1.1 Definitions

1.1.1 In this document:

Aeroplane - means a power-driven, heavier-than-air aircraft deriving its lift in flight from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces that remain fixed under given conditions of flight.

Aircraft - means any machine capable of deriving support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air.

Aircraft Simulator - is a full size replica of a specific type or make, model and series aircraft cockpit, including the assemblage of equipment and computer programs necessary to represent the aircraft in ground and flight operations, a visual system providing an out-of-the-cockpit view and a force cueing system that is in compliance with the standards as specified in this manual.

Approved Training Program - means a flight crew member training program approved by the Minister pursuant to the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

Approval of Simulator/Training Device - is issued by the Manager, Simulator Program and documents the performance capability of the simulator/device to be used for flight training or checking credit.

Cockpit - for synthetic flight training device purposes, consists of all that space forward of a cross-section of the fuselage at the most extreme aft setting of the pilot seats. Additional required crew member duty stations and those required bulkheads aft of the pilot seats are also considered part of the cockpit and must replicate the aircraft.

Company Check Pilot - means a pilot authorized to conduct Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC) rides on behalf of the Minister.

Component - means any material, part or sub-assembly intended for use on an aeronautical product.

Convertible Synthetic Flight Training Device - is a device in which hardware and software can be changed so that the device becomes a replica of a different model, usually of the same type aircraft. The same device platform, cockpit shell, motion system, visual system, computers and necessary peripheral equipment can thus be used in more than one simulation.

Device - in this manual, means a synthetic flight training device.

End-to-End Testing - is the process in which control displacements are used as inputs.

Evaluation of Simulator/Training Device - is the process in which a Simulator Evaluation Specialist compares the simulator/device performance, functions and other characteristics to that of the replicated aircraft in accordance with acceptable methods, procedures and standards.

Flight Crew Member - means a pilot or flight engineer assigned to duties in an aircraft during flight time.

Flight Training Device (FTD) - is a replica of an aircraft's instruments, equipment, panels and controls in an open flight deck area or an enclosed aircraft cockpit, including the assemblage of equipment and programs necessary to represent the aircraft in ground and flight conditions to the extent of the systems installed in the device; does not require a force (motion) cueing or visual system; is found to meet the criteria outlined in this manual for a specific flight training device level; and in which any flight training event or flight checking event is accomplished.

Functional Checks - means subjective checks carried out on a synthetic flight training device by a pilot qualified on the aircraft type supported by the device, to confirm that the synthetic flight training device handles like the aircraft to the extent that a pilot can accomplish all critical training and checking sequences and manoeuvres for which the device is intended to be credited.

Highlight Brightness - is the area of maximum displayed brightness which satisfies the brightness test referred to in Appendix2-A, Section5, itemn.(2) and Appendix3-A, Section5, iteml.(2).

Initial Type Training - means training provided by an air operator, as part of the approved training program, for a person to qualify as a flight crew member with the operator where the person has not previously qualified on the aircraft type with that operator or whose qualifications on that aircraft type have lapsed for more than two years.

Integrated Testing - testing of the flight simulator such that all aircraft system models are active and contribute appropriately to the results. None of the aircraft system models should be substituted with models or other algorithms intended for testing purposes only. These controllers must represent the displacement of the pilot's controls and must have been calibrated.

Irreversible Control System - a control system in which the movement of the control surface will not backdrive the pilot's control on the flight deck.

Latency - means the additional time beyond that of the basic aircraft perceivable response respective time delays of the motion system, visual system or instruments.

Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) - means a training and checking program approved by the Minister pursuant to the Canadian Aviation Regulations which uses an approved simulator capable of representing the air operator's route structure and which incorporates realistic pre-flight briefings, communications procedures and normal, abnormal and emergency procedures.

Maintenance Log - means a log in which unserviceabilities, rectifications and daily inspections are recorded.

Manager, Simulator Program (MSP) - means the person responsible for the overall administration and operation of the National Simulator Evaluation Program (NSEP).

