1. Pilots maintain skills in accordance with various qualification and currency requirements governed by regulations and routinely use SOPs and checklists.
      2. Soft safeguards represent behaviour that demonstrates that pilots remain ahead of the aircraft and are a direct reflection of successful situational awareness.
    5. With the assistance of hard and soft safeguards, anticipation builds vigilance and recognition leads to recovery.
    6. When an error contributes to an undesired aircraft state, recovering to adequate safety margins is the first course of action. The flight crew must recover first and analyze causes later.
  7. Threat and Error Management Link to CRM
    1. Many of the best practices advocated by CRM can be considered threat and error management countermeasures.
    2. Some threat and error management countermeasures are outlined below:
      1. planning countermeasures - planning, preparation, briefings, contingency management - are essential for managing anticipated and unexpected threats;
      2. execution countermeasures - monitor/cross-check, taxiway/runway management, workload and automation management - are essential for error detection and error response;
      3. review/modify countermeasures - evaluation of plans, inquiry - are essential for managing the changing conditions of a flight, such as undesired aircraft states; and
      4. flight crews that exhibit strong cooperation skills, leadership and managerial skills, situational awareness and effective decision making skills are typically observed to encounter fewer mismanaged errors and undesired aircraft states.
  8. ACP’s Role as a Threat and Error Management (TEM) Observer
    1. The role of the ACP has effectively evolved from simply that of a detector of errors during flight checks. Although TEM is not yet formally assessed in the 4-Point Marking Scales, ACPs have some (i.e., limited) discretion to consider corrective actions in response to deviations and errors.
    2. ACPs should observe how the candidate(s) do the following:
      1. anticipate and recognize threats (such as poor weather, aircraft unserviceabilities, challenging ATC clearances, terrain features, demanding instrument approaches, aircraft systems management, etc);
      2. use effective strategies to manage these threats (such as airmanship, technical skills and knowledge, aircraft handling, thorough use of SOPs, situational awareness, verbal communication, use of all available resources, etc);
      3. minimize errors by using SOPs and promoting effective teamwork; and
      4. recognize and correct errors when they occur (by maintaining situational awareness, decision making, using effective communication techniques, responding to onboard alerting systems, requesting/obtaining assistance of additional resources when necessary, etc.).
    3. When a deviation and/or error is observed, the ACP should make note of it and (time permitting) observe the candidate’s corrective actions. These observations should be incorporated into the flight check debrief where possible.
  9. In summary:
    1. if threats are adequately managed, they become inconsequential;
    2. if threats are mismanaged, they can lead to errors;
    3. if errors are adequately trapped and managed, they become inconsequential;
    4. if errors are mismanaged, they can lead to undesired aircraft states;
    5. if undesired aircraft states are mitigated, they can lead to recovery; and
    6. if undesired aircraft states are mismanaged, they can lead to an adverse operational occurrence and potentially an incident or accident.

6.0 Conduct of the Flight Check

6.1 Aim of a Flight Check

  1. A flight check represents a “snapshot” of a candidate’s proficiency as well as an indirect validation of an operator’s training program and SOPs.
  2. Flight checks conducted under Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations consist of pilot proficiency checks (PPCs) and line checks. Line checks are applicable to CARs Part VII, Subpart 705 only.
  3. Aim of a PPC
    1. The aim of a PPC is to determine that the candidate meets the knowledge and skill requirements to operate an aircraft, its systems and components under normal, abnormal and emergency conditions in a safe and competent manner, and if applicable, in accordance with the air operator’s approved SOPs and policies (i.e., stabilized approach).
    2. The aim of a PPC is also to improve standards of instruction and training through feedback to the operator or training organization of those flight test exercises, policies and/or procedures (i.e., SOPs) that are out of date, weak or commonly unsuccessful.
  4. Aim of a Line Check
    1. The aim of a line check is to determine that the candidate meets the knowledge and skill requirements to operate an aircraft, its systems and components during normal line operations in a safe and competent manner, and in accordance with the air operator’s approved SOPs and policies (i.e., stabilized approach).
    2. The aim of a line check is also to improve aspects of safety and the effectiveness of company policies and procedures that impact line operations. These include operational control measures, aircraft loading, fuelling, de-icing, air traffic control interactions and cabin/ground crew interactions.

6.2 Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC)

  1. PPCs are conducted in accordance with CARs Part VII Standards. ACPs must specifically consult the following:
    1. Flight crew member qualification regulations and associated standards from the CARs;
    2. PPC Schedules detailed in the CARs Part VII Standards (e.g., Part VII Standard Section 724.108 of the CARs, HELICOPTER SCHEDULE – Pilot Proficiency Check);
    3. Transport Canada (aircraft specific) Operational Evaluation Board (OEB) reports; and
    4. Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Aeroplane) (TP14727); or
    5. Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide (Helicopter) (TP14728)
    Note: Transport Canada does not provide an OEB report for all aircraft types. Flight Standardization Board (FSB) reports produced by the FAA and Operational Evaluation Board (OEB) reports produced by EASA are recognized by Transport Canada as important sources of flight checking information.
  2. The CARs Part VII Standard – PPC Schedules outline mandatory flight test exercises that must be observed during a PPC. Flight test exercise information is found in the applicable Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide.
  3. There are various PPC schedules for aeroplanes and helicopters under Part VII of the CARs. These are cross referenced in the following table.
    CARs
    Part VII Standard
    Title Schedule Platform
    722 Aerial Work Schedule I Aeroplane
    722 Aerial Work Schedule II Helicopter
    723 Air Taxi Schedule I Aeroplane
    723 Air Taxi Schedule Helicopter
    724 Commuter Operations Schedule I Simulator
    724 Commuter Operations Schedule II Aeroplane
    724 Commuter Operations Schedule Helicopter
    725 Airline Operations Schedule I Simulator
    725 Airline Operations Schedule II Aeroplane
    725 Airline Operations Schedule III Cruise Relief Pilot

6.3 Line Check

  1. Line checks are conducted in accordance with Paragraph 705.106(3)(a) of the CARs. ACPs must also consult Advisory Circular (AC) No. 705-003.
  2. Line checks are normally conducted during revenue flight operations.
  3. Although a line check is less formal than a PPC, the ACP must maintain the same level of professionalism expected during a PPC.

6.4 Combined Single-Pilot and Multi-Crew PPCs

  1. Some operators operate the same aircraft with both multi-crew and single crew assignments. Under these conditions, operators will have a special authorization to operate with “minimum crew without a second-in-command”. Operating requirements are outlined in Section 703.86 of the CARs and the associated CARs Part VII Standard.
  2. Pilots required to operate under these conditions must demonstrate both single-pilot and multi-crew proficiencies during a PPC. During the multi-crew portion of a PPC, these pilots will follow the appropriate CARs Part VII - PPC Schedule entirely. For the single-pilot portion of the PPC, these pilots will (as a minimum) carry out the following additional flight test exercises without assistance from the other crew member:
    1. Single-Pilot IFR
      1. a normal take off in accordance with the AFM/HFM establishing simulated IFR at or before reaching 200 feet above airport elevation;
      2. for multi-engine aircraft, a simulated engine failure after take-off, in accordance with the CARs Part VII Standard - PPC Schedule;
      3. one instrument approach performed in accordance with procedures and limits published in the CAP or in an equivalent foreign publication; and
      4. for multi-engine aircraft, one landing and manoeuvring to that landing with a simulated failure of 50 percent of available engines.
      Note 1: Single-pilot IFR is normally applicable to aeroplanes only.
      Note 2: Any of the sequences above may be combined.
    2. Single-Pilot VFR
      1. a normal take off in accordance with the AFM/HFM;
      2. a simulated engine failure after take-off, as per the CARs Part VII Standard - PPC Schedule;
      3. one malfunction performed in accordance with the AFM/HFM; and
      4. one landing and manoeuvring to that landing with a simulated engine failure.
      Note 1: Single-pilot VFR is applicable to aeroplanes and helicopters.
      Note 2: Any of the sequences above may be combined.
    3. The ACP may ask the candidate to demonstrate any other flight test exercise listed in the CARs Part VII Standard - PPC Schedule not requiring a multi-crew assignment.

6.5 Combining PPCs with Other Assessments

  1. A Canadian PPC has different regulatory requirements than proficiency checks administered and delivered under different national authorities (e.g., FAA, CAA, etc.). A Canadian PPC will be conducted as a standalone event and not be combined with any other foreign proficiency check.
  2. A PPC may be combined with another Canadian assessment (e.g., Instrument Proficiency Check (IPC)) provided all elements of each assessment are covered.

6.6 PPC - Simulator

  1. Simulator Requirements
    1. Except as otherwise noted, a simulator used for flight checks must:
      1. meet the requirements of the Aeroplane and Rotorcraft Simulator Manual;
      2. be certified in accordance with Section 606.03 of the CARs – Synthetic Flight Training Equipment ;
      3. provide visual scenery approved for circling to permit the demonstration of one approach and manoeuvre to land, where the flight crew is authorized to conduct circling approaches in accordance with the company operations manual or SOP’s; and
      4. with respect to visual scenes used during PPCs, only the use of qualification scenes and approved custom scenes is permitted. The use of generic scenes is not permitted.
  2. Weather Simulation
    1. Simulated weather conditions for the required approaches should be set at or close to the minimum weather criteria specified on the applicable approach charts.
  3. Communications
    1. The simulator equipment must have suitable two-way intercom voice communication that permits clear communication with the ACP. The intercom system should be used during the flight check.
  4. ATC Role Playing
    1. While role playing ATC, ACPs must provide realism in their communications. This includes distractive communications on occasion. Actions and events within the cockpit must be assumed to be unknown unless communicated by way of a radio transmission.
    2. ACPs must:
      1. provide clear and unambiguous clearances and instructions using standard ATC phraseology;
      2. deliver ATC assistance that would normally be available; and
      3. avoid unrealistic ATC assistance specifically intended to prevent crew errors.
  5. Device Operation
    1. The person operating the flight simulation training device shall have sufficient training and experience on the equipment and have the qualifications, required by the device certificate holder, to ensure execution of the flight check in accordance with the profile or sequencing of events specified by the ACP.
    2. Another qualified person will operate the equipment where the ACP does not possess the sufficient training and experience or necessary (device certificate holder) qualification or does not wish to operate the device during the flight check;
    3. The device operator, if other than the ACP, must have been briefed prior to the flight check on the flight profile, sequencing of events and the clearances to be delivered. Having the assistance of a device operator does not relieve the ACP of his/her responsibilities to ensure the plan is adhered to. The ACP must maintain a constant vigilance over the device operator.
  6. Repositioning and Position Freeze
    1. To ensure realism, ACPs must conduct PPCs in real time as much as possible. The use of position freeze and repositioning are to be used sparingly according the ACP’s best judgment.
  7. Available documentation
    1. Approved documents, such as aircraft operating manuals and minimum equipment lists, etc., must be made available to the flight check candidate(s) should the need to refer to them arise during the course of the check.
  8. Candidate Seat Assignment
    1. The candidate will occupy the pilot seat associated with the candidate’s respective duty position.
  9. ACP Seat Assignment
    1. ACPs will not participate as a crewmember during PPCs conducted in the simulator. They will occupy an observer’s seat.
    2. Simulators must have an approved seat (suitable for observing the flight crew) secured to the floor and fitted with positive restraint devices for each observer. The seat must safely restrain the occupant during any known or predicted motion system excursion.
  10. Simulator Unserviceabilities
    1. If the simulator has recorded unserviceabilities or defects, the ACP will refer to the Transport Canada approved Simulator Component Inoperative Guide (SCIG) associated with that device to determine whether a PPC may proceed.
    2. On simulators approved by the FAA, unserviceabilities documented on the Missing, Malfunction or Inoperative (MMI) list is available to help determine whether a PPC may proceed.
    3. Regardless of information documented on either the SCIG (Transport Canada) or the MMI (FAA), ACPs must be satisfied that simulator unserviceability will not impede the ability of the candidate to demonstrate their proficiency.
  11. Simulated System Failures
    1. System failures must be practical and reasonable. Multiple failures must be related and only cascade as a result of an initial failure (i.e., an engine-driven hydraulic pump fails as a result of an engine’s failure) or as a result of a candidate’s actions. Multiple unrelated failures (i.e., compound failures) must not be provided.
    2. A simulated system failure which has been assessed and deferred prior to dispatch, and has no impact on the flight characteristics of the aircraft, may be present throughout the PPC, whole or in part, and is deemed to be unrelated to subsequent simulated system failures (e.g., dispatch with one flight management guidance computer (FMGC) unserviceable followed by the inflight failure of a second FMGC).
  12. Flight Check Data (Screen Printout)
    1. A plotting device (i.e., screen printout) is often beneficial when a flight test exercise is not performed to standard. This data should be presented to the candidate during a flight check debrief and retained by the ACP.
    2. It is common practice to attach a copy of this printout to the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form(Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) retained by the ACP. This information could be useful should an appeal to the Transportation Appeals Tribunal of Canada (TATC) be submitted.

