Appendix 2-B - Aeroplane Simulator Validation Tests


Test Tolerance Flt Condition Requirement Comments
      A B C D  
2. HANDLING QUALITIES
A. Static Control Checks** ** Column, wheel and pedal position versus force shall be measured at the control. An alternative method in lieu of the test fixture at the controls would be to instrument the simulator in an equivalent manner to the flight test aeroplane. The force and position data from this instrumentation can be directly recorded and matched to the aeroplane data. Such a permanent installation could be used without any time for installation of external devices.

1. Column Position Versus Force and Surface Position Calibration ±2 lb (0.89daN) Breakout
±5lb (2.224daN) or ±10% Force
±2° Elevator
Ground (Validated with Flight Data) IR IR IR IR Uninterrupted control sweep. Must be validated with in flight data from tests such as Longitudinal Static Stability, Stalls, etc. Static and Dynamic Flight Control tests should be accomplished at the same Feel or Impact pressures.

CCA: Position vs. Force not applicable if aeroplane cockpit controller is used.

2. Wheel Position Versus Force and Surface Position Calibration ±2 lb (0.89daN) Breakout ±3 lb (1.334daN) or ±10% Force
±1° Aileron
±3° Spoiler
Ground (Validated with Flight Data) IR IR IR IR Uninterrupted control sweep. Must be validated with in flight data from tests such as Engine Out Trims, Steady State Sideslip, etc. Static and Dynamic Flight Control tests should be accomplished at the same Feel or Impact pressures.

CCA: Position vs. Force not applicable if aeroplane cockpit controller is used and a maintenance program is used to prevent the deterioration of the component.

3. Rudder Position Versus Force and Surface Position Calibration ±5lb (2.224daN) Breakout
±5lb (2.224daN) or ±10% Force
±2° Rudder
Ground (Validated with Flight Data) IR IR IR IR Uninterrupted control sweep. Must be validated with in flight data from tests such as Engine Out Trims, Steady State Sideslip, etc. Static and Dynamic Flight Control tests should be accomplished at the same Feel or Impact pressures.
4. Nosewheel Steering Force ±2 lb (0.9daN) Breakout ±3 lb (1.3 daN) or ±10% Force
±2 Nosewheel Angle
Ground IR IR IR IR Uninterrupted control sweep to stops.
5. Rudder Pedal Steering Calibration ±2° Nosewheel Angle
±5° Deadband
Ground IR IR IR IR Uninterrupted control sweep to stops.
6. Pitch Trim Calibration Indicator Versus Computed ±0.5° of Computer Trim Angle
±10% Trim Rate
Go-Around and Ground IR IR IR IR Trim Rate to be checked at Pilot Primary induced trim rate (ground) and Autopilot or Pilot Primary trim rate in flight at Go Around flight conditions.
7. Alignment of Power Lever Angle or Cross Shaft Angle Versus Selected Engine Parameter (EPR, N1) ±5° of Power Lever Angle or Cross Shaft Angle Ground IR IR IR IR Simultaneous recording for all engines. 5° tolerance applies against aeroplane data and between engines. May be snapshot test.

Note: In the case of propeller powered aeroplanes, if an additional lever, usually referred to as the propeller lever, is present, it must also be checked. Where these levers do not have angular travel, a tolerance of ±0.8inches (2 cm) applies.

8. Brake Pedal Position Versus Force ±5lb (2.224daN) or 10% Force±10% or 150psi (1033 kPa)
Brake Hydraulic Pressure
Ground IR IR IR IR Simulator computer output results may be used to show compliance. Relate hydraulic system pressure to pedal position in a ground static test.
B. Dynamic Control Check** ** Column, wheel and pedal position versus force shall be measured at the control. An alternative method acceptable to the MSP in lieu of the test fixture at the controls would be to instrument the simulator in an equivalent manner to the flight test aeroplane. The force and position data from this instrumentation can be directly recorded and matched to the aeroplane data. Such a permanent installation could be used without any time for installation of external devices.
1. Pitch Control ±10% of time for first zero crossing, and ±10(n+1)% of period thereafter.
±10% amplitude of first overshoot.
±20% of amplitude of second and subsequent overshoots greater than 5% of initial displacement.
±1 overshoot.
Takeoff, Cruise, Landing     IR IR Data should be normal control displacement in both directions. Approximately 25% to 50% of full throw. n is the sequential period of a full cycle of oscillation. Refer to the Control Dynamics section of this Appendix.