Manual Testing - flight simulator testing wherein the pilot conducts the test without computer inputs except for initial set-up. All modules of the simulation must be active.

Minister - means the Minister of Transport.

Normal Control - a state where the intended control, augmentation and protection functions are fully available. Used in reference to computer-controlled aircraft.

Non-normal Control - a state where the intended control, augmentation and protection functions are not fully available. Note: Specific terms such as alternate, direct, secondary or back-up, etc., may be used to define an actual level of degradation used in reference to computer-controlled aircraft.

Operator - means the air operator, company organization or private citizen using a synthetic flight training device.

Operational Authority - means the Director, Commercial & Business Aviation or his/her delegate who is authorized to approve flight training and checking programs using synthetic flight training devices.

Qualification Test Guide (QTG) - is a document designed to validate that the performance and handling qualities of a simulator agree within prescribed limits with those of the aircraft and that all to support the validation. The Master Qualification Test Guide (MQTG) is the Transport Canada (TC) approved QTG and incorporates the results of TC witnessed tests. The MQTG serves as the reference for future evaluations.

Pulse Input - a step input to a control followed by an immediate return to the initial position.

Replica - as applied to a flight training device in this manual does not infer total duplication of all furnishings of the respective aircraft. Items such as mounting panels, walls, ceilings, floor structures and coverings and windows must present an equivalent appearance and functionality.

Reversible Control Systems - a control system in which movement of the control surface will backdrive the pilot's control on the flight deck.

Rotorcraft - means a power-driven, heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight by the reaction of air on one or more rotors.

Set of Aircraft - means a grouping of aircraft all of which share similar performance, handling characteristics and the same number and type of propulsion systems.

Similar Type Aeroplane - means an aeroplane in the same propulsion category. The propulsion categories are turbo-jet, turbo-propeller or reciprocating.

Simulator Evaluation Specialist - is a Transport Canada technical specialist, trained to evaluate simulators and to provide expertise on matters concerning aircraft simulation.

Simulation Data - means the various types of data used by the device manufacturer and the applicant to design, manufacture and test the device. Normally, the aircraft manufacturer will provide aircraft data to the device manufacturer.

Snapshot - means a presentation of one or more variables at a given instant of time. A snapshot is associated with a steady state condition in which the variables are essentially constant over time.

Sponsor - as used in this manual, means the person or organization requesting Transport Canada (TC) qualification of a simulator and is responsible for continuing qualification and liaison with Transport Canada.

Statement of Compliance (SOC) - is a certification from the operator that specific requirements have been met. It must provide references to needed sources of information for showing compliance, rationale to explain how the referenced material is used, mathematical equations and parameter values used and conclusions reached.

Synthetic Flight Training Device - means an aircraft flight simulator or a flight training device that meets the standards set out in this manual for the purpose of permitting experience acquired therein to be credited towards meeting the requirements for a pilot proficiency check, the issue of a flight crew licence, or the endorsement of a rating.

Time History - means a presentation of the change of a variable with respect to time. It is usually in the form of a continuous data plot over the time period of interest.

Transport Delay - means the total simulator system processing time required for an input signal from a pilot primary flight control unit until motion system, visual system and instrument response. It is the overall time delay incurred from signal input until output response. It does not include the characteristic delay of the aircraft simulated.

Upgrade - for the purpose of this manual, means the improvement or enhancement of a simulator/flight training device's motion or visual system for the purpose of achieving a higher level qualification.

Validation Flight Test Data - for the purpose of this manual, are performance, stability and control and other necessary test parameters electrically or electronically recorded in an aircraft using a calibrated data acquisition system of sufficient resolution and verified as accurate by the company performing the test to establish a reference set of relevant parameters to which like simulator parameters can be compared. Other data, such as photographic data, may be considered acceptable flight test data after evaluation by the Manager, Simulator Program.

Visual System Response Time - means the completion of the visual display scan of the first video field containing different information resulting from an abrupt control input.

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