6.7 PPC and Line Check - Aircraft

  1. Under certain conditions, both PPCs and line checks may be conducted in an aircraft. While line checks may be conducted during a revenue event, PPCs may not.
  2. Safety
    1. Safety must be prioritized during flight checks conducted in aircraft. The decision to commence a flight check in an aircraft is at the discretion of the ACP who must determine that:
      1. weather conditions are sufficient to avoid hazardous operation of the aircraft during a Flight Check;
      2. the aircraft is airworthy; and
      3. the candidate’s documents, as required by the CARs are valid.
    2. If not participating as a flying crewmember (e.g., occupying a jump seat instead), ACPs are not passengers. ACPs will remain alert for potential hazards at all times and have a duty of care to intervene appropriately to maintain the safety of the flight. ACPs will also intervene appropriately to avoid potentially non-hazardous violations.
  3. Aircraft Requirements
    1. Except as otherwise noted, aircraft used for flight checks will satisfy the following:
      1. possess a valid and current Canadian or foreign Flight Authority in accordance with Subpart 507 of the CARs that has no operating limitations that prohibit the performance of the required flight check manoeuvres;
      2. meet the requirements of Section 605.06 of the CARs – Aircraft Equipment Standards and Serviceability. (where all required equipment must be serviceable and the maintenance requirements current); and
      3. be flown in accordance with the requirements of Section 602.07 of the CARs – Aircraft Operating Limitations and operated within the approved flight operating limitations (Day/Night/VFR/IFR), airframe limitations, and engine limitations set out in the approved POH/AFM/RFM or approved POH/AFM/RFM supplements.
    2. Flight Controls
      1. All aircraft used for flight checks must be equipped with fully functioning dual control and provide a satisfactory and appropriate means of audio and verbal communication.
  4. Candidate Seat Assignment
    1. For the pilot flying (PF) portion of their PPC, the candidate will occupy the pilot seat associated with the candidate’s respective duty position.
  5. ACP Seat Assignment
    1. PPC
      1. In an aircraft certified for single-pilot operation, the ACP will occupy the second-in-command seat except where the operator has indicated in its operations manual (OM) that all flights will require a two-person crew.
      2. In an aircraft certified for operations with a minimum flight crew of two, the ACP will occupy the jump seat.
      3. When the aircraft type certificate or an operator’s OM requires two pilots and the aircraft is not equipped with a jump seat, the ACP may occupy a passenger seat nearest to the cockpit for the landing and take-off. Thereafter, safety permitting, the ACP may position them self between the two pilot seats to observe the check. If this is not practical the ACP may occupy a pilot position and act as the safety pilot.
    2. Line Check
      1. ACPs conducting line checks will occupy either a crew position or jump seat.
      2. When conducting the line check from one of the crew positions, the ACP will carry out the duties of that position to the best of their abilities. No errors will be purposely introduced.
      3. A safety pilot is not required during a line check.
  6. Safety Pilot
    1. For safety of flight and legal purposes, a safety pilot must be designated and occupy one of the pilot seats during a PPC. An operator will normally designate a safety pilot acceptable to the ACP.
    2. Prior to flight, the safety pilot must be briefed by the ACP on their role and duties. These will include:
      1. safe checking practices which specify:
        1. transfer of aircraft control;
        2. touch-and-go procedures;
        3. procedures for simulating an inoperative engine;
        4. simulated abnormal and emergency procedures;
        5. response to an actual emergency; and
        6. any other element that is particular to the aircraft type.
      2. the potential need for physical intervention; and
      3. supporting crewmember duties;
      4. ACPs occupying safety pilot positions must be:
        1. type rated;
        2. current on the aircraft;
        3. trained and competent with respect to company operations; and
        4. trained and competent to act as a company training pilot.

6.8 PPC Conducted in Both a Simulator and Aircraft

  1. PPCs may be conducted in both a simulator and an aircraft. In this manual, the aircraft portion is referred to as the airborne PPC.
  2. Flight test exercises completed in the simulator or aircraft will be specified and will depend on, for example, the simulator’s level of approval and fidelity, the approved training program and the status of the candidate.
  3. The operator is responsible to coordinate and make this information available.

6.9 PPC Seat Substitutes

  1. Qualifications
    1. A training organization or operator will ensure that the individual assigned as a seat substitute during the PPC is qualified and current on type; they must also be competent in their supporting role.
  2. Jeopardy Exposure
    1. An individual filling in as a seat substitute during a multi-crew PPC is not a PPC candidate inasmuch as this individual has not completed the requirements of an approved training program and not been issued a recommendation for the purposes of being evaluated during a PPC. This individual merely fills in and occupies an aircraft duty position for the sole purpose of providing competent support to the candidate being evaluated during that PPC.
    2. A seat substitute will not receive any credit for providing good support during a multi-crew PPC; likewise, this person’s PPC privileges cannot be considered at risk of administrative action when failing to provide the appropriate level of support expected during a PPC.
    3. In accordance with the above, an ACP will not take licensing action and a CASI will not take administrative action towards a person acting as a seat substitute, when that person fails to provide the appropriate level of support expected during a multi-crew PPC.
  3. Poor Performance by a Seat Substitute
    1. If the ACP feels that the seat substitute’s performance is adversely affecting crew performance, a replacement must be found.
    2. Because poor performance by a seat substitute may translate into a safety concern, an ACP must act with diligence and ensure that the operator or training center which assigned the seat substitute is made aware of that person’s poor performance. Feedback should be made in writing. Transport Canada should be provided a copy of this feedback.
    3. An ACP has the discretion to call the flight check incomplete rather than an unsuccessful attempt if the ACP determines that the seat substitute was the sole contributor to the crew’s unsatisfactory performance of a flight sequence. In this case, feedback must be made in writing and Transport Canada provided a copy.

6.10 PPC Crew Pairing - Simulator

  1. It is imperative during a PPC that a normal operational crew setting is provided. A pilot-in-command (or upgrade candidate) must normally occupy the pilot-in-command duty position and a second-in-command (or candidate) must normally occupy the second-in-command duty position.
  2. Non Standard Operational Crew Setting
    1. Situations occur in the simulator where two second-in-command PPC candidates or two pilot-in-command PPC candidates are paired together during a simulator event. This is acceptable as follows:
      1. Two Pilot-In-Command Pilots
        1. In the case of two pilot-in-command pilots (or candidates), the individual playing the role of second-in-command is fully familiar with the tasks associated with the second-in-command duty position.
      2. Two Second-In-Command Pilots
        1. In the case of two second-in-command PPC pilots (or candidates), these individuals are paired (in this manner) during training (initial or recurrent) and become fully familiar with the tasks associated with the pilot-in-command duty position.

6.11 Flight Crew Jeopardy - PPC

  1. Generally speaking, a team either succeeds or fails together.
  2. Where two candidates are being assessed in a normal operational crew setting (i.e., a pilot-in-command paired with a second-in-command), both candidates are equally subject to flight crew jeopardy during both assessments.
  3. Exceptions to Flight Crew Jeopardy
    1. Pilot Flying (PF) Induced Errors
      1. Pilot flying (PF) induced errors where it would be unreasonable to expect the pilot monitoring (PM) to have the opportunity to take control or take action to manage the error.
      2. PF induced errors where PM’s support has been appropriate will also be assigned to the PF rather than both candidates.
      3. An example of this includes a loss of control during an engine failure during take-off (aeroplane) or a tail rotor strike upon landing (helicopter) where all PM actions and calls have been appropriate.
    2. Seat Substitute
      1. If a seat substitute has been assigned to support a PPC, flight crew jeopardy will not apply to that individual.
    3. Non-Standard Seat and/or Duty Position
      1. In the case where a candidate is assigned a duty position (e.g., a second-in-command occupying a pilot-in-command’s duty position) that will not be subsequently operationally assigned with an operator, that individual will not be subject to jeopardy during that portion of the flight check.

6.12 Repeating a Flight Test Exercise

  1. In general, a flight test exercise is performed once and assessed once. The following table outlines circumstances where a flight test exercise may be repeated and reassessed.
  2. In all cases, the ACP will determine if circumstances warrant a flight test exercise being repeated.
    Circumstance Environment Notes
    Safety Concern Aircraft A safety concern may be raised by the ACP, candidate, or another flight crew member that could preclude the performance and assessment of a flight check item.
    ATC Instruction Aircraft ATC instructions may, on occasion not facilitate the accomplishment of a flight check item. Examples include VFR restrictions issued by ATC when simulating IFR flight profiles.
    Misunderstood Request Simulator or Aircraft There are legitimate instances when candidates do not understand an ACP’s request to perform a specific manoeuvre.
    ACP Distraction Simulator or Aircraft Any condition whereby the ACP is distracted and the performance of a flight check item was not adequately observed.
    Simulator or Aircraft Malfunction Simulator or Aircraft Any condition whereby the performance of a flight check item was not adequately observed due to a simulator or aircraft malfunction.
    Performance Error Simulator or Aircraft

    ACPs may allow a candidate to repeat a maximum of one unsuccessful flight test exercise subject to all of the following:

    • no other sequence is rated a two (2) or a one (1);
    • the ACP feels that the risk of the individual repeating the error is insignificant;
    • The error did not result in a crash (simulator only) or if allowed to continue, would not have resulted in the loss of control of the aircraft (aircraft only);
    • In the opinion of the ACP, re-training the flight test exercise would not be beneficial; and
    • Where a regulation was violated, there was no intent to do so.

    Application

    Without commenting on the error, the ACP must allow the candidate to finish the flight check to ascertain that no other flight test exercises are rated a two (2) or a one (1).

    Note: During a line check, the repeatable exercise should be completed as soon as practicable during the flight or series of flights.

    If considering the repeat of a flight test exercise, and without specifying what the error was, the ACP will ask the candidate to describe their performance on the exercise that was assigned a mark of one (1).

    If the candidate’s explanation indicates satisfactory knowledge of the flight test exercise and admission of the error that occurred, the ACP may offer the candidate the opportunity to repeat the exercise.

    If it is not possible to repeat the sequence due to time constraints or other reasons, the ACP will apply the original mark of a one (1).

    Administrative Follow-up

    If a flight test exercise is repeated, the re-assessed mark will be documented. The repeated flight test exercise must be recorded on the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form(Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) in the COMMENTS – GENERAL ASSESSMENT section.

6.13 Current Publications and FMS Databases

  1. Whether a flight check is conducted in a simulator or aircraft, approach publications and FMS databases must be current. Approach publications must be obtained from reputable sources such as NAV Canada, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) or Jeppesen.

6.14 Aircraft Grouping (Aeroplane) Grouping - PPC

  1. Where a Subpart 703 or 704 of the CARs operator has been authorized to incorporate aeroplane grouping for PPCs (renewal only) purposes, the ACP will adhere to the company program and the associated CARs Part VII Standard (e.g., Part VII, Section 723.88 of the CARs Standard, SCHEDULE II - Grouping for PPC Purposes).

6.15 Creating an Observable Environment (ACP Conduct)

  1. In general, ACPs have more experience conducting flight checks than candidates have being checked. A certain level of nervousness will always be present in candidates.
  2. ACPs must conduct themselves in a manner that does not add to the normal stress of a flight check but rather creates an environment whereby the candidate’s proficiency can be accurately assessed.
  3. ACPs should make a concerted effort to be relaxed and non-threatening. ACPs will refrain from making personal remarks and inappropriate motions such as shaking their heads, gasping, laughing at performance or commenting subsequent to a poorly conducted manoeuvre.

6.16 Participants and Observers

  1. Flight checks may induce tension or feelings of apprehension in even the most experienced pilot. An ACP must create an environment conducive to a true demonstration of the pilot’s ability.
  2. To minimize sources of stress and distraction during a PPC, admittance will be restricted to the following individuals with a bona fide need:
    1. pilot flying (PF);
    2. pilot monitoring (PM);
    3. second officer, flight engineer, and/or cruise relief pilot (CRP) if required by the aircraft type/SOPs;
    4. ACP conducting the PPC;
    5. CASI(s) monitoring the flight check;
    6. ACP under training with the approval of either a Transport Canada CASI or ACP and with the concurrence of the candidate(s); and
    7. simulator operator.

6.17 Note Taking

  1. There is no legal requirement for an ACP to take notes during or immediately following a flight check. ACPs may, however be required to provide oral testimony regarding a flight check at the Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada (TATC). The elapsed time between a check ride and a TATC hearing could be six months to one year and, in some cases longer. Note taking is therefore recommended.
  2. Studies have shown that the act of recording information in written form tends to impress that information upon one’s memory. Recording information in writing can assist in clarifying and connecting facts in a chronological order. Studies have suggested that when an individual is allowed to reference written notes, approximately 75% of information originally received is recalled. This may represent an increase of 45%-65% in recallable information. Handwritten notes have proven most effective.
  3. The ability of an ACP to recount details of a flight check may be scrutinized and challenged by the applicant, their legal representative, and/or the Chair of the TATC. The consequences of not recalling the details or circumstances of a flight check may include:
    1. personal embarrassment;
    2. the ACP’s professionalism being challenged;
    3. the value and credibility of an ACP’s testimony being diminished; or
    4. the case being dismissed outright for lack of credible evidence.
  4. The following are important points regarding note taking:
    1. Content
      1. An ACP’s notes should contain facts relevant to the event only. Remarks, comments or expressions of personal opinion must not be documented.
    2. Legible and Understandable
      1. Notes should be legible not only to the ACP but also to anyone else who may have legal access to them. The applicant, their legal representative or TATC member(s) may wish to view an ACP’s notes.
      2. Notes should be understandable by using business-like language, short sentences or fact conveying phrases. Use of reasonable abbreviations is acceptable.
    3. Confidentiality
      1. Notes may contain personal information on an individual or company and must therefore be kept confidential. ACP’s should ensure that notes are secure against unauthorized access.

6.18 Flight Training versus Flight Checking

  1. While other programs such as the Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) blend training and checking, flight checks (i.e., PPCs and line checks) do not incorporate a training element.
  2. During the conduct of a flight check, ACPs are prohibited from providing flight training to a candidate. This includes any advice or action that might prompt the candidate towards or away from a specific course of action.
  3. Crew Interactions During Line Checks
    1. Although an ACP is not permitted to provide flight training during a line check, normal crew interactions are not only permitted but necessary. This includes what a pilot-in-command might say to a second-in-command regarding a particular flight sequence at an appropriate time.

6.19 Maximum Number of Flight Checks

  1. For flight check reliability which includes having sufficient time to consider candidate performance and complete administrative tasks, ACPs are expected to conduct not more than two PPC events per day as follows:
    1. four (4) individual PPCs, where candidates are paired.
    2. two (2) individual PPCs, where the candidates are not paired.
  2. ACPs represent the Minister while conducting PPCs and must not succumb to business pressures and scheduling that may demand an unreasonable effort on their part.
  3. As part of administratively monitoring ACPs, Transport Canada will consider an ACP’s PPC schedule and may address concerns through discussion, oral counseling and if required, suspension of authorities due to continued unreasonable scheduling habits.

6.20 Prior Training Involvement - PPC

  1. An ACP will not conduct a PPC on a candidate who has received any portion of their initial, recurrent or upgrade flight training from that ACP on the aircraft type on which the PPC is being provided.
  2. This requirement will be considered and possibly waived by Transport Canada upon receiving a substantiated written request from the ACP.

6.21 Knowledge of an Operator’s Documentation

  1. ACPs must be thoroughly familiar with an operator’s documentation. This includes any or all of the following:
    1. aircraft flight manual (AFM) or rotorcraft flight manual (RFM);
    2. company operations manual (COM);
    3. special authorizations (formerly known as Ops Specs);
    4. aircraft checklists; and
    5. standard operating procedures (SOPs).

