Appendix 2-B - Aeroplane Simulator Validation Tests
Simulator performance and system operation shall be objectively evaluated by comparing each performance and stability and control test conducted in the simulator to aeroplane data unless specifically noted otherwise. To facilitate the validation of the simulator, a multi-channel recorder, line printer or other appropriate device, acceptable to the MSP, shall be used to record each validation test. The results of these recordings shall then be compared to the aeroplane source data.
Certain visual, sound and motion tests in this appendix are not necessarily based upon validation data with specific tolerances. However, these tests are included here for completeness, and the required criteria must be fulfilled instead of meeting a specific tolerance.
The QTG provided by the operator shall describe clearly and distinctly how the simulator will be set up and operated for each test. Use of a drive program designed to automatically accomplish the tests is encouraged but procedures shall be included to positively determine that the driver is doing nothing more than accurately flying the simulator. It is not the intent and it is not acceptable to TC to test each simulator subsystem independently. Overall integrated testing of the simulator must be accomplished to assure that the total simulator system meets the prescribed standards. A manual test procedure with explicit and detailed steps for completion of each test must also be provided.
The tests and tolerances contained in this Appendix shall be included in the sponsor's QTG. Simulators must be compared to flight test data except as otherwise specified. For aeroplanes certified prior to January 1992, the sponsor may, after reasonable attempts to obtain suitable flight test data have failed, indicate in the QTG where flight test data is unavailable or unsuitable for a specific test. For such a test, alternative data shall be submitted to the MSP for approval. Submissions for approval of data other than flight test shall include an explanation of validity with respect to available flight test information.
The tolerances specified in the Validation Tests section of this Appendix generally indicate the test results required. Unless otherwise specified, tests shall represent aeroplane performance at normal operating weights and centres of gravity. If a test is supported by aeroplane data at one extreme gross weight or centre of gravity, another test supported by aeroplane data as close as possible to the other extreme shall be included. Tests of stability and control shall include validation of augmentation devices.
For the testing of Computer Controlled Aeroplane (CCA), or other highly augmented aeroplane simulators, flight test data are required for both the Normal (N) and Non-normal (NN) control states, as indicated in the validation requirements of this appendix. Tests in the non-normal state will always include the least augmented state. Tests for other levels of control state degradation may be detailed by the MSP at the time of definition of a set specific aeroplane tests for simulator data. Where applicable, flight test data must record:
- Pilot controller deflections or electronically generated inputs, including location of input; and
- Flight control surface positions, unless test results are not affected by, or are independent of, surface positions.
The recording requirements of subparagraphsa) and b) above apply to both Normal and Non-normal control states. All tests in the Table of Validation Tests require test results in the Normal control state unless specifically noted otherwise in the comments sections following the Computer Controlled Aeroplane designation (CCA).
Where tests in the performance section, paragraphs1a. through f. of this Appendix, require data in the Normal control state, it indicates the preferred control state. However, if the test results are independent of control state, Non-normal control data may be substituted. Where tests in other sections of the Appendix require testing in the Normal control state, then this indicates the required control state.
Where Non-normal control states are required, it indicates test data shall be provided for one or more Non-normal control states, including the least augmented state.
In the case of simulators approved in accordance with criteria in effect prior to the issue of this manual revision, the tolerances of this Appendix may be used in subsequent recurrent evaluation for any given test provided the operator has submitted an QTG revision to the MSP and has received approval.
These validation tests are meant to be identical to the latest FAA requirements. In this case, they reflect FAA Advisory Circular120-40C and the ICAO Manual of Criteria for the Qualification of Flight Simulators.
2. Test Requirements
The ground and flight test which shall be evaluated, as appropriate to the type of aeroplane, are listed under Validation Tests in this Appendix. Simulator computer generated results shall be provided to validate simulator performance and handling qualities for each test in this Appendix. The results shall be produced on a multi-channel recorder, line printer or other appropriate recording device. Time histories are required unless otherwise indicated in the table of Validation Tests.
Flight test data which exhibits rapid variations of the measured parameters may be compared to simulator data by using the average value of the rapid variations. Such judgement must not be limited to a single parameter. All relevant parameters related to a given manoeuvre or flight condition must be provided to allow overall interpretation. When it is difficult or impossible to match simulator to aeroplane data throughout a time history, differences must be justified by providing a comparison of other related variables for the condition being assessed.
Parameters, Tolerances and Flight Conditions
The Validation Tests section of this Appendix describes the parameters, tolerances and flight conditions for simulator performance and stability and control validation. If a flight condition or operating condition is shown which does not apply to the qualification level sought, then it should be disregarded. Simulator results must be labelled using the tolerances and units given.
Flight Conditions Verification
When comparing the parameters listed to those of the aeroplane, sufficient data must also be provided to verify the correct flight conditions. For example, to show that control force is within ±5lb (2.225daN) in a static stability test, data to show the correct airspeed, power, thrust or torque, aeroplane configuration, altitude and other appropriate datum identification parameters shall also be given. If comparing short period dynamics, normal acceleration may be used to establish a match to the aeroplane, but airspeed, altitude, control input, aeroplane configuration and other appropriate data shall also be given. All airspeed values shall be clearly annotated as to indicated, calibrated, etc., and like values used for comparison.
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