CCA: Test not applicable if aeroplane controller is installed in the simulator.

2. Roll Control Same as B.1. above. Takeoff, Cruise, Landing     IR IR Data should be normal control displacement. Approximately 25% to 50% of full throw.

CCA: Test not applicable if aeroplane controller is installed in the simulator.

3. Yaw Control Same as B.1. above. Takeoff, Cruise, Landing     IR IR Data should be normal control displacement. Approximately 25% to 50% of full throw.

CCA: Test not applicable if aeroplane controller is installed in the simulator.

4. Small Control Inputs ± 20% Body Rates Cruise and Approach     IR IR Small control inputs defined as 5% of total travel.
C. Longitudinal
1. Power Change Dynamics ±3 Kt Airspeed ±100ft (30 m) Altitude ±20% or ±1.5° Pitch Approach to Go-Around IR IR IR IR Time history of uncontrolled free response for time increment from 5sec before the initiation of the configuration change to +15sec.

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

2. Flap/Slat Change Dynamics ±3 Kt Airspeed ±100ft (30 m) Altitude
±20% or 1.5° Pitch
Retraction, After Takeoff. Extension, Approach to Landing IR IR IR IR Time history of uncontrolled free response for time increment from 5sec before the initiation of the configuration change to +15seconds.

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

3. Spoiler/Speedbrake Change Dynamics ±3 Kt Airspeed ±100ft (30 m) Altitude ±20% or 1.5° Pitch Cruise and Approach IR IR IR IR Time history of uncontrolled free response for time increment from 5sec before the initiation of the configuration change to +15sec. Results required for both extension and retraction.

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

4. Gear Change Dynamics ±3 Kt Airspeed ±100ft (30 m) Altitude ±20% or 1.5° pitch Takeoff to 2nd Second Segment Climb and Approach to Landing IR IR IR IR Time history of uncontrolled free response for a time increment of 5sec before the initiation of the configuration change to +15sec.

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

5. Gear and Flap/Slat Operating Times ±1 sec or 10% of Time Takeoff, Approach IR IR IR IR Normal and alternate flaps, extension and retraction. Normal gear, extension and retraction. Alternate gear, extension only. Intermediate increment times not required. Tabular data from production aeroplanes are acceptable.
6. Longitudinal Trim ±1° Pitch Control (Stab and Elev)
±1° Pitch Angle
±5% Net Thrust or Equivalent
Cruise, Approach and Landing IR IR IR IR May be snapshot tests.

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

7. Longitudinal Manoeuvring Stability (Stick Force per g) ±5lb (±2.224daN) or ±10% Column Force or Equivalent Surface Cruise, Approach and Landing IR IR IR IR May be series of snapshot tests. Force or surface deflection must be in correct direction. Approximately 20°, 30° and 45° of bank shall be presented.

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

8. Longitudinal Static Stability ±5lb (±2.224daN) or ±10% Column Force or Equivalent Surface Approach IR IR IR IR Data for at least two speeds above and below trim speed. May be snapshot tests.

CCA: Test in Normal OR Non-normal control state.

9. Stick Shaker, Airframe Buffet, Stall Speeds ±3 Kt Airspeed
±2° Bank for speeds greater than stick shaker or initial buffet
Second Segment Climb and Approach or Landing IR IR IR IR Stall Warning Signal should be recorded and must occur in the proper relation to stall. Aeroplanes exhibiting a sudden pitch attitude change or "g break" must demonstrate this characteristic. Aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems must also plot control column force (±10% or ±5lbs (±2.224daN).