6.22 Phases of a Flight Check – PPC

  1. A PPC will consist of the following flight check phases:
    1. Introduction and Administration;
    2. Flight Check Briefing;
    3. Ground Assessment;
    4. Pre-Flight Briefing;
    5. Air Assessment;
    6. Post Flight Debrief;
    7. Flight Check Debrief;
    8. Administration and Conclusion.

6.23 Phases of a Flight Check – Line Check

  1. Consistent with an operator’s policy, a line check will consist of the following flight check phases:
    1. Introduction and Administration;
    2. Flight Check Briefing;
    3. Pre-Flight Briefing;
    4. Air Assessment;
    5. Post Flight Debrief;
    6. Flight Check Debrief;
    7. Administration and Conclusion.

6.24 Introduction and Administration – PPC and Line Check

  1. In order to create an observable environment, ACPs must create a favourable impression with the candidate(s) by greeting them positively. Eye contact, a pleasant smile and a handshake while introducing oneself is essential. Conversation should initially be general in nature while a rapport is established.
  2. While it is important to progress to the administrative function (e.g., establishing a candidate’s eligibility), moving too quickly or completing administrative paperwork silently can have an adverse effect on the candidate.
  3. One of the first administrative tasks is to establish the candidate’s eligibility and to confirm the purpose and requirement of the flight check.

6.25 Establishing Candidate(s) Eligibility - PPC

  1. In order to be admitted to a PPC, the ACP must ascertain the candidate’s eligibility. This will include a review of required documentation as well as a generalized assessment of the candidate’s readiness to undertake a PPC.
  2. Photo Identification
    1. The following is acceptable as photo identification:
      1. a valid Aviation Document Booklet (ADB), or
      2. a valid and original government-issued photo identification with signature.
  3. Pilot Licence and Medical Certificate
    1. The following is required:
      1. a valid Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) with a valid category one (1) medical certification meeting the medical standards for the licence; or
      2. Where an Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) is not available, the candidate will be required to produce a Temporary Licence (Form 26-0265) and a Temporary Medical Certificate (Form 26-0055).
  4. Training Files
    1. A quick review the candidates training file is required. ACPs should look for any obvious omissions. This is done in conjunction with reviewing the PPC recommendation.
  5. PPC Recommendation
    1. A recommendation certifying that all required ground training, examinations and flight training has been completed in accordance with the company’s approved training program.
      Note: required ground training does not include the following:
      1. surface contamination (seasonal);
      2. dangerous goods;
      3. high altitude indoctrination (HAI);
      4. survival;
      5. aircraft servicing and handling; or
      6. elementary work.
    2. The recommendation must be signed by the chief pilot or delegate.
    3. The recommendation must be signed and dated within 30 days prior to the Flight Check.
      Note: Recommendations signed and dated beyond 30 days prior to the Flight Check may be amended by the chief pilot or delegate indicated that
      1. additional training was considered to ensure competency and the candidate’s success during the flight check; and
      2. the candidate is still considered competent to successfully complete the flight check.
  6. Additional Requirements
    1. If temporary privileges for a new type rating and/or initial instrument rating are sought, the Application for Endorsement of a Rating (form 26-0083) with associated proof of meeting knowledge and experience requirements (e.g., INRAT, IATRA, SARON, SAMRA, HARON, HAMRA), including a written recommendation from a qualified person must be completed.
    2. Upon review, the ACP will return the application to the applicant. The ACP will only formally accept the application upon the successful completion of the PPC and the applicant having met all of the licensing requirements.
  7. Mental and Physical Readiness
    1. ACPs must be reasonably confident that the candidate is mentally and physically ready to proceed with the Flight Check.
    2. By agreeing to proceed with the Flight Check, the candidate has declared themselves fit.
  8. Unavailable Documentation
    1. Except where company procedures have been established and accepted by Transport Canada, a Flight Check will not be conducted if licensing and/or training documents are not presented, not valid, or if the company has failed to provide all relevant training for the candidate as specified in the operator's approved training program.
    2. PPCs Conducted Abroad / Unavailable Training Documentation
      1. Where training documentation is not available due to impracticality, the candidate must provide documentation signed by a Chief Pilot or delegate recommending the candidate for the PPC and certifying that the relevant training has been completed.
      2. Relevant training includes initial or recurrent training appropriate for the aircraft type and type of operation. This includes ground training, examinations and flight training.

6.26 Establishing Candidate(s) Eligibility - Line Check

  1. In order to be admitted to a line check, the candidate’s eligibility must be considered by the ACP. This will include a review of required documentation as well as a generalized assessment of the candidate’s readiness to undertake a line check.
  2. Photo Identification
    1. The following is acceptable as photo identification:
      1. a valid Aviation Document Booklet (ADB), or
      2. a valid and original government-issued photo identification with signature.
  3. Pilot Licence and Medical Certificate
    1. The following is required:
      1. a valid Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) with a valid category one (1) medical certification meeting the medical standards for the licence; or
      2. Where an Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) is not available, the candidate will be required to produce a Temporary Licence (Form 26-0265) and a Temporary Medical Certificate (Form 26-0055).
  4. Training Files (Initial Line Check Only)
    1. A quick review of the candidate’s line indoctrination training file is required. ACPs should look for any obvious omissions. This is done in conjunction with reviewing the line check recommendation.
  5. Recommendation (Initial Line Check Only)
    1. A recommendation certifying that all required line indoctrination training has been completed in accordance with the company’s approved training program.
    2. The recommendation must be signed by the training captain who has completed line indoctrination training with the candidate.
    3. The recommendation should be signed and dated within 30 days of a line check.
      Note1: Recommendations signed and dated beyond 30 days prior to the line check should be amended by the chief pilot or delegate indicated that:
      1. the candidate is still considered competent to successfully complete the line check, and
      2. additional training was considered to ascertain competency of the candidate in the line check.
        Note 2: Candidates having completed the line indoctrination phase may continue to be assigned to (non-training) revenue flights while waiting for a line check but must fly with a qualified training captain.
  6. Mental and Physical Readiness
    1. ACPs must be reasonably confident that the candidate is mentally and physically ready to proceed with the line check.
    2. By agreeing to proceed with the line check, the candidate has declared themselves fit.
  7. Unavailable Documentation
    1. Except where company procedures have been established and accepted by Transport Canada, a line check will not be conducted if licensing and/or training documents (where applicable) are not presented, are not valid, or if the company has failed to provide all relevant training for the candidate as specified in the operator's approved training program.

6.27 Flight Check Briefing – PPC

  1. A flight check briefing is mandatory and serves many purposes. Its main focus is to discuss the functional aspects of the flight check and to put the candidate at ease. It is usually delivered following the introduction and administrative phase and prior to the ground assessment phase of the flight check.
  2. Candidates are briefed individually unless paired together as a crew. Seat substitutes are encouraged to join the briefing. Time should be taken during and following the flight check briefing to address any questions the candidate may have.
  3. The content and structure of the flight check briefing will be dependent on whether the PPC takes place in a simulator or in an aircraft. The ACP may reorganize, combine and/or defer applicable elements to the introduction and administration, or pre-flight briefing phases of the PPC.
  4. The following briefing elements must be considered.
    1. Purpose
      1. The purpose of the PPC must be stated and agreed upon by the candidate. The following will be determined:
        1. Initial, Renewal or Upgrade PPC.
          • Although there is no difference in performance standard, the type of PPC should be established and whether the PPC will be used in support of an initial type rating application.
        2. Instrument Rating Requirement
          • If the PPC is in support of an initial (or converting) instrument rating application (i.e., Group 1, 2, 3, or 4) or if the PPC will be used to support an instrument rating recency requirement.
    2. Crew Duty Position and Seat Assignment
      1. Although there is no differentiation in performance expectations, the candidate’s crew duty position (i.e., pilot-in-command, second-in-command) must be established.
        Note: In a commercial air service, the status of the crewmember must be linked to the privileges of their licence. For example, a holder of a Commercial Pilot Licence cannot act as pilot-in-command on an aircraft requiring more than one pilot. Therefore, at best, they could only conduct a second-in-command PPC.
      2. Seat assignment must also be established.
    3. Special Authorizations
      1. Any initial certification Special Authorization(s) (formerly known as Ops Specs) items that will be required to be performed during the PPC must be established.
    4. Mandatory Flight Test Exercises
      1. ACPs should indicate to the candidate that mandatory flight test exercises are drawn from the applicable CARs Part VII Standard – PPC Schedule and any associated Special Authorization checking requirement.
      2. The ACP should outline some or all of the required sequences.
    5. Performance Standard
      1. The aircraft or simulator is to be operated in accordance with aircraft flight manual (AFM), helicopter flight manual (HFM), SOPs and other appropriate documents.
      2. The ACP will verify that the candidate(s) is familiar with the existence and content of the applicable Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide.
    6. Possible Outcomes
      1. The concept of jeopardy should be mentioned which will result in one of the following outcomes:
        1. successful attempt;
        2. unsuccessful attempt; or
        3. incomplete attempt.
    7. Time Management and Expected Duration
      1. The candidate should be assured that ultimately, the ACP is responsible for the management of time. The candidate should never feel pressured to rush due to schedule constraints, but must respond to any simulated abnormality or emergency with the proper level of haste
      2. When the candidate(s) requires more time to complete procedures, checklist or briefing, they should make a request for a speed reduction, hold clearance or delaying vector. The ACP will make every effort to accommodate requests of this nature.
    8. Simulator Operation - Simulator
      1. The candidate(s) should be briefed that the PPC will be conducted in real time as much as possible but that re-positioning or position freezes are permitted.
    9. Weather – Simulator
      1. Weather conditions will be set in accordance with the flight test exercise. In general, weather during approaches will be at or below approach limits.
      2. The individual or crew must determine if the weather is suitable.
    10. Weather – Aircraft
      1. The ACP may defer briefing the actual weather conditions to the pre-flight brief phase of the flight check.
    11. Adequate Visual Reference During Approach – Simulator
      1. The landing pilot will be expected to land if the required visual references are present, otherwise a missed approach will be carried out.
    12. Adequate Visual Reference During Approach – Aircraft
      1. Notwithstanding an operator’s training procedures, if the ACP does not report field in sight” at the appropriate minimums, the candidate is expected to execute a missed approach.
    13. Safe Flight Checking Practices – Aircraft
      1. Any restrictions or limits imposed on manoeuvres conducted in the aircraft to ensure safety must be followed. These may be provided by the operator or adopted from the safe flight checking practices detailed in this document.
    14. ACP Flight Crew Status - Aircraft
      1. For PPCs conducted in an aircraft, the role of the ACP in regard to crew duties if he/she occupies a flight crew position.
    15. ACP Role Playing – Simulator
      1. For PPCs conducted in a simulator, the role of the ACP with respect to other crewmembers (e.g., cabin crew) or external agencies (e.g., ground crew, ATC, dispatch personnel) must be specified.
    16. Transferring Control
      1. Notwithstanding an operator’s SOPs, the method of transferring control from one pilot to the other must be established. The most common method is by the pilot flying stating "You have control” and the pilot monitoring stating “I have control”;
    17. Simulated Emergencies and Abnormals – Simulator
      1. For PPCs conducted in a simulator, the crew should treat all malfunctions as real.
      2. An abnormal or emergency situation caused by an incorrect or inappropriate action or response on the part of the candidate(s) will not be corrected by the ACP.
    18. Simulated Emergencies and Abnormals - Aircraft
      1. The manner in which simulated emergencies and abnormal situations will be discussed and coordinated by the ACP.
      2. Procedures detailed in an operator’s SOPs are to be respected.
      3. As a minimum, all such events are to be preceded by the word “simulated”.
      4. An abnormal or emergency situation caused by an incorrect or inappropriate action or response on the part of the candidate(s) will be corrected by the ACP.
    19. Simulated Compound Emergencies and Abnormals
      1. The ACP will not introduce multiple unrelated emergencies while airborne (simulator or aircraft). The candidate is expected to take corrective action on secondary failures resulting from the primary emergency or abnormal.
    20. Actual Malfunction - Simulator
      1. If a simulator malfunction occurs, the ACP will advise the crew immediately.
    21. Actual Malfunction - Aircraft
      1. If an aircraft malfunction occurs, the PPC will be discontinued and the malfunction dealt with prior to resuming (if possible) the flight check.
    22. Automation
      1. Handling and use of automation will be discussed.
    23. Simulator Safety Briefing
      1. Knowledge of escape procedures and safety devices must be briefed by the ACP or the simulator operator.
    24. Simulator/Aircraft Differences
      1. Any differences between the simulator and the aircraft that may affect the performance of the flight crew will be discussed.
        Note: Training on differences between the simulator and the aircraft is a required element of a training program. Some examples of this are cockpit configuration warning and alert display systems, FMS databases, electronic monitoring systems, etc.
    25. Operational Restrictions – Aircraft or Simulator
      1. Any operational restrictions, not preventing the use of the aircraft or simulator for a PPC, should be reviewed.
    26. Note Taking
      1. The candidate(s) should be briefed that the ACP will be taking notes during the flight check.
    27. Candidate Errors
      1. It is important to remind a candidate(s) not to dwell on a mistake or error but to focus on the present and future. Unless the ACP stops the evaluation, the candidate is progressing towards a successful PPC.
      2. Errors are a normal aspect of flight operations and this is recognized by Transport Canada in the application of threat and error management (TEM) techniques.
    28. Start Position – Simulator
      1. The ACP will specify whether the PPC will begin as a first, second or through flight setup.
      2. The aircraft’s geographic location (i.e., gate, FBO etc.) will be briefed. A reference chart should be used.
    29. Start Position – Aircraft
      1. The ACP may defer briefing the location of the aircraft to the pre-flight brief phase of the flight check.
    30. Flight Check Briefing Conclusion
      1. upon completion of the briefing, the ACP will ask the candidate(s) the following:
        1. do you understand the content and objectives of the PPC;
        2. has this flight check briefing prepared you for today’s event; and
        3. do you have any questions?

