Appendix 2-C - Functions and Subjective Tests

1. Discussion

Functional and subjective tests of simulator characteristics and systems operation will be evaluated at each flight crew member position. As appropriate, these shall include the cockpit check, system operation, normal, abnormal and emergency procedures using the operator's operating procedures and check lists.

Initial evaluation shall include functional checks from this Appendix as appropriate. If required, TC may elect to focus on simulator operation during a special aspect of an operator's training program during the functional check portion of a recurrent evaluation. Such a functional evaluation may include a portion of a LOFT scenario or special emphasis items within the operator's training program. Unless directly related to a requirement for the current certification level, the results of such an evaluation would not affect the simulator's current status.

Operational principal navigation systems, including but not limited to, Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS), Flight Management Systems (FMS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and Initial Navigation Systems (INS) will be evaluated if installed.

The ground and flight manoeuvres which shall be evaluated, as appropriate to the level of the simulator and the visual and special effects evaluations, are in the following table. Manoeuvres and procedures are included to address some features of advanced technology aeroplanes and innovative training programmes. For example, "high angle of attack manoeuvring" is included to provide an alternative to "approach to stalls". Such an alternative is necessary for aeroplanes employing flight envelope limiting technology.

All systems functions will be assessed for normal and, where appropriate, alternate operations. Normal, abnormal and emergency procedures associated with a flight phase will be assessed during the evaluation of manoeuvres or events within that flight phase. Systems are listed separately under "any flight phase" to assure appropriate attention to system checks.

2. Table of Functions and Subjective Tests
  Simulator Level
  A B C D
1. Pre-flight. Accomplish a functions check of all switches, indicators, systems and equipment at all crew members' and instructors' stations and determine that the cockpit design and functions are identical to that of the aeroplane simulated. x x x x
1. Engine Start
  1. Normal Start
  2. Alternate Start Procedure (cross bleed, battery, etc.)
  3. Abnormal Starts and Shutdowns (hot start, hung start, etc.)
x x x x
2. Pushback/Powerback   x x x
3. Taxi
  1. Thrust Response
  2. Power Lever Friction
  3. Ground Handling
  4. Nosewheel Scuffing
  5. Brake operation (normal and alternate/emergency)
  6. Brake Fade (if applicable)
  7. Other
x x x x
C. TAKE-OFF        
1. Normal
  1. Parameter Relationships
  2. Acceleration Characteristics
  3. Nosewheel and Rudder Steering
  4. Crosswind (Maximum Demonstrated)
  5. Special Performance
  6. Instrument Take-off
  7. Landing Gear, Wing Flap, Leading Edge Device Operation
  8. Other
x x x x
2. Abnormal/Emergency
  1. Rejected take-off
  2. Rejected Special Performance
  3. With failure of most critical engine at most critical point along take-off path (take-off continued)
  4. With Windshear
  5. Flight Control System Failure Modes
  6. Other
x x x x
1. Climb
  1. Normal
  2. One Engine Inoperative
  3. Other
x x x x
2. Cruise
  1. Performance Characteristics (speed versus power)
  2. Turns With/Without Spoilers (speed brake) Deployed
  3. High Altitude Handling
  4. High Speed Handling
  5. Mach Tuck and Trim, Overspeed Warning
  6. Normal and Steep Turns
  7. Performance Turns
  8. Approach to Stalls (stall warning, buffet and g-break - cruise, take-off, approach and landing)
  9. High Angle of Attack Manoeuvre (cruise, take-off, approach and landing)
  10. Inflight Engine Shutdown and Restart
  11. Manoeuvring with One Engine Inoperative
  12. Special Flight Characteristics
  13. Manual Flight Control Reversion
  14. Flight Control System Failure Modes
  15. Other
x x x x
3. Descent
  1. Normal
  2. Maximum Rate
  3. Manual Flight Control Reversion
  4. Flight Control System Failure Modes
  5. Other
x x x x
1. Non-Precision
  1. Manoeuvring with All Engines Operating
  2. Landing Gear, Operation of Flaps and Speed Brake
  3. All Engines Operating (d) One or More Engines Inoperative
  4. Approach Procedures
    • NDB
    • DME ARC
    • LOC/BC
    • AZI, LDA, LOC, SDF
    • GPS
  5. Missed Approach
    • All Engines Operating
    • One or More Engines Inoperative (as applicable)
x x x x
2. Precision
  1. PAR
  2. DGPS
  3. ILS
    • Normal
    • Engine(s) Inoperative
    • Category I Published Approach
      • Manually controlled with and without flight director to 100ft. (30m) below CategoryI minima
      • With Crosswind (maximum demonstrated)
      • With Windshear
    • Category II Published Approach
      • Auto-coupled, auto-throttle, auto-land
      • All engines operating missed approach
    • Category III Published Approach
      • With minimum/ standby electrical power
      • With generator failure
      • With 10Knot tailwind
      • With 10Knot crosswind
      • With Rollout
      • One engine inoperative
x x x x
3. Visual
  1. Abnormal Wing Flaps/Slats
  2. Without Glide Slope Guidance
x x x x
1. Normal        
(a) Crosswind (maximum demonstrated)   x x x
(b) From VFR Traffic Pattern   x x x
(c) From Non-Precision Approach   x x x
(d) From Precision Approach   x x x
(e) From Circling Approach1