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

10. Phugoid Dynamics ±10% of Period
±10% of Time to ½ or Double Amplitude or ±.02 of Damping Ratio
Cruise IR IR IR IR Test should include 3 full cycles (6overshoots after input completed) or that sufficient to determine time to ½amplitude, whichever is less.

CCA: Test in Non-normal control state.

11. Short Period Dynamics ±1.5° Pitch or ±2°/sec Pitch Rate ±.10g Normal Acceleration Cruise   IR IR IR CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.
D. Lateral Direction
1. Minimum Control Speed, Air (Vmca), per Applicable Airworthiness Standard or Low Speed Engine Inoperative Handling Characteristics in Air ±3 Kt Airspeed Takeoff or Landing (whichever is most critical in aeroplane) IR IR IR IR Vmca may be defined by a performance or control limit which prevents demonstration of Vmca in the conventional manner.

CCA: Test in Normal OR Non-normal control state.

2. Roll Response (Rate) ±10% or ±2°/sec Roll Rate Cruise and Approach or Landing IR IR IR IR Test with normal wheel deflection (about 30% of maximum control wheel). Aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems must also plot control column force (±10% or ±3 lbs (±1.3 daN)
3. Roll Response to Roll Controller Step Input ±10% or ±2°/sec Roll Rate Approach or Landing IR IR IR IR CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.
4. Spiral Stability Correct Trend, ±2° Bank or ±10% in 20sec Cruise IR IR IR IR Aeroplane data averaged from multiple tests may be used. Test for both directions.

CCA: Test in Non-normal control state.

5. Engine Inoperative Trim ±1° Rudder Angle or ±1° Tab Angle or Equivalent Pedal
±2° Sideslip Angle
Second Segment and Approach or Landing IR IR IR IR May be snapshot tests.
6. Rudder Response ±2°/sec or ±10% Yaw Rate Approach or Landing IR IR IR IR Test with stability augmentation on and off. Rudder step input of approximately 25% rudder pedal throw.

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

7. Dutch Roll, Yaw Damper Off ±0.5sec or ±10% of Period
±10% of Time to ½ or Double Amplitude or ±.02 of Damping Ratio
±20% or ±1 sec of Time Difference Between Peaks of Bank and Sideslip
Cruise and Approach or Landing   IR IR IR Test for at least 6 cycles with stability augmentation off.

CCA: Test in Non-normal control state.

8. Steady State Sideslip For a given rudder position ±2°Bank, ±1°Sideslip, ±10% or ±2° Aileron, ±10% or ±5° Spoiler or Equivalent Wheel Position or Force Approach or Landing IR IR IR IR May be a series of snapshot tests using at least two rudder positions (in each direction for propeller driven aeroplanes). Aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems must also show control wheel force (±10% or ±3 lbs (±1.3 daN)) and rudder pedal force (±10% or ±5lbs (±2.224daN)).
E. Landings
1. Normal Landing ±3 Kt Airspeed ±1.5° Pitch ±1.5° Angle of Attack
±10% Altitude or 10 ft (3 m)
Landing   IR IR IR Test for a minimum of 200feet (61 m) AGL to Nosewheel Touchdown. De-rotation may be shown as a separate manoeuvre from the time of main gear touchdown. Medium, light and near maximum certificated landing weights must be shown. Aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems must also plot control column force (±10% or ±5lbs (±2.224daN)).

