Appendix 2-A - Aeroplane Simulator Standards

1. Discussion

This Appendix describes the minimum simulator, motion and visual system standards for LevelsA, B, C and D simulators. The CARs should also be consulted when considering particular simulator requirements. The validation and functional tests listed in Appendices2-B and 2-C should also be consulted when determining the requirements of a specific level simulator.

These standards are meant to be identical to the latest FAA equivalent requirements. In this case, they reflect FAA Advisory Circular120-40C. The previous TC levels Visual through PhaseIII equate to current FAA and TC LevelsA through D.

2. Statement of Compliance

For LevelC and LevelD, the simulator and visual requirements of this Appendix require a Statement of Compliance, where identified, and in some designated cases a supporting test. Statements of Compliance shall describe how the requirement is met, such as gear modelling approach and coefficient of friction sources, etc. The supporting test shall show that the requirement has been attained. In the following sections describing simulator standards, whenever a Statement of Compliance is needed, it will be indicated in the applicable "Comments" column.

3. Simulator General

STANDARDS LEVEL COMMENTS
  A B C D  

a. The cockpit shall represent a full scale replica of the aeroplane simulated. Where movement of controls and switches is involved, the direction of movement shall be identical to that in the aeroplane.

x x x x  

b. Circuit breakers that affect procedures and/or result in observable cockpit indications shall be properly located and functionally accurate.

x x x x  

c. The effect of aerodynamic changes for various combinations of drag and thrust normally encountered in flight shall correspond to actual flight conditions. The effect of change in aircraft attitude, thrust, drag, altitude, temperature, gross weight, centre of gravity location and configuration shall be included.

x x x x  

d. Ground operations generically represented to the extent that allows turns within the confines of the runway and adequate control on the landing and roll-out from a crosswind approach and landing.

x        

e. All relevant instrument indications involved in the simulation of the applicable aeroplane shall be entirely automatic in response to control movement by a crew member or external disturbances to the simulated aeroplane, i.e. turbulence or wind shear.

x x x x  

f. Communications and navigation equipment shall correspond to that installed in the applicant's aeroplane and shall operate within the tolerances prescribed for the actual airborne equipment.

x x x x  

g. In addition to the flight crew member stations, there shall be two suitable seats for the Instructor/Check Pilot and Transport Canada Inspector. The MSP will consider options to this standard based on unique cockpit configurations. These seats shall provide adequate vision to the pilot's panel and forward windows in visual system models. Observer seats need not represent those found in the aeroplane but shall possess similar positive restraint devices.

x x x x  

h. Simulator systems must simulate the applicable aeroplane system operation, both on the ground and in flight. Systems must be operative to the extent that normal, abnormal and emergency operating procedures included in the operator's or other user's training programs can be accomplished.

x x x x  

i. Instructor controls shall be installed to enable the operator to control all required system variables and insert abnormal or emergency conditions into the eroplane systems.

x x x x  

j. Control forces and degree of control travel shall correspond to that of the applicable aeroplane. Control forces shall react in the same manner as in the aeroplane under the same flight conditions.

x x x x  

k. Significant cockpit sounds which result from pilot actions shall correspond to those of the respective aeroplane.

x x x x  

l. Sound of precipitation, windshield wipers and other significant aeroplane noises perceptible to the pilot during normal operations and the sound of a crash when the simulator is landed in excess of landing gear limitations.

    x x Statement of Compliance.

m. Realistic amplitude and frequency of cockpit noises and sounds, including precipitation, windshield wipers, static discharge and engine and airframe sounds. The sounds shall be coordinated with the weather representations. A test with recorded results which allows the comparison of relative amplitudes versus frequency is required.

      x Tests required.

n. Ground handling and aerodynamic programming to include:

  1. ground effect - e.g. roundout, flare and touchdown. This requires data on lift, drag, pitching moment, trim and power in ground effect;
  2. ground reaction - reaction of the aeroplane upon contact with the runway during landing to include strut deflections, tire friction, side forces and other appropriate data such as weight and speed necessary to identify the flight condition and configuration; and
  3. ground handling characteristics - steering inputs to include crosswind, braking, thrust reversing, deceleration and turning radius.
  x x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

o. Windshear models shall be installed which provide training in the specific skills required for cockpit recognition of windshear phenomena and execution of proven recovery manoeuvres. Such models must be representative of measured or accident derived winds but may include simplifications which ensure repeatable encounters. For example, models may consist of independent variable winds in multiple simultaneous components. Wind models should be available for the following critical phases of flight:

  1. prior to takeoff rotation;
  2. at Lift-off;
  3. during initial climb; and
  4. short final approach.