6.28 Flight Check Briefing – Line Check

  1. A line check flight check briefing is less onerous than that of a PPC. It is, however mandatory and serves several purposes. Its main focus is to discuss the functional aspects of the flight check and to put the candidate at ease. It is usually delivered following the introduction and administrative phase.
  2. A flight check briefing does not replace the requirement of a pre-flight brief.
  3. Candidates are briefed individually unless paired together as a crew. Time should be taken during and following the flight check briefing to address any questions the candidate may have.
  4. The following briefing elements must be covered. The ACP may reorganize, combine and/or even defer some of these elements to the introduction and administration, or pre-flight briefing phases of the line check.
    1. Purpose
      1. The purpose of the line check must be stated and agreed upon by the candidate. It must be determined whether the line check is an:
        1. initial,
        2. renewal, or
        3. upgrade.
    2. Crew Duty Position and Seat Assignment
      1. Although there is no performance differentiation, the candidate’s duty position (i.e., pilot-in-command, second-in-command or cruise relief pilot) must be established.
      2. Seat assignment must also be established.
    3. Performance Standard
      1. The aircraft is to be operated in accordance with aircraft flight manual (AFM), SOPs and other appropriate documents.
    4. Possible Outcomes
      1. The concept of jeopardy should be mentioned which will result in one of the following outcomes:
        1. successful attempt;
        2. unsuccessful attempt; or
        3. incomplete attempt.
    5. Expected Duration
      1. The duration of line check is from check-in to defect reporting at the end of the flight(s).
      2. The number of flight legs must also be specified.
    6. ACP Flight Crew Status - Aircraft
      1. The role of the ACP with respect to crew duties will be specified.
    7. Oral Question
      1. The ACP may ask technical questions concerning aircraft operations, rules of the air and ATC procedures, SOPs and the operator’s Flight Operations Manual.
    8. Normal Crew Coordination & SOPs
      1. Normal crew co-ordination and the use of SOPs is expected.
    9. Note Taking
      1. Taking brief, factual and unobtrusive notes by the ACP will occur during the check. This should not distract the candidate(s).
    10. Candidate Errors
      1. It is important to remind a candidate(s) not to dwell on a mistake or error but to focus on the present and future.
      2. Errors are a normal aspect of flight operations and this is recognized by Transport Canada in the application of threat and error management (TEM) techniques.
    11. Flight Check Briefing Conclusion
      1. Upon completion of the briefing, the ACP will ask the candidate(s) the following:
        1. do you understand the content and objectives of the line check;
        2. has this flight check briefing prepared you for today’s event; and
        3. do you have any questions?

6.29 Ground Assessment - PPC

  1. Technical knowledge and flight planning are orally assessed during the ground assessment phase of a PPC.
    Note: Under CARs 704 and 705 (aeroplane only), there is the option to waive the technical knowledge and/or flight planning portion of the ground assessment. The conditions for waiving this portion of the assessment are specifically detailed in the applicable PPC Schedule.
  2. Length and Scope of the Oral Assessment
    1. The length of the oral test depends on the complexity of the aircraft and operation. Under normal conditions, the assessment should never exceed one (1) hour. The oral assessment must never create a level of mental fatigue that could affect the performance of the candidate(s) during the air assessment.
    2. The actual length and scope is defined by the applicable CARs Part VII Standard. The items that should be evaluated are specified in the applicable CARs Part VII Standard and applicable PPC and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide.
    3. Candidates are expected to possess a broad understanding of the aircraft and its systems rather than a highly detailed knowledge of component design and construction. They should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the essential features of system design and how various systems interrelate.
    4. Candidates must be able to demonstrate knowledge by interpreting cockpit indications and describing the condition of aircraft systems from these indications.
  3. Bank of Questions
    1. ACPs should choose their questions from the entire range of appropriate topics rather than concentrate on only a few topics. Questions should be related to the specific characteristics of the aircraft involved.
    2. It is recommended that the ACP have a bank of questions prepared for all the required items or areas of the ground assessment. An extensive bank of questions allows an ACP to vary the ground assessment candidate to candidate. Not all prepared questions need be asked in this case.
  4. Multi-Crew PPCs
    1. Where the aircraft is operated in a multi-crew environment, candidates may be assessed together. In all other circumstances, flight check candidates must be assessed individually and separately.
  5. Resources Available to the Candidate
    1. ACPs are encouraged to make use of cockpit layout diagrams, ground and/or flight training devices. Interactive logic available in some of these devices provides an effective method of testing the candidate’s knowledge of both aircraft systems and normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures.
    2. Other resources available to the candidate(s) may include AFMs/RFMs, QRHs, COMs, and IFR publications such as maps and approach plates.
  6. Assessment of Technical Knowledge and Flight Planning
    1. A candidate may not be able to provide ideal answers to some of the questions posed, however may still meet an acceptable standard.
    2. ACPs should avoid commenting on a candidate’s performance until after the assessment is complete.
    3. If questions are consistently missed, or the candidate(s) gives confused or unrelated answers, the assessment must be ended, the flight check terminated and the flight check item(s) assessed as unsuccessful.
  7. Proceeding to the Flight Portion of a PPC
    1. Immediately after the assessment, the candidate will be advised that the ground assessment was successful. The ACP will not debrief the results of the ground assessment until after the PPC is completed.

6.30 Ground Assessment – Line Check

  1. There is no requirement to conduct a ground assessment during a line check.

6.31 Pre-Flight Briefing – PPC

  1. A pre-flight briefing must be conducted in accordance with operator SOPs regardless of whether the air assessment is conducted in a simulator or aircraft. The ACP will simply observe this briefing unless also acting as a crew member.

6.32 Pre-Flight Briefing – Line Check

  1. A pre-flight briefing must be conducted in accordance with operator SOPs. The ACP will simply observe this briefing unless also acting as a crew member.

6.33 Air Assessment – PPC

  1. Refer to the applicable Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide and other sections of this manual for policies regarding the air assessment phase.

6.34 Air Assessment – Line Check

  1. Refer to other sections of this manual for policies regarding the air assessment phase.

6.35 Post Flight Debrief – PPC

  1. Notwithstanding an operator’s SOPs, the ACP may combine a post flight debrief with the flight check debrief.

6.36 Post Flight Debrief – Line Check

  1. A post flight debrief in accordance with an operator’s SOPs must be carried out. Notwithstanding an operator’s SOPs, the ACP may combine a post flight debrief with the flight check debrief.

6.37 Incomplete Flight Check Attempt

  1. Occasionally, it may not be possible to complete a flight check due to circumstances:
    1. beyond the control of the candidate(s); and
    2. other than unsatisfactory performance (e.g., slow but acceptable performance by the candidate resulting in not all flight check items being completed in the allotted time).
  2. At the discretion of the ACP, these circumstances may include (but are not limited to) the following:
    1. environmental;
    2. mechanical (simulator or aircraft); and
    3. bona fide personal challenges (e.g., illness).
  3. Flight Test Exercises – Credits and Reassessment
    1. It is at the discretion of the ACP who conducted the incomplete flight check whether credit is to be received for flight test exercises successfully completed. In general, flight test exercises should only be assessed once. ACPs may assess any flight test exercise in accordance with the following:
      1. there is a concern with the candidate’s proficiency; or
      2. the flight test exercise has been performed as part of normal flight requirements (e.g., take-off).
  4. If the ACP or CASI elects to continue the flight check from the point where it was stopped, the following applies:
    1. the second session must take place within 30 days of the signature date of the original letter of recommendation;
    2. the original letter of recommendation for the flight check remains valid; and
    3. the subsequent assessment event involves the same candidate(s) and is ideally conducted by the same ACP.
  5. Should the second session also be stopped for circumstances beyond the control of the candidate or ACP, then the subsequent check must be a complete flight check.

6.38 Unsuccessful Flight Check Attempt

  1. A flight check will be assessed as unsuccessful under one of following conditions:
    1. Second-In-Command
      1. one flight check item assessed a mark of one (1); or
      2. five flight check items assessed a mark of two (2).
    2. Pilot-In-Command
      1. one flight check item assessed a mark of one (1); or
      2. three flight check items assessed a mark of two (2).
    3. Cruise Relief Pilot
      1. one flight check item assessed a mark of one (1); or
      2. three flight check items assessed a mark of two (2).
  2. When an ACP decides that flight check will be assessed as an unsuccessful attempt, the flight check must be terminated immediately.
  3. When two candidates are paired during a PPC and the first is unsuccessful, that individual cannot be used as a seat partner for the second portion of the same PPC or any other PPC until a successful attempt is achieved.

6.39 Downgrading a PPC

  1. Under no circumstance will an unsuccessful PPC attempt be downgraded to a training event.
  2. Under no circumstance will an unsuccessful PPC/IFR attempt be downgraded to a successful PPC/VFR attempt.
  3. Under no circumstance will an unsuccessful PPC attempt, where the candidate has been assigned the role of pilot-in-command, be considered a successful second-in-command PPC attempt.

6.40 Flight Check Debrief

  1. A flight check debrief is mandatory.
  2. The conduct of the debrief must take place in a positive, non-confrontational manner. ACPs must also be sensitive to the candidate’s level of fatigue following a flight check and structure their debrief accordingly. An area free of distractions should be utilized.
  3. The flight check debrief may be combined or serve as a post flight debrief unless an operator’s SOPs dictate otherwise.
  4. ACPs should avoid a chronological review of the flight and instead focus on important aspects of the assessment.
  5. Flight Check Outcome
    1. Following any flight check, the candidate(s) is to be advised of the outcome of the flight check. Instead of using the terms pass or fail, ACPs are to use the following terminology:
      1. successful attempt;
      2. unsuccessful attempt; or
      3. incomplete.
  6. Reference Material
    1. The ACP is expected to reference the operator’s COM, SOP’s, checklists, AFM, the applicable Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide and other pertinent documentsto explain important aspects of the assessment.
  7. Mandatory Debrief Items
    1. It is mandatory to debrief the following:
      1. Any flight check items assessed as either a one (1) or two (2); and
      2. Anything the ACP considers a safety issue.
  8. Debriefing Methods
    1. There are two debrief methods recognized by Transport Canada within the ACP program. ACPs will select one of the following methods depending on the outcome of the flight check and the number of candidates tested:
      1. The traditional debrief; and
      2. The facilitated debrief;
      Note: The C-A-L Model which analyzes and evaluates CRM with a link to the line flying environment should be incorporated into a facilitative debrief.
    2. Successful Attempt
      1. Normally, a facilitated debrief (incorporating the C-A-L model) is used for a successful flight check attempt.
      2. The traditional debrief may be used for a routine flight check with only minor errors where a facilitated debrief would add little value.
    3. Unsuccessful Attempt
      1. The traditional debrief must be used in the case of an unsuccessful flight check attempt. The C-A-L model is not incorporated in this case.
    4. Multi-Crew versus Single-Pilot
      1. Following a successful multi-crew flight check, the ACP is expected to debrief the flight check using a facilitated debrief. Where only one candidate was assessed, the ACP may use a facilitated debrief if the seat substitute pilot is available to participate.
      2. Single piloted aircraft candidates may still benefit from the facilitated debrief method, however the ACP may deem the traditional debrief method more appropriate.
    5. Regardless of the debrief method employed, the debrief should promote learning and increase the knowledge and confidence of the candidate(s).

6.41 The Traditional (Flight Check) Debrief

  1. During a traditional debrief, the ACP leads discussion points.
  2. Historically, the traditional debrief was associated with only technical assessment elements (i.e., aircraft handling and knowledge and skills). Today it must encompass both technical and non-technical elements (i.e., cooperation, leadership and managerial skills, situational awareness and decision making) from the 4-Point Marking Scale and related non-technical concepts (i.e., communication, automation and threat and error management).
  3. While a candidate(s) must be debriefed as soon as practical following a flight check, the ACP must ensure that the debrief is thoroughly prepared and accurate. ACPs should review the flight check in a logical order which is not necessarily chronological.
  4. A traditional debrief should be organized as follows:
    1. overall assessment of the flight check (i.e., successful or unsuccessful);
    2. performance strengths;
    3. performance weaknesses;
    4. questions and feedback; and
    5. specific actions necessary for the candidate to improve future performance.
  5. While it may be easier to concentrate on negative performance, the candidate may be more receptive to assessments of poor performance if good performance is recognized first.
  6. A candidate's performance shouldn’t be specifically critiqued until their knowledge of a procedure and/or motivations for actions taken have been determined. While criticism should be balanced by praise, ACPs must be plain-spoken if the candidate is to receive full benefit of the debrief.

