Appendix 2-B - Aeroplane Simulator Validation Tests


Test Tolerance Flt Condition Requirement Comments
      A B C D  
3. MOTION SYSTEM
A. Frequency Response As specified by operator for simulator acceptance.   IR IR IR IR Appropriate test to demonstrate Frequency Response required.
B. Leg Balance As specified by operator for simulator acceptance.   IR IR IR IR Appropriate test to demonstrate Leg Balance required.
C. Turn Around Check As specified by operator for simulator acceptance.   IR IR IR IR Appropriate test to demonstrate Smooth Turn Around required.
D. Characteristic Buffet Motions See Appendix2-A, paragraph4.f.         IR Statement of Compliance.Tests required.
E. Special Effects
1. Thrust effects with brakes set None Takeoff     IR IR Qualitative assessment to determine that the effect is representative.
2. Runway rumble, oleo deflections, effects of ground speed and uneven runway characteristics None Takeoff     IR IR Qualitative assessment to determine that the effect is representative.
3. Bumps after lift-off of nose and main landing gear None Takeoff     IR IR Qualitative assessment to determine that the effect is representative.
4. Buffet during retraction and extension of landing gear None Climb     IR IR Qualitative assessment to determine that the effect is representative.
5. Buffet in air due to flap and spoiler/speedbrake extension and approach to stall None Approach     IR IR Qualitative assessment to determine that the effect is representative.
6. Touchdown cues for main and nose landing gear None Landing     IR IR Qualitative assessment to determine that the effect is representative.
7. Buffet on the ground due to spoiler/speedbrake extension and thrust reversal None Landing     IR IR Qualitative assessment to determine that the effect is representative.
8. Nosewheel scuffing None Ground     IR IR Qualitative assessment to determine that the effect is representative.
9. Mach buffet None Flight     IR IR Qualitative assessment to determine that the effect is representative.
Test Tolerance Flt Condition Requirement Comments
      A B C D  
4. VISUAL SYSTEM

Note: Refer to Appendix 2-C for additional information.

A. Visual Ground Segment ±20% of distance. Threshold Lights must be visible if they are in the visual segment. Trimmed in the landing configuration at 100feet (30 m) Wheel Height Above Touchdown Zone on Glide Slope.

Runway Visual Range = 1200feet (350 m)

IR IR IR IR The QTG should indicate the source of data, i.e. ILS G/S antenna location, pilot eye reference point, cockpit cut-off angle, etc., used to make visual scene ground segment content calculations. Tolerance Example: If the calculated VGS for the aeroplane is 840feet, the 20% tolerance of 168feet may be applied at the near or far end of the simulator VGS or may be split between both as long as the total of 168feet is not exceeded.
B. Display System Tests
1. Visual System Colour Demonstration Model       IR IR  
2. Visual RVR Calibration Demonstration Model       IR IR  
3. Visual Display Focus and Intensity Demonstration Model       IR IR  
4. Visual Attitude Versus Simulator Attitude Indicator (Pitch and Roll of Horizon) Demonstration Model       IR IR  
5. Demonstrate 10Levels of Occulting Through Each Channel of System Demonstration Model       IR IR  
6. Daylight Scene Display Brightness ≥6foot-Lamberts (20cd/m2) on the display and ≥5foot-Lamberts (17cd/m2) at an Approach Plate positioned at the pilot's knee.         IR  
7. Contrast Ratio 5:1 ≥ 5:1       IR IR  
8. Surface Resolution ≤ 3 arc minutes       IR IR Where a night/dusk scene is used on a LevelC simulator, this test does not apply.
9. Lightpoint Size ≤ 6 arc minutes       IR IR This is equivalent to a light point resolution of 3 arc minutes.
C. Visual Feature Recognition

Note: Within final picture resolution, the distances at which features are visible for tests (1) through (4) should not be less than those indicated in the specific test. Operators should indicate the light intensity level used for the test.

1. Runway Definition, Strobe Lights, Runway Edge White Lights and VASI Lights 5statute miles (8km) Approach from the runway     IR IR  
2. Runway Centreline Lights 3 statute miles (5km) Approach     IR IR  
3. Threshold Lights and Touchdown Zone Lights 2 statute miles (3 km) Approach from the runway     IR IR  
4. Runway Markings Night/Dusk scenes within range of landing lights. Day scene as required by 3 arc minutes resolution. Approach     IR IR  
D. Visual Scene Content

Note: For tests (1) through (10) the demonstration models can be a sampling of specific models used in the operator's training program or a generic airport model. A minimum of 3 specific airports is required.

1. Airport Runways and Taxiways Demonstration Model Ground or Flight     IR IR Qualitative Assessment.
2. Surface on Runways, Taxiways and Ramps Demonstration Model Ground     IR IR Qualitative Assessment.
3. Lighting for the runway in use Demonstration Model Ground or Flight     IR IR Qualitative Assessment. All lights associated with the test runway should be checked for appropriate colours (e.g. edge lights, centreline, touchdown zone, VASI, PAPI, REIL
4. Ramps and Terminal Buildings Demonstration Model Ground     IR IR  
5. Dusk and Night Scene Capability Demonstration Model Flight     IR IR Qualitative Assessment.

Dusk scene should include visible horizon and recognition of cultural features on the ground.

