SECTION 3: METEOROLOGY


THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE
  1. Composition and Physical Properties
  2. Vertical Structure
  3. Standard Atmosphere
  4. Density and Pressure
  5. Mobility
  6. Expansion and Compression

ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

  1. Pressure Measurements
  2. Station Pressure
  3. Sea Level Pressure
  4. Pressure Systems and their Variations
  5. Effects of Temperature
  6. Isobars
  7. Horizontal Pressure Differences

METEOROLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ALTIMETRY

  1. Pressure Altitude
  2. Density Altitude
  3. Altimeter Settings
  4. Considerations When Flying from High to Low Pressure and Temperature Areas and Vice Versa

TEMPERATURE

  1. Temperature Scale - Fahrenheit / Celsius
  2. Heating / Cooling of the Atmosphere - Convection / Advection / Radiation
  3. Horizontal Differences
  4. Temperature Variations with Altitude
  5.  Inversions
  6. Isothermal Layers

MOISTURE

  1.  Relative Humidity / Dewpoint
  2. Sublimation / Condensation / Evaporation
  3. Cloud Formation
  4. Precipitation
  5. Saturated / Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate

STABILITY AND INSTABILITY

  1.  Lapse Rate and Stability
  2. Modification of Stability
  3.  Characteristics of Stable / Unstable Air
  4.  Surface Heating and Cooling
  5.  Air Mass Lifting Process
  6. Subsidence/Convergence

CLOUDS

  1.  Classification
  2. Formation and Structure
  3.  Types and Recognition
  4. Associated Precipitation and Turbulence

TURBULENCE

  1.  Convection
  2.  Mechanical
  3. Orographic
  4.  Wind Shear

WIND

  1. Definition
  2. Pressure Gradient
  3.  Low Level Winds - Variation in Surface Wind
  4.  Friction / Gradient
  5. Veer / Back
  6.  Squalls / Gusts
  7. Diurnal Effects
  8. Land / Sea Breezes
  9. Katabatic/Anabatic Effects
  10. Topographical Effects

AIR MASSES

  1. Definition and Characteristics
  2.  Formation / Classification
  3. Modification
  4. Factors that Determine Weather
  5. Seasonal and Geographic Effects
  6. Air Masses Affecting North America

FRONTS

  1. Structure
  2.  Types
  3. Formation
  4. Cross-sections

FRONTAL WEATHER

  1.  Cold Front
  2. Warm Front
  3. TROWAL and Upper Fronts

AIRCRAFT ICING

  1. In-flight - Freezing Rain / Wet Snow Hoar Frost

THUNDERSTORMS

  1. Requirements for Development
  2. Structure / Development
  3. Classification - Air Mass, Frontal, Squall Line, Convective, Orographic,
  4. Hazards - Turbulence, Hail, Rain, Icing, Altimetry, Lightning, Gust Fronts, Downbursts and Microbursts

SQUALL LINES / TORNADOES

  1. Hazards

SURFACE BASED LAYERS

  1. Fog Formation
  2. Fog Types (Including Mist)
  3. Haze and Smoke
  4. Blowing Obstructions to Vision

METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES AVAILABLE TO PILOTS

  1. Pilot Briefing Service
  2. Flight Information Centres (FIC)
  3. Flight Service Stations (FSS)
  4. Pilots Automatic Telephone Weather Answering Service (PATWAS)
  5. Aviation Weather Web Site (AWWS)
  6. Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)

AVIATION WEATHER REPORTS

  1. Decoding
  2. Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR)
  3. Automated Weather Observation Station (AWOS)

AVIATION FORECASTS

  1. Times Issued/Validity Periods
  2. Decoding
  3. Graphical Area Forecasts (GFA)
  4. Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF)
  5. Upper Level Winds and Temperature Forecasts (FD) - Up to 9,000 feet AGL.
  6. Significant In-flight Weather Warning Message (SIGMET)

WEATHER MAPS AND PROGNOSTIC CHARTS

  1. Times Issued/Validity Periods
  2. Symbols/Decoding
  3. Surface Weather Map
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