6.42 The Facilitated (Flight Check) Debrief

  1. The facilitated debrief emphasizes candidate self-critique. This method of debriefing draws upon the candidate’s professional experience to enhance learning.
  2. An effective facilitated debrief ensures that candidates do most of the talking. Ideally, the flight crew should discuss issues among themselves and thoroughly analyze situations that confronted them during the flight check.
  3. The facilitated debrief must cover both technical elements (i.e., aircraft handling and knowledge and skills) and non-technical elements (i.e., cooperation, leadership and managerial skills, situational awareness and decision making) from the 4-Point Marking Scale. Related non-technical concepts (i.e., communication, automation and threat and error management) should also be considered.
  4. Levels of Facilitation
    1. There are three levels of facilitation; high, medium and low. An ACP should strive to use the highest level of facilitation possible.
    2. High Level Facilitation
      1. High level facilitation is possible when the crew discovers and discusses important issues on their own with minimal guidance from the ACP. For facilitating a discussion at this level, the flight crewmembers must be able to do the following:
        1. identify important topics and issues that arose during the flight check;
        2. set an agenda for discussing these issues,
        3. analyze (critically) the situation; and
        4. evaluate how well they performed.
      2. The ACP’s role is as follows:
        1. inform the crew of the objectives for the debrief,
        2. outline the debrief process; and
        3. assist in guiding the discussion only when necessary.
      3. Although the ACP retains responsibility for ensuring that the debrief objectives are met, the ACP achieves this through general guidance rather than actually leading the discussion.
  5. Conducting a Facilitated Debrief
    1. Introduction and Format
      1. An introduction lays the foundation for the debrief. It should explicitly state how the crew and the ACP will participate. It should also include the following:
        1. clarify your role and set expectations for crew participation;
        2. provide rationale for the use of facilitation debrief;
        3. explain the format or model that will be used (e.g., C-A-L model); and
        4. explain that all critical areas will be covered.
    2. Agenda
      1. An agenda is helpful to identify items that must be discussed. While this should include areas of both good and poor performance, it must contain any flight test exercises assessed a mark of two (2).
        Note: Flight test exercises assessed a mark of one (1) require a traditional debrief.
      2. To promote crew discussion, the crew should develop the agenda with the ACP.
    3. Behaviour Model (e.g., C-A-L Model)
      1. Organizing the discussion with the use of a recognized behaviour model provides a structure that will ensure that non-technical evaluation elements and related concepts are discussed in addition to technical evaluation elements.
      2. The ACP should use the operator’s specific model, if available, otherwise the C-A-L model detailed in this manual should be employed.
  6. Recommended Techniques and Practices
    1. The following techniques and practices are provided. Transport Canada encourages ACP’s to refine their style of facilitation to suit both the candidate and their operator:
      1. Participation encourages adult learning.
      2. Do not lecture or make long speeches.
      3. Do not give the impression that only your views are important.
      4. Balance the role of ACP and facilitator (ensuring that all of your points are covered).
      5. Use facilitation to meet debrief objectives.
      6. Adapt facilitation to the level of crew experience and performance to meet crew needs.
      7. Adjust your facilitation to the level needed to engage crew to the maximum extent.
      8. Ensure that both technical and non-technical issues are discussed.
      9. Keep discussion crew-centered.
      10. Ensure the crew analyzes performance and discusses how to do better.
      11. Encourage crewmembers to do most of the talking.
      12. Ask questions that begin with what, how and why (open-ended questions).
      13. Re-word questions instead of giving the answer.
      14. Use questions to promote in-depth crew participation.
      15. Ask quiet crewmembers to comment on what other crewmembers said.
      16. Re-direct crew comments and questions back to them.
      17. Use silence/pauses to elicit thoughtful crew responses.
      18. Ask follow-up questions that require in-depth analysis.
      19. Ask crew to analyze the reasoning behind their decisions.
      20. Do not interrupt the crew or leave a topic while they still want to talk.
      21. Do not give your own analysis before the crew.
      22. Reinforce good crew performance following crew analysis.

6.43 The C-A-L Model

  1. It is known that CRM skills are frequently the underlying cause(s) of poor as well as excellent performance. It is imperative these skills are reviewed during a flight check debrief.
  2. C-A-L stands for CRM, analysis (and evaluation) and line flying.
  3. The C-A-L model is a facilitated debrief method that ensures participation by the flight crew members and promotes an in-depth review and analysis of non-technical (i.e., CRM) evaluation elements. It goes further by relating performance to the line flying environment.
  4. Transport Canada has adopted the C-A-L model during facilitated flight check debriefs as detailed in the following publication: NASA Technical Memorandum 112192, Facilitating LOS Debriefings: A Training Manual, March 1997.
C-A-L Model for Facilitated Debriefing
C

CRM (non-technical elements and related concepts)

  • Display a list of non-technical elements and related non-technical concepts.
  • Tie discussion points to operational issues.
A

Analysis and Evaluation

  • Explicitly evaluate performance during the flight check.
    • How effective was management of the situation?
      • What went well, and why?
      • What could be improved, and how?
  • Interactively analyze the situation confronted.
    • What happened?
    • How was it managed (include non-technical techniques utilized)?
    • Why it was managed that way?
L

Line Operations

  • Discuss how the flight check performance and associated non-technical elements and related concepts relate to line operations.
    • Discuss related line incidents that illustrate non-technical elements and related non-technical concepts.
    • Discuss how to apply flight check success to line operations.
  • Discuss how things could have been done differently.
    • What could have been done differently to improve the outcome in the flight check?
      • What non-technical element and/or related non-technical concepts techniques could have helped?
      • How could you turn areas for improvement into strengths?
  • What can be done to prevent or manage similar situations on the line?

6.44 Debriefing An Unsuccessful Attempt – PPC and Line Check

  1. In the event of an unsuccessful flight check attempt, ACPs must use the traditional debrief method
  2. During the debrief, actions or comments by the ACP must be respectful toward the candidate. ACPs and candidates should keep in mind that it is not the ACP who deems the candidate unsuccessful, but rather it is the candidate whose performance, on that day, has not met the minimum skill standards.
  3. The ACP will discuss the reason(s) for the unsuccessful flight check attempt in descending order of severity and make reference to appropriate publications such as the applicable Pilot Proficiency Check and Aircraft Type Rating - Flight Test Guide, checklists, SOP’s, QRH’s etc.
  4. Minor observations are not to be discussed at this time.
  5. Unsuccessful Attempt - PPC
    1. The ACP must inform the candidate(s) of the following:
      1. ACPs do not serve suspension notices.
      2. Transport Canada will serve a notice in accordance with subsection 6.71(2) of the Act which will not suspend PPC privileges but will merely maintain its current status until:
        1. a subsequent attempt at its renewal is successful; or
        2. its privileges lapse by virtue of reaching the end of its validity period.
      3. Instrument ratings are no longer suspended, however are subject to recency requirements detailed in NCR-040-2015.
      4. Appropriate stakeholders will be notified by the ACP including the Chief Pilot. Sequences that received an assessment of two (2) or less will be detailed with recommendations for re-training.
      5. Avenues for review available to the candidate include contacting Transport Canada or submitting a request for review to the Transportation Appeals Tribunal of Canada (TATC).
  6. Unsuccessful Attempt - Line Check
    1. The ACP must inform the candidate(s) of the following:
      1. ACPs do not serve suspension notices.
      2. Transport Canada will not serve a notice of suspension.
      3. Appropriate stakeholders will be notified by the ACP including the chief pilot. Sequences that received a mark of two (2) or less will be detailed with recommendations for re-training.

6.45 Training Subsequent to an Unsuccessful Attempt – PPC

  1. Where the ACP has terminated a flight check and the ACP is a training pilot, the time remaining in the session may be used as training subject to the following:
    1. the candidate is advised at the time of unsuccessful attempt and agrees with continuing the flight or simulator session as a training flight;
    2. the ACP is a designated company training pilot on type;
    3. no other crewmember(s) are being evaluated; and
    4. the ACP completes the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form(Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) with the result assessed as an unsuccessful attempt, submits the original to Transport Canada and follows the procedures for refusal to issue the PPC.

6.46 Training Subsequent to an Unsuccessful Attempt – Line Check

  1. Where the ACP has terminated a line check and the ACP is a training pilot, the flight, or planned series of flights, may proceed as Line Indoctrination at the ACPs discretion until all planned legs have been completed.
  2. The practice of holding the report of an unsuccessful flight check until a subsequent flight check has been successfully completed is unacceptable.

6.47 Flight Check Re-Attempt

  1. Remedial Training and Recommendation
    1. Prior to a complete flight check re-attempt, the candidate shall receive (as a minimum) remedial training on all items assessed a mark of one (1).
    2. Following remedial training, a recommendation from a training pilot that the candidate is ready for a complete flight check re-attempt must be provided.
  2. Flight Test Exercise Credits
    1. When an original flight check is assessed as unsuccessful, no credit from that flight check may be applied to the re-attempt event.
  3. Assigned ACP to a PPC Re-Attempt
    1. The same ACP may conduct the PPC re-check provided Transport Canada is notified.
    2. In the event of a second unsuccessful PPC attempt, Transport Canada must be notified regardless.
  4. Assigned ACP to a Line Check Re–Attempt
    1. The designation of an ACP for any line check reattempt will be at the discretion of the operator.

7.0 Administration Procedures

7.1 ACP Record Keeping Responsibilities

  1. ACPs are required to maintain records that are protected personal information. As such, these records must be kept in a secure location.
  2. Records to be retained include those which are evidence of the following:
    1. date of completion of the most recent ACP (recurrent or initial) course attended;
    2. date of completion of the most recent approved recurrent (ground and flight) flight crew training program;
    3. date of the ACP’s own most recent successful PPC or approved alternate means of compliance;
    4. copy of the most recent Approved Check Pilot (ACP) Monitor Report (Form 26-0387) which was successful;
    5. list of past flight checks that the ACP conducted;
    6. copies of completed Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form(Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) and Flight Crew Permit / Licence – Application For Endorsement of a Rating form (Form 26-0083) completed and submitted by the ACP; and
    7. copies of incomplete Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form(Form 26-0249 or 26-0279).
  3. Retention Requirement
    1. All ACP records are to be maintained for a period of at least two (2) years.
  4. Availability Requirement
    1. ACP records must be readily available to Transport Canada upon request.
    2. ACPs must be prepared to produce such records during each ACP monitor.

7.2 Assigning Temporary Privileges – Authorized Person Responsibilities

  1. Prior to the issuing temporary (additional) privileges to a pilot’s licence, ACPs who have authorized person privileges shall ensure that all the licensing requirements have been met. These include the following five (5) basic requirements:
    1. age;
    2. medical fitness;
    3. knowledge;
    4. experience; and
    5. skill.
  2. Detailed requirements are provided in Part IV, Subpart 421 of the CARs.

7.3 Individual Type Ratings

  1. The requirements for issuing an individual type rating are outlined in Part IV, Section 421.40 of the CARs - Blanket and Individual Type Ratings.

7.4 Instrument Ratings

  1. The requirements for issuing an instrument rating are outlined in Part IV, Section 421.46 of the CARs – Requirements.

7.5 General Administrative Procedures – Successful PPC Attempt

  1. Following a successful PPC, the ACP must complete the following administration:
    1. Complete the competency record in the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) and/or required company documents (i.e., PPC record, flight crew member record of checking/training, etc.);
    2. Provide feedback (if applicable) to the recommending instructor or chief pilot; and
    3. Within five (5) working days, complete and submit to Transport Canada the following forms (26-0249 or 26-0279, 26-0083, and 26-0267) as required;
    4. For ACPs holding authorized person privileges, endorse the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) or issue an Additional Privileges card (Form 26-0267) with additional privileges of a type and/or initial instrument rating as required.
  2. ACPs are required to retain copies of submitted documents for a period of at least two (2) years.
  3. ACPs may provide a copy of the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form(Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) to the candidate. They may also provide a copy (upon request) to other appropriate parties such as the operator, training organization or chief pilot.

7.6 General Administrative Procedures – Unsuccessful PPC Attempt

  1. Following an unsuccessful PPC, an ACP must notify Transport Canada of the circumstances by email, fax, voicemail or an operator’s established procedure.
  2. The Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form(Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) must be submitted within five (5) working days.
  3. Do not endorse the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) or issue an Additional Privileges card (Form 26-0267) for additional privileges of a type and/or instrument rating.
  4. Do not alter the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB). ACPs shall note the following:
    1. The Canadian Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) is a Canadian aviation document (CAD). There are special conditions associated with the suspending or cancelling CADs.
    2. While Part IV, Subsection 421.17(2) of the CARs provides instructions regarding the administrative actions following an unsuccessful flight test for a rating renewal, in 2011 a Transport Canada staff instruction (SI-SUR-016) provided direction that ACPs shall not draw a line through the rating on the licence or add a notation in the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB).
  5. The ACP must complete the following administration:
    1. Complete required company documents as appropriate (i.e., PPC record, flight crew member record of checking/training, etc.);
    2. Provide feedback and any recommended retraining requirements to the recommending instructor or chief pilot ; and
    3. Within five (5) working days, complete and submit to Transport Canada the following forms (26-0249 or 26-0279) as required.
  6. If the PPC was in support of a renewal, there are two cases where Transport Canada will consider suspending, canceling or refusing to renew a PPC. These are detailed in the Aeronautics Act, Sections 7.1(1)(a) and 7.1(1)(c). ACPs can obtain further guidance from their Transport Canada regional ACP representative.
  7. ACPs are required to retain copies of submitted documents for a period of at least two (2) years.
  8. ACPs may provide a copy of the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) to the candidate or upon request to other appropriate parties such as the operator, training organization or chief pilot.

7.7 Rights of Appeal - PPC

  1. In the event of an unsuccessful PPC attempt, the candidate(s) will receive a “Notice of Refusal to Issue or Amend a Canadian Aviation Document” letter from Transport Canada.
  2. Candidate(s) have the right to request a review of the assessment to the Transportation Appeal Tribunal of Canada (TATC). A date will be specified in the letter from Transport Canada when an application for review must be submitted by.
  3. If not currently pursuing a TATC review, a candidate may request a review of the assessment be conducted by Transport Canada (i.e., the issuing authority to which the ACP is accountable to (e.g., TC National Operations – Certification and Quality Assurance)). In the event that the candidate is not satisfied with the review, the option of requesting a review by the TATC remains available.
  4. Additional information is available on the TATC website.