1 Simulators with visual systems which permit completing a circling approach may be approved for that particular circling approach procedure.

x x x x
2. Abnormal/Emergency
  1. Engine(s) Inoperative
  2. Rejected
  3. With Windshear
  4. With Standby (minimum electrical/hydraulic) Power
  5. With Longitudinal Trim Malfunction
  6. With Lateral-Directional Trim Malfunction
  7. With Loss of Flight Control Power (manual reversion)
  8. With Worst Case Failure of Flight Control System (most significant degradation of fly-by-wire system which is not extremely improbable)
  9. Other Flight Control System Failure Modes as Dictated by Training Program
  10. Other
x x x x
1. Landing Roll and Taxi
  1. Spoiler Operation
  2. Reverse Thrust Operation
  3. Direction Control and Ground Handling, Both With and Without Reverse Thrust
  4. Reduction of Rudder Effectiveness With Increased Reverse Thrust (rear pod-mounted engines)
  5. Brake and Anti-Skid Operation with Dry, Wet and Icy Conditions
  6. Engine Shutdown and parking - engine and systems operations - parking brake operation
  7. Other
  x x x
1. Aeroplane and Powerplant System Operation
  1. Air Conditioning and Pressurization
  2. Anti-icing/de-icing
  3. Auxiliary Powerplant
  4. Communications
  5. Electrical
  6. Fire Detection and Suppression
  7. Flaps
  8. Flight Controls
  9. Fuel and Oil
  10. Hydraulic
  11. Landing Gear
  12. Oxygen
  13. Pneumatic
  14. Powerplant
  15. Pressurization
x x x x
2. Flight Management and Guidance Systems
  1. Airborne Radar
  2. Automatic Landing Aids
  3. Autopilot
  4. Collision Avoidance System
  5. Flight Control Computers
  6. Flight Data Displays
  7. Flight Management Computers
  8. Head-Up Displays
  9. Navigation Systems
  10. Stall Warning/Avoidance
  11. Stability and Control Augmentation
  12. Windshear Avoidance Equipment
x x x x
3. Airborne Procedures x x x x
(a) Holding        
(b) Air Hazard Avoidance     x x
(c) Windshear        
4. Engine Shutdown and Parking
  1. Engine and Systems Operation
  2. Parking Brake Operation
x x x x
  Simulator Level
  A B C D
2. VISUAL SYSTEM        
1. Accurate Portrayal of Environment Relating to Simulator Attitudes x x x x
2. With final picture resolution, the distances at which runway features are visible should not be less than those listed below. Distances are measured from runway threshold to an aeroplane aligned with the runway on an extended 3° glide slope.
  1. Runway Definition, Strobe Lights, Approach Lights, Runway Edge White Lights and VASI Lights from 5Statute Miles (8Kilometres) of the Runway Threshold
  2. Runway Centreline Lights and Taxiway Definition from 3Statute Miles (5Kilometres)
  3. Threshold Lights and Touchdown Zone Lights from 2Statute Miles (3Kilometres)
  4. Runway Markings within Range of Landing Lights for Night Scenes (as required by 3arc minute resolution on day scenes)
x x x x
3. Representative Airport Scene Content Including:
  1. Airport Runways and Taxiways
  2. Runway Definition
    • Runway Surface and markings
    • Lighting for the runway in use including runway edge and centreline lighting, touchdown zone, VASI and approach lighting of appropriate colours and taxiway lights
x x x x
4. Operational Landing Lights x x x x
5. Instructor Controls of:
  1. Cloud base
  2. Visibility in Statute Miles (Km) and RVR in Feet (Meters)
  3. Airport Selection
  4. Airport Lighting
x x x x
6. Visual System Comparability with Aerodynamic Programming x x x x
7. Visual Cues to Assess Sink Rates and Depth Perception During Landings
  1. Surface on Taxiways and Ramps
  2. Terrain Features
  x x x
8. Dusk and Night Visual Scene Capability     x x