The FAA Windshear Training Aid (February 1987) presents one acceptable means of compliance with simulator wind model requirements. The QTG should either reference the FAA Windshear Training Aid or present aeroplane related data on alternate methods implemented. Wind models from the Royal Aerospace Establishment (RAE), the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) Project and other recognized sources may be implemented but must be supported or properly referenced in the QTG.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

p. Instructor controls for wind speed and direction.

x x x x  

q. Representative stopping and directional control forces for at least the following runway conditions based on aeroplane related data:

  1. dry;
  2. wet;
  3. icy;
  4. patchy wet;
  5. patchy ice; and
  6. wet on rubber residue in touchdown zone.

The compliance statement shall be supported by simulator tests with recorded results of stopping times and distances.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Objective Test for 1, 2 and 3. Functional check for 4, 5 and 6.The subjective tolerance is interpreted to mean that the relationships among the tests are logical (e.g. "patchy ice" distances are less than "icy" distances) and that the performance can be rationalized against Flight Manual documented performance

r. Representative brake and tire failure dynamics (including anti-skid) and decreased brake efficiency due to brake temperatures based on aeroplane related data.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required for decreased braking efficiency due to brake temperature.

s. A means for quickly and effectively testing simulator programming and hardware. This could include an automated system which could be used for conducting at least a portion of the tests in the QTG.

    x x Statement of Compliance.

t. Simulator computer capacity, accuracy, resolution and dynamic response sufficient to meet qualification level sought.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Refer to FAR121 AppendixH.

u. Control feel dynamics replicate the aeroplane simulated. Free response of the controls shall match that of the aeroplane within the tolerance given in Appendix2. Initial and upgrade evaluation will include control free response (column, wheel and pedal) measurements recorded at the controls. The measured responses must correspond to those of the aeroplane in takeoff, cruise and landing configurations. For aeroplanes with irreversible control systems, measurements may be obtained on the ground if proper pilot static inputs are provided to represent conditions typical of those encountered in flight. Engineering validation or aeroplane manufacturer rationale will be submitted as justification to ground test or omit a configuration. For simulators requiring static and dynamic tests at the controls, special test fixtures will not be required during initial evaluations if the operator's QTG shows both test fixture results and alternate test method results such as computer plots which were obtained concurrently. Repeat of the alternate method during the initial evaluation may then satisfy this test equipment.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

v. Relative responses of the motion and visual systems and cockpit instruments shall be coupled closely to provide integrated sensory cues. These systems shall respond to abrupt pitch, roll and yaw inputs at the pilot's position within 150/300 milliseconds of the time but not before the time when the aeroplane would respond under the same conditions. Visual scene changes from steady state disturbance shall occur within the system dynamic response tolerance of 150/300 milliseconds but not before the resultant motion onset. The test to determine compliance with those requirements shall include simultaneously recording the analogue output from the pilot's control column, wheel and pedals, the output from an accelerometer attached to the motion system platform located at an acceptable location near the pilot's seats, the output signal to the visual system display (including visual system analogue delays) and the output signal to the pilot's attitude indicator or an equivalent test approved by TC. The test results in a comparison of a recording of the simulator's response to actual aeroplane response data in the takeoff, cruise and landing configuration. The intent is to verify Transport Delays or time lags are less than 150/300 milliseconds and that the cues of motion and vision relate to actual aeroplane responses. For aeroplane response, acceleration in the appropriate rotational axis is preferred. As an alternative, a Transport Delay test may be used to demonstrate that the simulator system does not exceed the specified limit of 150/300 milliseconds. This test shall measure all delay encountered by a step signal migrating from the pilot's control through the control loading electronics and interfacing through all the host software modules in the correct order using a handshaking protocol; finally, through the normal output interfaces to the motion and visual systems or to the instrument displays. The test mode shall permit normal computation time to be consumed and shall not alter the flow of information through the hardware/software system. The Transport Delay of the system is then the time between the control input and the individual hardware responses. It needs only to be measured once in each axis, being independent of flight conditions.

x x x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

For LevelsA and B, response must be within 300 milliseconds.

For LevelsC and D, response must be within 150 milliseconds.