7.8 Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279)

  1. Forms 26-0249 and 26-0279 are used to record the results of a pilot proficiency check (PPC) and, if applicable, to accompany an application for a type rating, instrument rating and/or licence.
  2. The form is used for PPCs conducted in a simulator or an aircraft.
  3. Due to computer scanning sensitivity, ACP’s must ensure that the marking circles are accurately filled in with BLACK INK. Successful scanning requires that original printed forms can only be used. Marks or holes on blue lines could cause scanning errors. Ensure they are completely filled in and do not go outside the circles or scanning errors could occur.
  4. PPC Utilizing Two Separate Assessment Events
    1. There are two cases whereby a PPC requires two separate assessment events. They include:
      1. An incomplete PPC; and
      2. A PPC required to be conducted in both a simulator and aircraft.
    2. While it is desirable that the same ACP conduct both assessment events, separate ACPs may be assigned provided there is a constructive handover from one ACP to the other.
    3. The second ACP is considered the ACP of record with respect to the PPC and is responsible to complete and submit the flight test report.
    4. The following administrative protocols must be adhered to:
      1. The first ACP (assigned to the first event) is to initiate completion of the flight test report by filling in header (i.e., tombstone) information.
      2. The first ACP is to compete the CHECK DETAILS and COMMENTS – GENERAL ASSESSMENT information on assessed flight test exercises.
      3. In the case of an incomplete PPC (i.e., a PPC that did not require the use of both a simulator and aircraft), the first ACP is to add the following to the COMMENTS – GENERAL ASSESSMENT field:
        1. “Original PPC conducted on incomplete. Check Items <e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 8> assessed. Subsequent assessment recommended - , ”.
      4. The second ACP (assigned to the second event) is to complete the flight test report. The second ACP will become the ACP of record and (in the case of an incomplete PPC) may need to amend the NAME OF CHECK PILOT and LICENCE NUMBER fields in the header information.
      5. If a flight test exercise is assessed again during the second assessment event, the lower mark from the 4-Point Marking Scale shall be recorded.
      6. If necessary, information from the initial flight test report form completed by the first ACP may be transcribed onto a new flight test report form by the second ACP.
  5. Completion Blocks
    1. NAME OF APPLICANT
      1. Use legal name as shown in the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB). Use the licence number (all 6 digits including zeros) as shown in the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB).
      2. Fill in the computer scannable dots.
    2. NAME OF CHECK PILOT - SIMULATOR / NAME OF CHECK PILOT - AIRCRAFT
      1. Use legal name as shown in the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB). TCE/ACPs should use their name as indicated in the delegation of authority letter.
      2. Fill in the appropriate computer scannable dot: Transport Canada (Transport Canada CASI) or DACP for ACP’s. Use the licence number (all 6 digits including zeros) as shown in the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB).
      3. Fill in the computer scannable dots. Both lines will be filled in for PPCs that include a simulator and an aircraft portion.
    3. OPERATOR / TRAINING UNIT & FILE NUMBER
      1. Use name of operator as indicated on the Operating Certificate. Also add the name of the training unit in addition to the operator’s name if training was conducted by an outside agency (example – “ABC Airlines/Contract Training Centre Name–City, Province/State”).
      2. The FILE NUMBER shall reflect the operator’s 5258 - number; fill in all 6 digits including zeros) and fill in computer scannable dots.
      3. If the PPC was conducted for the sole purpose of issuing either a type rating and/or and instrument rating, the OPERATOR/TRAINING UNIT 5258 - number entered shall be 999995.
        Note: The FILE NUMBER is not the company’s Operating Certificate number. It is the file number found on the top right-hand corner of most Transport Canada generated correspondence. When in doubt, ACPs will have to contact the operator and ensure their legal company name (not Trade Name) and their 5258- Transport Canada file number is entered on the flight test reports.
    4. PRESENT INSTRUMENT
      1. Enter the instrument rating group appropriate to the category and class of aircraft. As a result of the Transport Canada instrument rating exemption (NCR-040-2015), do not enter an EXPIRY date; leave this field blank.
      2. Group 1 – Conventional multi-engine aeroplane.
      3. Group 2 – Centre-line thrust multi-engine aeroplane.
      4. Group 3 – Single-engine aeroplane.
      5. Group 4 – Helicopter.
    5. PILOT PROFICIENCY CHECK
      1. Fill in computer scannable dot(s) for Single-Pilot and/or Multi-Crew.
      2. Some Subpart 703 of the CARs operators require that their pilots be tested in both multi and single-pilot operations. In this case, both bubbles will be filled in for Single-Pilot and Multi-Crew. For Subpart 704 of the CARs operators, this will always be Multi-Crew.
      3. Fill in computer scannable dot for Initial, Recurrent or Upgrade. Fill in the computer scannable dot for VFR Only, if applicable; otherwise it is assumed that instrument flight proficiency was checked as part of the PPC.
      4. For CREW STATUS, fill in one computer scannable dot only. Combinations such as F/O / CRP will not scan and therefore, two separate entries on separate 0249 or 0279 forms are required to trigger appropriate actions for individuals that meet both qualification requirements. The ACP dot is no longer filled in.
      5. For Type Rating, the computer scannable dot is only filled in when adding a type rating (or a type rating restricted to Cruise Relief Pilot duties) to the licence. Two separate -0249 or -0279 forms are required when an individual applies for both an unrestricted type rating and a type rating restricted to CRP duties.
        Note: A completed application for endorsement of a rating (form 26-0083) and the fee or receipt number for the fee paid must accompany the PPC Report. Issuance of a restricted or unrestricted type rating or an initial instrument rating will only be undertaken when the following are submitted: Application for Endorsement of a Rating (form 26-0083); the appropriate fee(s) or receipt number for the fee(s) paid; and the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279).
    6. PRESENT PPC
      1. If applicable, enter the present PPC expiry date PPC on the aircraft type. If the candidate does not have a current PPC on aircraft type being checked, leave this field blank.
      2. If it is a recurrent or upgrade PPC applicable to aircraft type, then enter the expiry date in YY-MM-DD format of the PPC.
      3. If the present PPC has expired enter the past expiry date; do not amend the expiry date.
    7. VALID MEDICAL
      1. Verify that the medical is valid and fill in Verified box.
    8. A/C TYPE
      1. Enter the aircraft type designator as per Subpart 421, Appendix A of the CARs – Aircraft Type Designators (for example, EA32). Use the correct approved type designators as shown on the ACP’s delegation of authority letter.
      2. TCE/ACPs should not confuse this with a FAA Pilot Certificate Type Designators. FAA type designators and Transport Canada type designators are not always the same.
    9. A/C REG
      1. For PPC’s conducted in an aircraft, enter the aircraft’s full registration.
    10. SIM ID NO.
      1. Enter number from Transport Canada’s List of Approved Simulators and not the FAA simulator ID number. This number can be located from the Transport Canada Approved Aircraft Simulators and Flight Training Devices web search page.
    11. SCRIPT NO.
      1. Enter the company script (i.e., scripted PPC) number if used otherwise leave this field blank.
    12. ACP Monitor
      1. The ACP Monitor dot is to be filled in only when a Transport Canada CASI conducts an ACP monitor (i.e., not random surveillance or oversight).
    13. MONITOR INSPECTOR LICENCE NUMBER
      1. Enter the Pilot Licence number (all 6 digits including zeros) of the CASI conducting the ACP monitor.
    14. TAKE-OFF
      1. Fill in only one computer scannable dot for the minimums demonstrated as pilot flying (PF): C.A.P. (i.e., Canada Air Pilot) refers to ½ sm or 2600 RVR.
    15. LANDING
      1. Fill in only one computer scannable dot for the minimums demonstrated as pilot flying (PF): C.A.P. (i.e., Canada Air Pilot) refers to the minimums shown on the approach plate. During a PMA approach, the pilot flying (PF) is the individual who will assess and decide that the required visual reference is present, will take control and land the aircraft.
    16. GROUND TRAINING / FLIGHT TRAINING / EXAM
      1. Confirm all relevant ground training, flight training and examinations are completed prior to conducting the PPC and complete the Verified box.
    17. AQP
      1. If the operator has implemented an approved Advanced Qualification Program (AQP) and is using the form in order to trigger licensing action, this dot must be filled in. This action is not to be completed by an ACP.
    18. CHECK DETAILS
      1. Enter the appropriate rating beside the applicable CHECK DETAIL item.
      2. When an item is not assessed, leave the mark blank and enter N/A or strike a line through the CHECK DETAIL item. Do not strike out the computer scannable dots.
      3. Technical Knowledge & Flight Planning – Some CARs Subparts including 704 and 705 (aeroplane only) have the option of not assessing Technical Knowledge via oral questions. If Technical Knowledge is not assessed in this manner during the ground assessment, do no fill in the Technical Knowledge computer scannable dot.
      4. Approach (APR) - For instrument approaches, mark one type of approach for each approach sequence being graded.
      5. Mark - Circling only if applicable.
      6. With respect to GPS approaches, fill the RNAV computer scannable dot if the approach flown is a stand-alone RNAV (GNSS) approach; fill the GPS dot if the GPS approach flown is designed around a ground-based navigation aid with a GPS overlay approach built into it; for example, VOR RWY xx (GNSS).
        Note: For the purpose of a PPC, an approach flown to LPV minima qualifies as a precision approach.
      7. Until the 26-0249/26-0279 form is amended, fill in the ILS dot for both ILS and LPV approaches. Where an LPV approach was assessed, annotate the 26-0249/26-0279 form accordingly.
      8. Since the form provides space to grade two approaches (one precision and one non-precision), record the lowest mark attained if an additional precision or non-precision approach is flown. Recording the additional approach is optional. If desired, one may list the third approach in the comments section only (e.g., “Third Approach LOC RWY 4L KJFK assessed as 3”).
    19. Abnormal / Emergencies
      1. Enter the specific Abnormal / Emergency title (if possible) and Code from the Flight Training and Aviation Education Database (FTAE) / Air Transport Association Standard (ATA) Numbering Codes. A summary table of these codes is provided below.
      2. In a multi-crew environment, Abnormal/Emergency assessments are assessed with respect to the pilot flying (PF). The candidate providing pilot monitoring (PM) support does not receive credit.
      3. Ensure the form shows a minimum of two engine failures as required by the Part VII of the CARs Standard - PPC Schedule.
    20. COMMENTS - GENERAL ASSESSMENT
      1. There are two types of written comments; general ACP comments and those directly related to CHECK DETAILS (i.e., flight test exercise). It is mandatory to provide a comment about any flight test exercise assessed a mark of one (1) or two (2). In both cases, comments must be clear, concise, accurate and un-biased. It is crucial that handwriting is legible.
      2. Comments will become an official record once submitted to Transport Canada and may be used for further analyses. They may also be used when Transport Canada considers a Notice of Refusal to Issue or Notice of Suspension.
      3. General ACP Comments
        1. ACPs have the discretion to provide factual comments relevant to a candidate’s assessment. In other cases, general comments are provided to reflect the particular nature of the PPC.
        2. CARs Subpart 703 Operators
          1. Some CARs Subpart 703 operators operate their aircraft in both a single-pilot and multi-crew environment. If this is the case pilots are tested in both multi and single-pilot operations and recorded as such.
          2. The Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form(Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) will be annotated accordingly “Demonstrated proficiency to operate aircraft with passengers on board in IFR flight without a second-in-command”.
        3. Non-CARs Part VI or VII PPCs
          1. PPCs carried out on candidates not associated with a CARs Part VI or VII operator shall have the following annotated: “This PPC is for the purpose of obtaining an <insert type> Type Rating and does not constitute a PPC under CARs Part VI or Part VII."
        4. A repeated flight test exercise must be recorded as a general comment.
      4. CHECK DETAILS (i.e., flight test exercise) Comments
        1. When providing comments about a flight test exercise the following format is to be followed:
          1. CHECK DETAILS (i.e., flight test exercise) number;
          2. CHECK DETAILS (i.e., flight test exercise) title;
          3. Skill Element from the 4-Point Making Scale;
          4. Sub-Element marking narrative from the 4-Point Marking Scale Grading Matrix; and
          5. description / substantiation
        2. Formulating a description / substantiation is the most challenging aspect of providing a comment. Comments should always contain specific language from a referenced source.
        3. ACPs must use a plain style of writing. This implies that information is clearly organized and the choice of words and terminology is consistent with what the target audience will understand.
        4. Where a deviation (i.e., minor, major or critical) has occurred, numerical values relative to specific tolerances from the performance criteria of the flight test exercise must be stated.
        5. Where an error (i.e., minor, major or critical) has occurred, consequences must be stated relative to a requirement documented in an SOP, COM, AFM, MEL, Checklist, QRH, Regulations, etc.
          Note: Deviations and errors are formally defined in this manual.
        6. Examples
          1. “6. Take-off - Situational Awareness - poor system awareness - aircraft’s anti-icing system was not properly monitored during taxi and confirmed on prior to take-off in accordance with the AFM.”
            Note: a mark of two (2) would have been assigned in this case.
          2. “10. Cruise - Aircraft Handling – critical deviation – aircraft allowed to momentarily descend 210 feet from assigned altitude during autopilot transfer. Corrective measures quickly applied as a result of both soft and hard safeguards. ACP discretion exercised with respect to mark assigned.”
            Note: a mark of two (2) would have been assigned in this case.
          3. “6. Take-off - Technical Skills and Knowledge – unacceptable practical understanding – Regarding IFR takeoff minima, candidate unable to state any of the requirements for 600 RVR takeoff.
            ” Note: a mark of one (1) would have been assigned in this case.
    21. FLIGHT TEST DATE
      1. Enter the date (YY/MM/DD) the PPC is completed.
      2. For a combined simulator/aircraft PPC, enter the date on which the final portion of the PPC is completed.
    22. PPC VALID TO
      1. A PPC is valid for either six (6), twelve (12) or twenty-four (24) months. The expiry date is always the first day of the month following.
      2. Subpart 705 of the CARs
        1. PPC is valid to the first day of the seventh month.
      3. Subparts 703, 704 and 705 of the CARs with approved LOFT training as a substitute for a PPC
        1. PPC is valid to the first day of the thirteenth month
      4. Subparts 702 and 704 when taking advantage of a national exemption
        1. PPC is valid to the first day of the twenty-fifth month.
      5. Use the Flt Test Date as the reference date for when the PPC was conducted. Enter applicable year and month.
      6. For a Recurrent PPC completed within the 90-day period prior to the expiry date, add 6, 12 or 24 months, as applicable, to the expiry date that was in effect prior to the flight check.
      7. If the PPC was conducted for the sole purpose of issuing a type rating, the PPC VALID TO date is not annotated.
    23. IFR VALID TO
      1. As a result of the Transport Canada instrument rating exemption (NCR-040-2015), instrument ratings no longer have a valid to date. Do not enter Year / Month data or fill in the dots.
    24. Change of Address and phone number
      1. If required, fill in the dot and enter new mailing address and phone number information.
    25. Receipt No.
      1. Enter the receipt number issued for payment of the flight check. The receipt number for the fee charged must be noted on the flight test report. A “bill to account” entry is not acceptable. Payment and receipt numbers may be obtained by calling the Transport Canada Communications Centre at 1-800-305-2059.
    26. PPC SIMULATOR / PASSED or FAILED
      1. The PASSED or FAILED dot must be filled as appropriate. FAILED represents an unsuccessful attempt.
    27. IFR / PASSED or FAILED
      1. The PASSED computer scannable dot is only filled in when licensing action is required. (i.e., issuing a new instrument rating or converting an existing instrument rating group to another group – i.e., Group 4 to 1, 2 or 3; Group 1, 2 or 3 to Group 4; Group 3 to 2; Group 3 to 1; or Group 2 to 1). The FAILED computer scannable dot is no longer filled in as a result of the Transport Canada instrument rating exemption (NCR-040-2015).
    28. Group 1, 2 or 3 (aeroplane) and 4 (helicopter) Instrument Rating
      1. The appropriate computer scannable dot is only filled in when licensing action is required (i.e., issuing a new instrument rating or converting an existing instrument rating group to another group – i.e., group 4 to 1, 2 or 3; group 1,2 or 3 to group 4; group 3 to 2; group 3 to 1; or group 2 to 1).
        Note: For initial issuance of an instrument rating, a completed application for endorsement of a rating (form 26-0083) and the fee or receipt number for the fee paid must accompany the PPC Report.
    29. PPC AIRCRAFT / PASSED or FAILED
      1. The PASSED or FAILED dot must be filled as appropriate. FAILED equates to an unsuccessful attempt.
    30. SIGNATURE OF CHECK PILOT
      1. The ACP will sign this block of the form which corresponds to either the PPC SIMULATOR or PPC AIRCRAFT.
    31. DATE
      1. Enter the date(s) of the simulator and/or aeroplane flight test(s) in YY/MM/DD format. If a combined simulator/aeroplane flight check was completed, enter the second date.
    32. FLIGHT TIME
      1. Flight time is to be entered for the Simulator and Aeroplane PPCs as applicable.
      2. Aircraft
        1. Flight time means the time from the moment an aircraft first moves under its own power for the purpose of taking off until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight.
      3. Simulator
        1. Flight Time means the time from when the ACP and candidates enter the simulator until the moment the PPC is complete.
      4. If the PPC was conducted in a two-crew environment, then the flight time will be recorded as total flight time as pilot flying (PF) and pilot monitoring (PM).
    33. Flight Training and Aviation Education (FTAE) Database / Air Transport Association (ATA) Standard Numbering Codes for Emergencies & Abnormals.
System FTAE / ATA Code
Air Conditioning 21
Auto Flight 22
Communications 23
Electrical Power 24
Equipment / Furnishings 25
Fire Emergencies 26
Flight Controls 27
Fuel 28
Hydraulics 29
Ice and Rain 30
Indicating / Recording 31
Landing Gear 32
Lights 33
Navigation 34
Oxygen 35
Pneumatics 36
Vacuum / Pressure 37
Water / Waste 38
Central Maintenance 45
System FTAE / ATA Code
Airborne Auxiliary 49
Doors 52
Fuselage 53
Windows 56
Wings 57
Propellers 61
Rotors 62
Rotor Drive 65
Powerplant or Engine 71 / 72
Engine Fuel & Control 73
Ignition 74
Bleed Air 75
Engine Controls 76
Engine Indicating 77
Engine Exhaust 78
Engine Oil 79
Starting 80
Water Injection 82
Special Purpose 95

