Appendix 2-B - Aeroplane Simulator Validation Tests

3. Table of Validation Tests

I = Initial Evaluation, R = Recurrent Evaluation

Test Tolerance Flt Condition Requirement Comments
      A B C D  
1. PERFORMANCE
A. Taxi
1. Minimum Radius Turn ±3 ft (0.9 m) or 20% of Aeroplane Turn Radius Ground/Takeoff   IR IR IR Plot for both Main and Nosegear turning radius. Data for no brakes and minimum thrust except for aeroplanes requiring asymmetric thrust or braking to turn.
2. Rate of Turn Versus Nosewheel Steering Angle ±10% or ±2°/sec Turn Rate Ground/Takeoff   IR IR IR Plot for a minimum of two speeds, greater than minimum turning radius speed, with a spread of at least 5Knots.
B. Takeoff
1. Ground Acceleration Time and Distance ±5% Time and Distance or ±5% Time and ±200ft (61 m) of Distance Ground/Takeoff IR IR IR IR Unfactored aircraft certification data may be used. Acceleration Time and Distance should be recorded as a minimum of 80% of total segment. (Brake release to Vr.)
2. Minimum Control Speed, Ground (Vmcg) Aerodynamic Controls Only per Applicable Airworthiness Standard

or

Low Speed, Engine Inoperative Ground Control Characteristics or Low Speed, Engine Inoperative Ground Control Characteristics

25% of Maximum Aeroplane Deviation from Runway Centreline or ±5ft (1.5 m). Ground/Takeoff IR IR IR IR Engine failure speed must be within ±1 Knot of aeroplane engine failure speed. Engine thrust decay must be that resulting from the mathematical model for the engine variant applicable to the simulator under test. If the modelled engine variant is not the same as the aeroplane manufacturers' flight test engine, then a further test may be run with the same initial conditions using the thrust from the flight test data as the driving parameter. Aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems must also plot Rudder Pedal Force (±10% or ±2.2 daN (5lbs)).
3. Minimum Unstick Speed or equivalent as provided by the aeroplane manufacturer ±3 Kt Airspeed ±1.5°Pitch Ground/Takeoff IR IR IR IR Vmu is defined as that speed at which the last main landing gear leaves the ground. Main landing gear strut compression or equivalent air/ground signal should be recorded. Record as a minimum from 10Knots before start of rotation. Elevator input must precisely match aeroplane data.
4. Normal Takeoff ±3 Kt Airspeed ±1.5°Pitch, ±1.5° Angle of Attack ±20ft (6 m) Altitude
*±5.0lb (2.224daN) or ±10% Column Force
Ground/Takeoff and First Segment Climb IR IR IR IR Record Takeoff profile at least 200feet (61 m) AGL.

*Applies only to reversible control systems.

5. Critical Engine Failure on Takeoff ±3 Kt Airspeed ±1.5° Pitch, ±1.5° Angle of Attack ±20ft (6 m) Altitude ±2° Bank and Sideslip Angle
*±5.0lb (2.224daN) or ±10% Column Force
*±5.0lb (2.224daN) or ±10% Rudder Pedal Force
*±3.0lb (1.334daN) or 10% Aileron Wheel Force
Ground/Takeoff and First Climb Segment IR IR IR IR Record Takeoff profile to at least 200feet (61 m) AGL. Engine failure speed must be within ±3 Knots of aeroplane data.

*Applies only to reversible control systems. Test at near Maximum Takeoff Weight. CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

6. Crosswind Takeoff ±3 Kt Airspeed ±1.5° Pitch, ±1.5° Angle of Attack ±20ft (6 m) Altitude ±2° Bank and Sideslip Angle
*±5.0lb (2.224daN) or ±10% Column Force
*±5.0lb (2.224daN) or ±10% Rudder Pedal Force
*±3.0lb (1.334daN) or 10% Aileron Wheel Force
Ground/Takeoff and First Climb Segment IR IR IR IR Record Takeoff profile to at least 200feet (61 m) AGL. Requires test data, including wind profile, for a crosswind component of at least 20Knots or the maximum demonstrated crosswind, if available.

*Applies only to reversible control systems.