9. Minimum of Three Specific Airport Scenes
  1. Surfaces on Runways, Taxiways and Ramps
  2. Lighting of Appropriate Colour for all Runways Including Runway Edge, Centreline, VASI and Approach Lighting for the Runway in use and Airport Taxiway Lighting
  3. Ramps and Terminal Buildings Which Correspond to an Operator's Line Oriented Flight Training (LOFT) Scenarios
    x x
10. General Terrain characteristics and significant landmarks     x x
11. At and below 2,000feet (610m) height above the airport and within a 10mile (16.1kilometre) radius of the airport, weather representations, including the following:
  1. Variable Cloud Density
  2. Partial Obscuration of Ground Scenes (the effect of a scattered to broken cloud deck)
  3. Gradual Break Out
  4. Patchy Fog
  5. The Effect of Fog on Airport Lighting
    x x
12. A Capability to Present Ground and Air Hazards Such as Another Aeroplane Crossing the Active Runway or Converging Airborne Traffic     x x
13. Operational Visual Scenes Which Portray Representative Physical Relationships Known to Cause Landing Illusions Such as Short Runways, Landing Approaches Over Water, Uphill or Downhill Runways, Rising Terrain on the Approach Path and Unique Topographic Features       x
14. Special Weather Representations of which include the sound, visual and motion effects of entering light, medium and heavy precipitation near a thunder storm on take-off, approach and landings at and below an altitude of 2,000feet (610m) above the airport surface and within a radius of 10miles (16kilometres) from the airport       x
15. Wet and Snow-Covered Runways Including Runway Lighting Reflections for Wet, Partially Obscured Lights for Snow or Suitable Alternative Effects       x
16. Realistic Colour and Directionality of Airport Lighting       x
17. Weather Radar Presentation in Aeroplanes Where Radar Information is Presented on the Pilot's Navigation Instruments (Radar returns should correlate to the visual scene)       x
18. Freedom from Apparent Quantization (Aliasing)       x
  Simulator Level
  A B C D
1. Runway Rumble, Oleo Deflections, Effects of Ground Speed and Uneven Runway Characteristics   x x x
2. Buffets on the Ground due to Spoiler/Speedbrake Extension and Thrust Renewal   x x x
3. Bumps after Lift-Off of Nose and Main Gear   x x x
4. Buffet During Extension and Retraction of Landing Gear   x x x
5. Buffet in the Air Due to Flap and Spoiler/Speedbrake Extension and Approach-to-Stall Buffet   x x x
6. Touchdown Cues for Main and Nose Gear   x x x
7. Nosewheel Scuffing   x x x
8. Thrust Effect with Brakes Set   x x x
9. Mach Buffet   x x x
10. Representative Brake and Tire Failure Dynamics (including anti-skid) and Decreased Brake Efficiency Due to High Brake Temperatures Based on Aeroplane Related Data These representations should be realistic enough to cause pilot identification of the problem and implementation of appropriate procedures. Simulator pitch, side loading and directional control characteristics should be representative of the aeroplane.     x x
11. Sound of Precipitation and Significant Aeroplane Noises Perceptible to the Pilot during Normal Operations and the Sound of a Crash When the Simulator is Landed in Excess of Landing Gear Limitations. Significant aeroplane noises should include noises such engine, flap, gear and spoiler extension and retraction and thrust reversal to a comparable level as that found in the aeroplane. The sound of a crash should be related in some logical manner to landing in an unusual attitude or in excess of the structural gear limitations of the aeroplane.     x x
12. Effects of Airframe Icing     x x
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