Note 1: Equipment / Furnishing (FTAE/ATA Code 25) includes items such as safety harness and seat structure/configuration.

Note 2: Special Purpose (FTAE/ATA Code 95) includes items such as bird strike, hijacking, in flight release of lift raft, passenger emergency, passenger evacuation, pilot/crew incapacitation and PNF (i.e., PM) duties.

7.9 Calculating Valid To Dates for PPCs

Note: Where a PPC is renewed within the last 90 days of the validity period, its validity period is extended by six (6), twelve (12) or twenty-four (24) months, in accordance with the applicable CARs Subpart.

PPC VALID TO DATE
Date PPC Completed Valid to 6 Months Valid to 12/24 Months
January 01 AUG 01 FEB
February 01 SEPT 01 MAR
March 01 OCT 01 APR
April 01 NOV 01 MAY
May 01 DEC 01 JUNE
June 01 JAN 01 JULY
July 01 FEB 01 AUG
August 01 MAR 01 SEPT
September 01 APR 01 OCT
October 01 MAY 01 NOV
November 01 JUNE 01 DEC
December 01 JULY 01 JAN
RECURRENT PPC
(WITHIN 90 DAYS)
PPC Expiry Date Date PPC Completed Valid to 6 Months Valid to 12/24 Months
01 JULY 02 APR to 30 JUNE 01 JAN 01 JULY
01 AUG 03 MAY to 31 JULY 01 FEB 01 AUG
01 SEPT 03 JUNE to 31 AUG 01 MAR 01 SEPT
01 OCT 03 JULY to 30 SEPT 01 APR 01 OCT
01 NOV 03 AUG to 31 OCT 01 MAY 01 NOV
01 DEC 02 SEPT to 30 NOV 01 JUNE 01 DEC
01 JAN 03 OCT to 31 DEC 01 JULY 01 JAN
01 FEB 03 NOV to 31 JAN 01 AUG 01 FEB
01 MAR 01 DEC to 28 FEB 01 SEPT 01 MAR
01 APR 01 JAN to 31 MAR 01 OCT 01 APR
01 MAY 01 FEB to 30 APR 01 NOV 01 MAY
01 JUNE 03 MAR to 31 MAY 01 DEC 01 JUNE

7.10 Flight Crew Permit / Licence – Application for Endorsement of a Rating form (Form 26-0083)

  1. ACPs who have Authorized Person privileges will only accept an Application for Endorsement of a Rating (Form 26-0083) when all requirements for the rating have been met. This form is available online however; it is also available on request from Transport Canada Civil Aviation (TCCA).
  2. Use BLACK or BLUE ink only.
  3. Completion Blocks
  4. PART A – TO BE COMPLETED BY APPLICANT
    1. Full Given Name / Surname
      1. The applicant’s name as recorded in their Aviation Document Booklet (ADB).
    2. Mailing Address and Declaration
      1. The applicant’s mailing address and telephone number.
        Note: The mailing address provided by the applicant in Part A of the application form will be considered as a "Notification of Change of Address" to TCCA. Please ensure that the address provided is the mailing address that the applicant would like their licensing documents to be mailed to.
    3. Declaration
      1. Applicant dates and signs application.
        Note: Any false or inaccurate information could result in delays or a possible - Refusal to Issue.
    4. File Number (5802-)
      1. This is the applicant’s file number as shown in the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB). Example: 123456.
    5. Licence Number
      1. For Aeroplane - AA for Airline Transport Pilot Licence or CA for Commercial Pilot Licence followed by the 5802 file number. Example: AA123456 or CA123456.
      2. For Helicopters - AH for Airline Transport Pilot Licence or CH for Commercial Pilot Licence followed by the 5802 file number. Example: AH123456 or CH123456.
    6. Date of Birth
      1. The applicant date of birth as indicated in the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB).
    7. Medical Category
      1. The applicant’s medical category as indicated in their Aviation Document Booklet (ADB). ACPs should expect to see Category 1.
    8. Last Medical
      1. The applicant’s last medical as shown in their Aviation Document Booklet (ADB). The applicant must be in possession of a valid Canadian medical certificate prior to taking any action toward obtaining a rating; there are no exceptions.
    9. Aircraft Category and Rating(s) Applied For
      1. The applicant checks Aeroplane or Helicopter as applicable and then Type, Instrument or Second Officer, as applicable.
  5. PART B – TYPE RATING BOX – TO BE COMPLETED BY APPLICANT
    1. Type Designator
      1. Enter the Canadian Type Designator for the aircraft type rating applied for. Flight Crew Licensing Aircraft Type Designators are located in Part IV of the CARs – Personnel Licensing Standards. Refer to the Transport Canada Flight Crew Licensing Aircraft Type Designators website.
    2. Total
      1. Enter “total” pilot time. In no case shall it be less than the total time required for the type rating as prescribed in CAR Part IV. In the pilot-in-command field, leave this field blank as there is no minimum pilot-in-command experience requirements for the issuance of a type rating. In addition to reviewing this application, ACP’s are required to ensure that the pilot has received the minimum hour requirements as outlined in the approved company training program.
    3. FE/SO
      1. This is completed for a Flight Engineer or Second Officer Individual Type Rating only. If not applicable, leave this field blank.
    4. Simulator
      1. This is the total time conducted in the simulator for the aircraft type requested. Both pilot flying (PF) and pilot monitoring (PM) time is applicable
    5. Flight Time
      1. This is completed after the PPC. The flight time shown on the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form(Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) as applicable is recorded here.
    6. Date
      1. This is completed after the PPC. The flight time shown on the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form(Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) as applicable is recorded here.
    7. Training was done in aircraft registration marks
      1. Enter the aircraft registration in which aircraft training was completed.
    8. Flight Simulator Location and Type
      1. Enter the name of the Training Center, Location, and Transport Canada Simulator Identification Number. This number can be located from the Transport Canada Approved Aircraft Simulators and Flight Training Devices web search page.
      2. Below is an example of an Individual Type Rating (Two-Crew) – Aeroplane for a Gulfstream 550.
        TYPE RATING Qualifying Flight in Pilot-In-Command Seat or PPC
        Type Designator Total Pilot-In-Command FE/SO SIM Flight Time Date
        (YYYY-MM-DD)
        GLF5 1880.0 N/A N/A 28.0 4.0 2015-02-15
  6. PART B – INSTRUMENT RATING BOX – TO BE COMPLETED BY APPLICANT
    1. This box is only completed for the initial issuance of an instrument rating and is NOT applicable to a renewal of that rating.
    2. Pilot-In-Command - Total Pilot-In-Command
      1. Enter the total pilot-in-command time in aeroplanes and/or helicopters.
    3. Pilot-In-Command - In Category
      1. Enter total pilot-in-command time in category (i.e. aeroplane or helicopter), applied for.
    4. Pilot-In-Command - Cross Country
      1. Enter the cross country time. An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 50 hours of cross country flight time as pilot-in-command in aeroplanes or helicopters of which 10 hours must be in the appropriate category.
    5. Instrument Time - Total Instrument Time
      1. Enter total instrument time. An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 40 hours of instrument time of which a maximum of 20 hours may be instrument ground time. Instrument ground time is recorded in the “Ground Time” column.
    6. Instrument Time - Flight Time
      1. This section breaks out how the instrument flight time was acquired.
    7. Instrument Time - Flight Time – Dual
      1. Dual instruction toward the total instrument time may be conducted by a combination of a flight instructor and a qualified person as specified in CARs Subpart 425.21(9).
        1. From Instructor - Enter the dual instrument time. The 40 hours instrument time shall include a minimum of five (5) hours of dual flight time acquired from the holder of a flight instructor rating.
        2. Other - If applicable, enter the dual instrument time acquired by a qualified person as specified in Subsection 425.21(9) of the CARs. The 40 hours instrument time requirement shall include a minimum of fifteen (15) hours of dual instrument flight time provided by a qualified person.
    8. Instrument Time - Flight Time - In Category
      1. Enter instrument flight time in category applied for (i.e. aeroplane or helicopter). The 40 hours of instrument flight time shall include a minimum of 5 hours in aeroplanes where the applicant is applying for a Group 1, 2 or 3 instrument rating or in helicopters where the applicant is applying for a Group 4 instrument rating.
    9. Instrument Time - Flight Time - 100 NM Cross Country
      1. Enter dual flight time for a 100 NM cross country flight. The 40 hours instrument time shall include a minimum of one dual cross-country flight under simulated or actual IMC conditions of a minimum of 100 nautical miles, the flight to be conducted in accordance with an IFR flight plan to include at, two different locations, and an instrument approach to minima.
    10. Instrument Time – Ground Time
      1. An applicant shall have completed a minimum of 40 hours of instrument time of which a maximum of 20 hours may be instrument ground time. If applicable, enter the instrument ground time in this column.
    11. Example of Part B - Instrument Rating block (Aeroplane or Helicopter).
      INSTRUMENT RATING Instrument Time
      Pilot-In-Command Total
      Instrument Time
      Flight Time Ground Time
      Total Pilot-In-Command In Category Cross Country Dual In Category 100 NM Cross-Country
      From Instructor Other
      300 100 50.0 40.0 5.0 15.0 20.0 2.0 20.0
    12. Training was done in aircraft registration marks
      1. Enter the aircraft registration in which aircraft training was completed.
    13. Flight Simulator Location and Type
      1. Enter the name of the Training Center, Location, and Transport Canada Simulator Identification Number.
  7. PART C – RECOMMENDATION – TO BE COMPLETED BY THE APPLICANT’S INSTRUCTOR
    1. In the case of a recommendation for a flight test (i.e., pilot proficiency check, line operation evaluation (LOE), etc.); this section is completed by the recommending instructor who provided the training and is recommending the applicant for the flight test. It is NOT completed by the person who conducted the flight test (i.e. approved check pilot (ACP), pilot examiner (PE) etc.).
    2. In the case of a recommendation for a rating whereby a flight test is not required, the recommendation can be made by the person who conducted the training and/or “qualifying flight” where required.
    3. Once the applicant has met the CARs requirements for Age, Medical Fitness, Knowledge, Experience and Skill, they may submit a completed application to an Authorized Person for verification.
    4. In the context of an Individual Type Rating, the qualifications of the recommending instructor (Subsection 425.21(7) of the CARs) are as follows:
      1. hold a Commercial Pilot Licence or an Airline Transport Pilot Licence – Aeroplane; and
      2. have experience of not less than 50 hours flight time on the class of aeroplane for the training, of which not less than 10 hours must be on aeroplane type.
    5. Within the context of Part VII of the CARs, the skill requirement for an individual type rating (i.e. two-crew, cruise relief, high performance) or instrument rating, is a test (i.e. a PPC or LOE), therefore, the recommending instructor will remove non-applicable statement by ensuring the following has been stricken out in the following manner:
      "The applicant is recommended for a flight test."
    6. Ensure the recommending instructor has checked this box.
    7. Recommending instructor dates, prints their name, signs, records their licence number and the organization where they are employed.
  8. PART D – CERTIFICATION OF LICENCE PRIVILEGES BY AUTHORIZED PERSON
    1. ONLY when all requirements (i.e. medical, knowledge, experience and skill) for the rating have been met can an ACP who has Authorized Person privileges complete all the fields in Part D. Upon completion of this section, the ACP who has Authorized Person privileges will also endorse the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) with the rating(s) applied for, if required.
    2. The ACP who has Authorized Person privileges is required to substantiate all claims by the applicant by reviewing original documentation from the applicant. If the applicant has met all the applicable requirements of Subpart 421 of the CARs, the required information can be provided for all fields in this Part, and the section dated and signed.
    3. Permit/Licence Number
      1. Enter the applicant’s licence number along with prefix as shown in their Aviation Document Booklet (ADB).
    4. Was certified for the addition of ______ rating
      1. Enter the rating(s) applied for.
    5. On
      1. Enter the date in YYYY-MM-DD format.
    6. Print Name
      1. Self-Explanatory.
    7. Signature of Authorized Person
      1. Self-Explanatory.
    8. Licence Number
      1. The ACP who has Authorized Person privileges enters their -5802 Licence Number;
    9. Organization
      1. Self-explanatory
    10. Appointment Expiry Date in year-month-date format: The ACP with Authorized Person privileges records there expiry date as shown on their delegation of authority document.