The use of a Transport Delay test requires flight test data of adequate quality to demonstrate that the simulator matches the aeroplane delays between the control input and aeroplane response in tests such as short period, roll response and rudder response.

w. Aerodynamic modelling for aeroplanes for which an original type certificate is issued after June 1980, including low altitude-level-flight ground effect, mach effect at high altitude, effects of airframe icing, normal and reverse dynamic thrust effect on control surfaces, aero-elastic representations and representations of non-linearities due to side slip based on aeroplane flight test data provided by the manufacturer. A test for each effect is required.

      x Statement of Compliance. Tests required. Normally, these requirements are met within the aerodynamic model; however, a Statement of Compliance must address each requirement. Separate tests for thrust effects and a Statement of Compliance and demonstration icing effects are required.

x. Aerodynamic and ground reaction modelling for the effects of reverse thrust on directional control.

  x x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

y. Self-testing for simulator hardware and programming to determine compliance with simulator performance tests as prescribed in Appendix2-B. Evidence of testing must include simulator number, date, time, conditions, tolerances and appropriate dependent variables portrayed in comparison to the aeroplane standard. Automatic flagging of "out-of-tolerance" situations is encouraged.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

z. Diagnostic analysis printouts of simulator malfunctions sufficient to determine compliance with the Simulator Component Inoperative Guide (SCIG). These printouts shall be retained by the operator between recurring TC simulator evaluations as part of the daily discrepancy log.

      x Statement of Compliance.

aa. Timely permanent update of simulator hardware and programming subsequent to aeroplane modification.

x x x x  

bb. The daily pre-flight shall be documented in the maintenance log or in a location easily accessible for review.

x x x x  

4. Motion System Requirements

STANDARDS LEVEL COMMENTS
  A B C D  

a. Motion (force) cues perceived by the pilot representative of the aeroplane motions, i.e. touchdown cues shall be a function of the simulated rate of descent.

x x x x  

b. A motion system having a minimum of at least four degrees of freedom.

x x      

c. A motion system which produces cues at least equivalent to those of a six degrees of freedom synergistic motion system.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

d. A means for recording the motion response time for comparison with actual aeroplane data shall be incorporated.

x x x x See paragraph 3.v. of this Appendix.

e. Special effects programming shall include:

  1. runway rumble, oleo deflections, effects of ground-speed and uneven runway characteristics;
  2. buffets on the ground due to spoiler/speedbrake extension and thrust reversal;
  3. bumps after lift-off of nose and main gear;
  4. buffet during extension and retraction of landing gear;
  5. buffet in the air due to flap and spoiler/speedbrake extension;
  6. stall buffet to, but not necessarily beyond, the TC certificated stall speed;
  7. representative touchdown cues for main and nose gear;
  8. nosewheel scuffing; and thrust effect with brakes set; and
  9. Mach buffet.
  x x x  

f. Characteristic buffet motions that result from operation of the aeroplane (e.g. high speed buffet, extended landing gear, flaps, nose-wheel scuffing, stall) which can be sensed at the flight deck. The simulator shall be programmed and instrumented in such a manner that the characteristic buffet modes can be measured and compared to aeroplane data. Aeroplane data are also required to define flight deck motions when the aeroplane is subjected to atmospheric disturbances. General purpose disturbance models that approximate demonstrable flight test data are acceptable. A test with recorded results which allows the comparison of relative amplitudes versus frequency is required.

      x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

5. Visual System Requirements

STANDARDS LEVEL COMMENTS
  A B C D  

a. The visual system shall be capable of meeting all standards of this Appendix and Appendices2-B and 2-C (Validation and Functional Test Appendices) as applicable to the level of qualification requested by the applicant.

x x x x  

b. The optical system shall be capable of providing at least a 45° horizontal and 30° vertical field of view simultaneously for each pilot.

x x      

c. Continuous minimum visual field of view of 75° horizontal and 30° vertical per pilot seat. Both pilot seat visual systems shall be able to be operated simultaneously.

    x x Wide angle systems providing cross cockpit viewing must provide a minimum of 150 degrees horizontal field of view; 75 degrees per pilot operated simultaneously

d. A measure of recording the visual response time.

x x x x  

e.Verification of visual ground segment and visual scene content at a decision height on landing approach. The QTG must contain appropriate calculations and a drawing showing the pertinent data used to establish the aeroplane location and visual ground segment. Such data should include, but is not limited to, the following:

  1. static aeroplane dimensions as follows:
    1. horizontal and vertical distance from main landing gear (MLG) to glideslope reception antenna,
    2. horizontal and vertical distance from MLG to pilot's eyepoint,
    3. static cockpit cut-off angle;

  2. approach data as follows:
    1. identification of runway,
    2. horizontal distance from runway threshold to glideslope intercept with runway,
    3. glideslope angle,
    4. aeroplane pitch angle on approach;


  3. aeroplane data for manual testing:
    1. gross weight,
    2. aeroplane configuration,
    3. approach airspeed.