7. Rejected Takeoff ± 5% Time or ±1.5sec ±7.5% Distance or ±250ft (76 m) Ground/Takeoff IR IR IR IR Record near Maximum Takeoff Weight. Auto brakes will be used where applicable. Maximum braking effort, Auto or Manual. Time and distance should be recorded from brake release to a full stop.
8. Dynamic Engine Failure after Take Off ±20% Body Rates 1st Segment Climb     IR IR Engine Failure speed must be within ±3 Knots of aeroplane data. Engine failure may be a snap deceleration to idle. Record hands off from 5sec before engine failure to +5 sec or 30° of bank, whichever occurs first, and then hands on until wings level recovery.

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

C. Climb
1. Normal Climb All Engines Operating ±3 Kt Airspeed±5% or ±100FPM (0.5 m/sec) Climb Rate Climb with all Engines Operating IR IR IR IR May be a snapshot test. Manufacturer's gross climb gradient may be used for flight test data. Record at nominal climb speed and mid initial climb altitude.
2. One Engine Inoperative Second Segment Climb ±3 Kt Airspeed
±5% or ±100FPM (0.5 m/sec) Climb Rate, but not less than the approved Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) Rate of Climb
Second Segment Climb with One Engine Inoperative IR IR IR IR May be a snapshot test. Manufacturer's gross climb gradient may be used for flight test data. Test at weight altitude, temperature limited conditions.
3. One Engine Inoperative Enroute Climb ±10% Time
±10% Distance
±10% Fuel Used
Enroute Climb     IR IR Approved Performance Manual Data may be used. Test for at least a 5000ft (1550 m) segment.
4. One Engine Inoperative Enroute Climb for Aeroplanes with Icing Accountability per Approved AFM ±3 Kt Airspeed
±5% or ±100FPM (0.5 m/sec) Climb Rate, but not less than the approved AFM Rate of Climb
Approach Climb with One Engine Inoperative IR IR IR IR May be a snapshot test. Manufacturer's gross climb gradient may be used for flight test data. Use near maximum landing weight.
5. Level Acceleration and Deceleration +5% Time Cruise     IR IR Minimum of 50Knots speed change.
D. Cruise
1. Cruise Performance +.05EPR
+5% of N1 and N2
+5% Torque
+5% Fuel Flow
Cruise     IR IR May be a minimum of two consecutive snapshots with a spread of at least 5 minutes.
E. Stopping
1. Stopping Time and Distance, Wheel Brakes Dry Runway (No Reverse Thrust) ±5% of Time. For distance up to 4000ft (1220 m)
±200ft (61 m) or ±10%, whichever is smaller. For distance greater than 4000ft (1220 m)
±5% of Distance
Landing IR IR IR IR Time and Distance should be recorded for at least 80% of the total segment (Touchdown to Full Stop). Data required for Medium, Light, and near Maximum Landing gross weight conditions. Engineering data may be used for the Medium and Light gross weight conditions. Brake system pressure should be available.
2. Stopping Time and Distance, Reverse Thrust Dry Runway (No Wheel Braking) ±5% Time and the Smaller of ±10% or 200ft (61 m) of Distance Landing IR IR IR IR Time and Distance should be recorded for at least 80% of the total time from the initiation of reverse thrust to forward idle. Data required for Medium, Light, and near Maximum Landing gross weights. Engineering data may be used for the Medium and Light gross weight conditions.
3. Stopping Time and Distance, Wheel Brakes Wet Runway (No Reverse Thrust) ±10% or ±200ft (61 m) Distance Landing     I I Approved AFM data is acceptable.
4. Stopping Time and Distance, Wheel Brakes Icy Runway (No Reverse Thrust) ±10% or ±200ft (61 m) Distance Landing     I I Approved AFM data is acceptable.
F. Engines
1. Acceleration Ti ±10%
Tt ±10%
Approach or Landing IR IR IR IR Ti = Total time from initial throttle movement until a 10% response of a critical engine parameter.

Tt = Total time from Ti to 90% go-around power. Critical engine parameter should be a measurement of power (N1, N2, EPR, Torque, etc.) Plot from flight idle to go-around power for a rapid (slam) throttle movement.

2. Deceleration Ti ±10%
Tt ±10%
Ground/Takeoff IR IR IR IR Ti = Total time from initial throttle movement until a 10% response of a critical engine parameter.

Tt = Total time from Ti to 90% decay of maximum takeoff power. Plot from maximum take-off power to 90% decay of maximum takeoff power for a rapid (slam) throttle movement.


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