6. General Terrain characteristics and significant landmarks Demonstration Model Flight     IR IR Qualitative Assessment.
7. Capability to present Ground and Air Hazards such as another aeroplane crossing the active runway or Converging Airborne Traffic Demonstration Model Ground or Flight     IR IR Qualitative Assessment.
8. Operational Visual Scenes which portray representative physical relationships known to cause Landing Illusions on short Runways, Landing Approaches Over Water, Uphill or Downhill Runways, Rising Terrain on the Approach Path and Unique Topographic Features Demonstration Model Approach and Landing       IR Qualitative Assessment.

May be a generic airport model or specific airport(s).

9. Realistic Colour and Directionality of airport lighting Demonstration Model Ground or Flight       IR Qualitative Assessment.
10. Freedom from apparent quantization (aliasing) Demonstration Model Ground or Flight     IR IR Qualitative Assessment.
E. Weather Effects

Note: For tests (1) through (8) specific airport models or generic airport models may be used. All models used for these tests must be available in the operator's approved training program. Weather effects described in tests (4) through (8) should be selectable via controls at the IOS such as cloud base, cloud effects and visibility (Kilometres/Statute Miles) and RVR (meters/feet).

1. Special weather representations of light, medium and heavy precipitation near a thunderstorm on takeoff, approach and landings at an altitude of 2000ft (610 m) above the airport surface and within a radius of 10sm (16km) from the airport   Flight       IR Qualitative Assessment.
2. Wet and Snow covered runway including runway lighting reflections for wet, partially obscured lights from snow or suitable alternative effects Demonstration Model Ground       IR Qualitative Assessment.
3. Weather Radar presentations in aeroplanes where radar information is presented on the pilot's navigational instruments. Radar returns should correlate to the visual scene Demonstration Model Flight       IR Qualitative Assessment.
4. Variable Cloud Density Demonstration Model Approach     IR IR Qualitative Assessment.
5. Partial Obscuration of ground scenes: the effect of a scattered to broken cloud deck Demonstration Model Approach     IR IR Qualitative Assessment.
6. Gradual Breakout Demonstration Model Approach     IR IR Qualitative Assessment. Visibility and cloud effects should be checked at and below an altitude of 2000feet (610 m) height above the airport and within a radius of 10sm (16km) from the airport.
7. Patchy Fog Demonstration Model Approach or Takeoff     IR IR Qualitative Assessment.
8. The Effect of Fog on Airport Lighting Demonstration Model Approach or Takeoff     IR IR Qualitative Assessment.
F. Flight Compatibility
1. Visual system compatibility with aerodynamic programming Not Applicable Ground and Flight IR IR IR IR Qualitative tests to verify the latency, throughput and visual attitude versus simulator attitude tests.
2. Visual cues to assess sink rate and depth perception during landings Not Applicable Approach and Landing   IR IR IR Qualitative tests to confirm that terrain features, surfaces on taxiways and ramps and other cultural features which provide cues for landing the aeroplane.
3. Accurate portrayal of environment relating to simulator attitudes Not Applicable Flight IR IR IR IR  
Test Tolerance Flt Condition Requirement Comments
      A B C D  
5. SOUND SYSTEM
A. Significant cockpit sounds which result from pilot actions corresponding to those of the aeroplane Not Applicable Flight and Ground     IR IR Qualitative Assessment. Statement Of Compliance or Demonstration of representative sounds.
B. Sound of precipitation, windshield wipers and other significant aeroplane noises perceptible to the flight crew during normal operations and the sound of a crash related in some logical manner to landing in an unusual attitude or in excess of the structural gear limitations of the aeroplane Not Applicable Flight and Ground     IR IR Statement Of Compliance or Demonstration of representative sounds. Significant aeroplane noises should include noises such as engine, flap, gear and spoiler extension and retraction and thrust reversal to a comparable level as that found in the aeroplane.
C. Realistic amplitude and frequency of cockpit noises and sounds, including precipitation static and engine and airframe sounds. The sounds shall be coordinated with the weather representations required to be displayed in the visual scene Not Applicable Flight and Ground       IR Test results must show a comparison of the amplitude and frequency content of the sounds.

Test Tolerance Flt Condition Requirement Comments
      A B C D  
6. SIMULATOR SYSTEMS
A. Visual, Motion and Cockpit Instrument Systems Response
Visual, Motion and Cockpit Instrument Systems Response to an abrupt pilot controller input, compared to aeroplane response for a similar input 150 milliseconds or less after aeroplane response. Takeoff, Cruise, Approach or Landing     IR IR One test is required in each axis (Pitch, Roll and Yaw) for each of the 3 conditions compared to aeroplane data for a similar input (total 9 tests). Visual change may start before motion response, but motion acceleration must occur before completion of visual scan of first video field containing different information.
300 milliseconds or less after aeroplane response. Takeoff, Cruise, Approach or Landing IR IR    
OR              
Transport Delay 150 milliseconds or less after control movement. Pitch, Roll, Yaw     IR IR One test is required in each axis (total 3 tests). See Appendix2-A, section3, paragraphv.
300 milliseconds or less after control movement. Pitch, Roll, Yaw IR IR    
B. Diagnostic Testing
1. A means for quickly and effectively testing simulator programming and hardware. This could include an automated system which could be used for conducting at least a portion of the tests in the QTG         IR IR  
2. Self testing of simulator hardware and programming to determine compliance with LevelB, C and D Simulator Requirements           IR  
3. Diagnostic analysis as prescribed in FAR Part121, AppH, LevelD (PhaseIII), Simulator Requirement No.5           IR  

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