Note: The ACP with Authorized Person privileges is required to sign the application. By signing the application, the ACP declares that all the information provided in Part A, Part B and Part C has been reviewed, is accurate and true. Any false or inaccurate information could result in delays or a possible “Refusal to Issue” of the rating.

7.11 Aviation Document Booklet (ADB)

  1. When the applicant requires the exercising of the new privileges for the rating(s), the ACP with Authorized Person privileges may endorse the privilege(s) by completing the appropriate section in the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) (pages 5 through 12).
  2. Pages 5 through 12 states that the holder of this document is authorized to exercise the privileges endorsed to the right for 90 days following the date of this certification.
  3. Completion Blocks
    1. The Authorized Person will enter the Rating(s) for which temporary privileges are sought. This may be more than one rating.
      1. Example 1 (Aeroplanes): GLF5 and Group 1 Instrument Rating; or
      2. Example 2 (Helicopters): BH06 and Group 4 Instrument Rating.
    2. Authorized Person Name
      1. Self-explanatory.
    3. Authorized Person 5802 Licence Number
      1. Self-explanatory. If the Authorized Person is not the holder of an Aviation Document Booklet (ADB), enter 5802 file number located on the Authorized Person delegation of authority letter.
    4. Signature
      1. Self-explanatory.
    5. Certification Date
      1. Self-explanatory. Enter in year-month-day format. If the applicant is making application for an initial rating, this date must match the date in Section D of the Application for Endorsement of a Rating (Form 26-0083).

7.12 Temporary Licence (Form 26-0266)

  1. The following are instructions on completing the back of the Temporary Licence (Form 26-0266). This is required when the applicant requires exercising the new privileges for the rating(s), the ACP with Authorized Person privileges may endorse the privilege(s) by completing the sections on the back of the Temporary Licence (Form 26-0266).
  2. A Temporary Licence (Form 26-0266) may be required when and applicant has lost, destroyed or is in the process of having their Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) replaced. ACPs should advise the applicant that a Temporary Medical Certificate (Form 26-0055) may also be required.
  3. The back of the license states that “This certifies that the licence holder has met the prescribed standards for addition privileges to the licence as follows:”
  4. The ACP with Authorized Person privileges will enter the Rating(s) for which temporary privileges are sought. This may be more than one rating. The following are examples:
    1. Example 1 (Aeroplanes): GLF5 and Group 1 Instrument Rating; or
    2. Example 2 (Helicopters): BH06 and Group 4 Instrument Rating.
  5. Completion Blocks
    1. Certification Date
      1. Self-explanatory. Enter in year-month-day format. If the applicant is making application for an initial rating, this date must match the date in Section D of the Application for Endorsement of a Rating (Form 26-0083).
    2. Authorized Person Name
      1. Self-explanatory.
    3. Signature
      1. Self-explanatory
    4. Authorized Person 5802 Licence Number
      1. Self-explanatory. If the Authorized Person is not the holder of an Aviation Document Booklet (ADB), enter 5802 file number located on the Authorized Person’s delegation of authority letter.

7.13 Certification of Additional Privileges Card (Form 26-0267)

  1. The Additional Privilege Card (26-0267) continues to be a valid form that is still in use.
  2. There may be occasions whereby the Aviation Document Booklet (ADB) is not available or the back section of the Temporary Licence (Form 26-0266) is already endorse with a rating. At other times a candidate may only have a temporary licence and a (faxed) medical certificate. Assigning temporary privileges in these cases requires use of the Additional Privileges card (Form 26-0267).
  3. When the applicant requires exercising the new privileges for the rating(s), the Authorized Person may endorse the privilege(s) by completing the sections on the Certification of Additional Privileges card (Form 26-0267).
  4. The certification of Additional Privileges card (Form 26-0267) states that “This certifies that the permit/licence holder has met the prescribed standards for addition privileges to the permit/licence as follows:”
  5. Completion Blocks
    1. Licence No.
      1. Enter the applicants licence number as it appears on their licence. (i.e. AA123456, CA123456, AH123456 or CH123456, as applicable).
    2. The Authorized Person will enter the Rating(s) for which temporary privileges are sought. This may be more than one rating.
      1. Example 1 (Aeroplanes): GLF5 and Group 1 Instrument Rating; or
      2. Example 2 (Helicopters): BH06 and Group 4 Instrument Rating.
    3. Certification Date
      1. Self-explanatory. Enter in year-month-day format. If the applicant is making application for an initial rating, this date must match the date in Section D of the Application for Endorsement of a Rating (Form 26-0083).
    4. Authorized Person Print Name / Signature and Licence Number
      1. Authorized Person Print Name: Self-explanatory.
      2. Signature: Self-explanatory
      3. Licence Number: Self-explanatory. If the Authorized Person is not the holder of an Aviation Document Booklet (ADB), enter 5802 file number located on the Authorized Person delegation of authority letter.

Note: This form is in triplicate. The candidate receives the white copy, the Authorized Person retains the yellow copy for two years and the blue copy is sent to Transport Canada along with the Flight Test Report - Pilot Proficiency Check form (Form 26-0249 or 26-0279) and Flight Crew Permit / Licence - Application for Endorsement of a Rating form (Form 26-0083) if applicable.

APPENDIX A - SAFE CHECKING PRACTICES

Overview

  1. Safety is one of the greatest benefits of conducting flight checks (i.e., Pilot Proficiency Check (PPCs)) in a simulator. While desired, this is not always possible and thus the use of aircraft continues.
  2. In considering airborne PPCs, no set of instructions can address all possible safety concerns. While Transport Canada provides the following guidance and advice, this information is generic and non-aircraft specific. To ensure safety, Transport Canada relies heavily on the following:
    1. The ability of Approved Check Pilots (ACPs) to fully exercise their duty of care in providing a safe flight check environment; and
    2. Operator developed safe checking practices that are based upon experience and aircraft specific reference documentation.
  3. ACPs are required (as a minimum) to abide by the following safe checking practices. Any similar practices or procedures developed by an applicable operator must also be followed. In the case of conflict, ACPs should adhere to the most limiting practice.
  4. ACPs are reminded that safety of flight in an airborne environment must always take priority over the accomplishment of a flight test exercise.

Pre-Flight Briefing Requirements

  1. ACP’s must provide the candidate with a thorough flight check briefing as detailed in this manual. This guidance takes into account safety aspects of an airborne flight check.

General Preparation Requirements

  1. The following general preparations must be followed:
    1. Aircraft dual control availability (including brakes) must be verified prior to flight.
      Note: Several aircraft types have brake pedals on one side only
    2. Radio communications between the candidates and Air Traffic Services (ATS) must be available to the ACP. The serviceable and functioning headset assembly or cockpit/cabin loudspeaker is to be verified.
    3. Actions to be taken by flight crewmembers before any leave their station (e.g., seat change, short duration absences, etc.) should be discussed.
    4. Verbal calls that may be made by the ACP as well as minimum airspeeds, altitudes or other conditions required for each planned exercise or sequence must be discussed.

General Airborne Requirements

  1. During the flight, a good lookout must be maintained by both candidates and the ACP.

Safe Flight Checking Practices

  1. Aircraft Systems – Aeroplane and Helicopter
    1. Once the flight check has begun, the position of any system control should not be changed without the pilot-in-command's consent. The only exception is simulating failures provided proper and prior warning has been communicated to the flight crewmembers.
  2. Approach to Stalls - Aeroplane
    1. Stalls are to be performed in an appropriate simulator in lieu of an aircraft wherever possible. When required to be performed in an aeroplane, the following practices must be adhered to:
      1. recovery is initiated on the first symptoms of a stall;
      2. care is taken not to over-temp/over-torque an engine on recovery; and
      3. initiation of the stall does not take place below the minimum altitude recommended in the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) or Aircraft Operating Manual (AOM) and in no case:
        1. below 5,000 feet above ground level (AGL);
        2. in cloud;
        3. on top of clouds unless a well defined horizon is available; or
        4. below 2,000 feet above the top of well defined clouds.
  3. Balked Landing (All Engines Operating) - Aeroplane
    1. This exercise must not be initiated below 50 feet above ground level (AGL). It must be initiated at an indicated airspeed (IAS) normally used for final flap selection during final approach.
  4. Circuit Breakers – Aeroplane and Helicopter
    1. Circuit breakers must never be pulled to simulate equipment failure.
  5. Dutch Roll - Aeroplane
    1. This exercise is to be performed in a simulator only.
  6. Emergency/Rapid Descent - Aeroplane
    1. This exercise is to be performed in a simulator where available.
    2. Subparts 702, 703 and 704 of the CARs
      1. This exercise is to be conducted clear of cloud; and
      2. commenced at a minimum altitude of 5,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) or 3,000 feet above ground level (AGL); whichever is higher.
    3. Subpart 705 of the CARs
      1. This exercise is to be commenced at a minimum altitude of 10,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) or 2,000 feet above the minimum enroute altitude (MEA); whichever is higher.
  7. Engine Failure(s) on Take-Off (Before Decision Speed) - Aeroplane
    1. This exercise (i.e., rejected take-off (RTO)) is to be conducted in a simulator only. If a simulator is not available, flight check candidates will brief the ACP on the required actions of the Pilot Flying (PF) and, where applicable the actions of the PM based on a RTO scenario specified by the ACP.
  8. Engine Failure(s) on Take-Off (Before Decision Speed) - Helicopter
    1. This exercise (i.e., rejected take-off (RTO)) is to be conducted at the discretion of the ACP. In this case, the candidate should be briefed prior to the flight check to anticipate the possibility of a rejected take-off
    2. The ACP must be vigilant in ensuring that the candidate does not strike the tail due to an excessive nose high attitude during the flare and touchdown phase of the manoeuvre.
  9. Engine Failure on Take-Off (After Decision Speed) - Aeroplane
    1. No engine failure simulation should be initiated unless the conditions given below are met.
    2. Single-Engine Aeroplanes
      1. A suitable area for a forced landing must be within reach of the aeroplane. Exercise not to be initiated below 400 feet above ground level (AGL).
    3. Multi-Engine Aeroplanes – Subparts 703 and 704 of the CARs
      1. The landing gear and flaps are to be fully retracted and safe single-engine flight must be maintained. This exercise is not to be initiated below 400 feet above ground level (AGL).
    4. Aeroplanes – Subpart 705 of the CARs
      1. This exercise is not to be initiated below 400 feet above ground level (AGL).
      2. The minimum airspeed during this exercise must not be less than the minimum control speed with the critical engine inoperative (VMCA) plus 20 KIAS or take off safety speed (V2) plus 10 KIAS as applicable.
  10. Engine Failure – Helicopter
    1. During Hover/Take off
      1. This exercise must be conducted within a safe flight envelope over a level and firm surface.
      2. During Cruise Flight, this exercise is not to be initiated below 500 feet above ground level (AGL) and must always be within normal auto-rotational range of a suitable engine-out landing area.
  11. Engine-Out Missed Approach - Aeroplane
    Note: The Engine-out missed approach is not to be confused with a balked landing.
    1. This exercise should not to be initiated unless the conditions specified below are met.
    2. Aeroplanes –Subparts 702, 703 and 704 of the CARs
      1. This exercise is not to be initiated below 500 feet above ground level (AGL) or another higher altitude necessary to ensure single-engine safe flight is possible.
      2. This exercise is not to be flown below an indicated airspeed (IAS) normally used for final flap selection during final approach.
    3. Aeroplanes – Subpart 705 of the CARs
      1. This exercise is not to be initiated below 200 feet above ground level (AGL).
      2. This exercise is not to be flown below an indicated airspeed (IAS) normally used for final flap selection during final approach.
  12. Flapless Approach – Aeroplanes (Subpart 705 of the CARs)
    1. This exercise must be discontinued at a minimum of altitude of 50 feet above ground level (AGL) and a missed approach initiated where the flapless approach indicated airspeed (IAS) exceeds the normal landing flap approach indicated airspeed (IAS) by more than 20 KIAS.
  13. Flight Controls - Manual Reversion – Aeroplane and Helicopter
    1. This exercise is to be performed in appropriate simulator only.
  14. Float Plane - Aeroplane
    1. In other than glassy waters conditions, waves must be less than 18 inches high with no predominant swell.
    2. In glassy waters conditions, defined objects must be available for height reference. A two nautical mile (NM) clear run is required for take-off and landing.
  15. Rejected Take-off - Aeroplane
    1. This exercise is to be performed in the appropriate simulator only.
  16. Runaway Trim/Jammed Stabilizer - Aeroplane
    1. Aeroplanes – Subparts 702, 703 and 704 of the CARs
      1. This exercise is not to be conducted below 1,000 feet above ground level (AGL).
    2. Aeroplanes – Subpart 705 of the CARs
      1. This exercise is to be performed in the appropriate simulator only.
  17. Simulated Forced Landing - Aeroplane
    1. Recovery must be completed above 200 feet above ground level (AGL).
  18. Ski Plane - Aeroplane
    1. The following sequences must be completed before making a full stop landing:
      1. low-level inspection;
      2. touch-and-go; and
      3. airborne final inspection of tracks.
  19. Stop and Go - Aeroplane
    1. Aeroplanes – Subparts 702, 703 and 704 of the CARs
      1. See Touch and Go requirements (below).
    2. Aeroplanes – Subpart 705 of the CARs
      1. This exercise is not permitted. The full available runway length must be used.
  20. Touch and Go - Aeroplane
    1. Aeroplanes – Subparts 702, 703 and 704 of the CARs
      1. Must have sufficient runway remaining from touchdown point to reconfigure the aircraft, apply take-off power and safely accelerate to take-off speed.
    2. Aeroplanes –Subpart 705 of the CARs
      1. Must meet critical field length or balanced field length requirements, as applicable. A full briefing of all applicable procedures and verbal calls must be conducted by the ACP prior to this exercise.
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