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

2. Minimum/No Flap Landing ±3 Kt Airspeed ±1.5° Pitch
±1.5° Angle of Attack
±10% Altitude or 10ft (3 m)
Minimum Certified landing flap configuration     IR IR Test for a minimum of 200feet (61 m) AGL to Nosewheel Touchdown. De-rotation may be shown as a separate manoeuvre from the time of main gear touchdown. Test at near maximum certificated landing weights. Aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems must also plot control column force (±10% or ±5lbs (±2.224daN).
3. Crosswind Landing ±3 Kt Airspeed
±1.5° Pitch
±1.5° Angle of Attack
±10% Altitude or 10ft (3 m)
±2° Bank Angle
±2° Sideslip Angle
Landing   IR IR IR Test for a minimum of 200feet (61 m) AGL to a 50% decrease in main landing gear touchdown speed. Requires test data, including wind profile, for a cross-wind component of at least 20Knots or the maximum demonstrated cross-wind, if available, at near maximum landing weight. Aeroplanes with reversible flight control systems must also show control wheel force (±10% or ±3 lbs (±1.3 daN) and rudder pedal force ((±10% or ±5bs (±2.224daN).
4. One Engine Inoperative Landing ±3 Kt Airspeed
±1.5° Pitch
±1.5° Angle of Attack
±10% Altitude or 10ft (3 m)
±2° Bank Angle
±2° Sideslip Angle
Landing   IR IR IR Test for a minimum of 200feet (61 m) AGL to Nosewheel touchdown.
5. Autoland (if applicable) ±5ft (1.5 m) Flare Height
±.0.5sec Tf
±.7 m/s (140ft/min) RD at touchdown
±10feet (3 m) lateral deviation from maximum demonstrated cross-wind (autoland) deviation.
Landing   IR IR IR This test is not a substitute for the ground effects test requirement. Plot lateral deviation from touchdown to autopilot disconnect.

Tf = duration of flare.

6. Go Around ±3 Knots Airspeed
±1.5° Pitch
±1.5° Angle of Attack
Go Around     IR IR Engine inoperative go-around required near maximum certificated landing weight with critical engine(s) inoperative. Normal all-engine autopilot go-around must be demonstrated (if applicable) at medium weight.

CCA: Test in Normal AND Non-normal control state.

7. Directional Control (Rudder Effectiveness) With Reverse Thrust (Symmetric and Asymmetric) ±5Knots Airspeed Landing   IR IR IR Aeroplane test data required; however, aeroplane manufacturer's engineering simulator data may be used for reference data as last resort. Aeroplanes with demonstrated minimum speed for rudder effectiveness ±5Knots. Others, test to verify simulator meets conditions demonstrated by aeroplane manufacturer.
F. Ground Effect
1. A test to demonstrate ground effect. ±1° Elevator or Stabilizer Angle
±5% Net Thrust or Equivalent
±1° Angle of Attack
±10% Height/Altitude or ±5Feet (1.5 m)
±3 Knots Airspeed
±1° Pitch Attitude
Landing   IR IR IR See Ground Effect Section of this Appendix. A rationale must be provided with justification of results.
G. Brake Fade
1. A test to demonstrate decreased brake efficiency due to brake temperature. None Takeoff and Landing     IR IR Statement of Compliance. The test must show decreased braking efficiency due to brake temperature based on aeroplane related data.
H. Wind Shear
1. A test to demonstrate wind shear models None Takeoff and Landing     IR IR Wind shear models are required which provide training in the specific skills required for the recognition of wind shear phenomena and execution of recovery manoeuvres. See Appendix2-D.
I. Flight and Manoeuvre Envelope Protection
1. Overspeed ±5Knots Airspeed Cruise     IR IR The requirements of this paragraph are only applicable to computer controlled aeroplanes. Time history results are required of simulator response to control inputs during entry into protection envelope limits. Flight test data must be provided for both Normal and Non-normal control states.
2. Minimum Speed ±3 Knots Airspeed Takeoff, Cruise and Approach or Landing     IR IR  
3. Load Factor ±.1 g normal acceleration Takeoff, Cruise     IR IR  
4. Pitch Angle ±1.5° pitch Cruise, Go-Around     IR IR  
5. Bank Angle ±2° or ±10% bank Approach     IR IR  
6. Angle of Attack ±1.5° Angle of Attack 2nd segment and Approach or Landing     IR IR  

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