The above parameters should be presented for the aeroplane in the landing configuration and at a main wheel height of 100ft. (30 m) above the touchdown zone. The visual ground segment and scene content shall be determined for a RVR of 1200ft. (350 m).

x x x x  

f. For the MSP to qualify precision weather minimum accuracy on simulators qualified under previous advisory circulars, operators shall provide the information in item e. above.

x x x x  

g. The visual system shall provide cues to assess sink rate and depth perception during landing.

  x x x  

h. Test procedures to quickly confirm visual system colour, RVR, focus, intensity, level horizon and attitude as compared to the simulator attitude indicator.

  x x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

i. Night and dusk visual scene capability, free from apparent quantization.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

The dusk scene shall enable identification of a visible horizon and typical terrain characteristics such as fields, roads, bodies of water.

j. A minimum of ten levels of occulting. This capability shall be demonstrated by a visual model through each channel.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

k. Surface resolution will be demonstrated by a test pattern of objects shown to occupy a visual angle of 3 arc minutes in the visual scene from the pilot's eyepoint. This shall be confirmed by calculations in the statement of compliance.

    x x Where a night/dusk system is used on a LevelC simulator, this test does not apply.

l. Lightpoint size. Not greater than 6arc minutes measured in a test pattern consisting of a single row of light points reduced in length until modulation is just discernible, a row of 40lights will form a 4° angle or less.

    x x This is equivalent to a lightpoint resolution of 3 arc minutes.

m. Lightpoint contrast ratio. Not less than 25:1 when a square of at least 1 degree filled with lightpoints (i.e. lightpoint modulation is just discernible) is compared to the adjacent background.

    x x  

n. Daylight, dusk and night visual scenes with sufficient scene content to recognize airport, terrain and major landmarks around the airport and to successfully accomplish a visual landing. The daylight visual scene shall be part of a total daylight cockpit environment which at least represents the amount of light in the cockpit on an overcast day. Daylight visual system is defined as a visual system capable of producing, as a minimum, full colour presentations, scene content comparable in detail to that produced by 4,000edges or 1,000surfaces for daylight and 4,000light points for night and dusk scenes, 6-foot lamberts of light measured at the pilot's eye position (highlight brightness), 3 arc minutes resolution for the field of view at the pilot's eye and a display which is free of apparent quantization and other distracting visual effects while the simulator is in motion.

The simulator cockpit ambient lighting shall be dynamically consistent with the visual scene displayed for daylight scenes, such as ambient lighting and shall neither "washout" the displayed visual scene nor fall below 5-foot lamberts of light as reflected from an approach plate at knee height at the pilot's station. All brightness and resolution requirements shall be validated by an objective test and will be re-tested at least yearly by the MSP. Testing may be accomplished more frequently if there are indications that the performance is degrading on an accelerated basis. Compliance of the brightness capability may be demonstrated with a test pattern of white light using a spot photometer.

  1. Contrast Ratio - A raster drawn test pattern filling the entire visual scene (three or more channels) shall consist of a matrix of black and white squares no larger than 10° and no smaller than 5° per square with a white square in the centre of each channel. Measurement shall be made on the centre bright square for each channel using a 1° spot photometer. This value shall have a minimum brightness of 2-foot lamberts. Measure any adjacent dark squares. The contrast ratio is the bright square value divided by the dark square value.

    Minimum test ratio result is 5:1.

  2. Highlight brightness - Maintaining the full test pattern described above, superimpose a highlight area on the centre white square of each channel and measure the brightness using the 1° spot photometer. Lightpoints are not acceptable. Use of calligraphic capabilities to enhance raster brightness is acceptable. Minimum light level is ≥ 6-foot lamberts.
      x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

All lighting used to meet the ambient light requirements must come on automatically when "day" is selected and such lighting cannot be modified or overridden by pilot action or instructor selected failure modes. The use of aeroplane lights is discouraged.

Note: Cockpit ambient light levels shall be maintained at LevelD requirements.


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