Appendix 2-D - Windshear Qualification

1. Applicability

This appendix applies to all simulators used for low-altitude windshear flight training.

2. Statement of Compliance

A statement of compliance (SOC) is required to include the following:

  1. Documentation that the aerodynamic model is based on aeroplane data supplied by the aeroplane manufacturer, or other named source, and that any change to environmental wind parameters, including variances in those parameters for windshear conditions, once inserted for computations, should result in the correct simulated performance; and
  2. Examples, where environmental wind parameters are currently evaluated in the simulator (such as crosswind take-off, crosswind approach and crosswind landing).

3. Qualification Basis

The addition of windshear programming to a simulator in order to comply with the qualification for required windshear training does not change the original qualification basis of the simulator.

4. Models

The windshear models installed in the simulator software that will be used for qualification evaluation must do the following:

  1. Provide cues necessary for recognition of the onset of a windshear phenomena and potential performance degradation that would require a pilot to initiate recovery procedures. The cues must include one or more of the following, as may be appropriate -

    1. rapid airspeed change of at least +15knots (kt),
    2. stagnation of airspeed during the take-off roll,
    3. rapid vertical speed change of at least +500feet per minute (fpm), and/or
    4. rapid pitch change of at least +5°;

  2. Be adjustable in intensity (or other parameter to achieve the desired effect) so that after encountering and recognizing the windshear, and with the application of recommended procedures for escape from such a windshear, the following results may be achieved:

    1. the performance capability of the simulated aeroplane permits the pilot to maintain a satisfactory flight path, or
    2. the performance capability of the simulated aeroplane does not permit the pilot to maintain a satisfactory flight path (crash); and

  3. Be available for use in the approved windshear flight training program. The means used to accomplish the "non-survivable" scenario of paragraph4.b)(2), which involves operational elements of the simulated aeroplane, must reflect parameters which fall within the dispatch limitations of the aeroplane.

5. Tests

  1. The operator should identify two of the required training windshear models (one take-off and one approach) to be demonstrated for Qualification Test Guide (QTG) purposes and should define the wind components of these two models for the survivable scenario. This definition should be presented in graphical format so that all components of the windshear are shown, including initiation point, variance in magnitude, and either time or distance correlation as may be appropriate. The simulator must be operated at the same gross weight, aeroplane configuration, and initial airspeed in both of the following situations for the two models selected (total of four tests):

    1. through calm air, and
    2. through the selected survivable windshear;

  2. In each of these four situations, at an "initiation point" (that point being where the onset of windshear conditions is, or would have been recognized, depending on the test being run), the recommended procedures for windshear recovery shall be applied, and the results shall be recorded, as specified in paragraph6. These recordings shall be made without the presence of programmed random turbulence and, for the purposes of this testing, it is recommended, although not required, they be flown by means of the simulator's auto-drive function (for those simulators that have auto-drive capability) during the tests. Turbulence which results from the windshear model is to be expected, and no attempt may be made to neutralize turbulence from this source.

6. Recording Parameters

  1. In each of the four QTG cases, an electronic recording (time history) must be made of the following parameters:

    1. indicated or calibrated airspeed,
    2. indicated vertical speed,
    3. pitch attitude,
    4. indicated or radio altitude,
    5. angle of attack, and
    6. elevator position;

      Note: Engine data (thrust, N1 or throttle position) and wind magnitudes must be included for each of the four QTG cases.

  2. These recordings shall be initiated at least 10seconds prior to the initiation point and continued until recovery is complete or ground contact is made. For those simulators not capable of electronic recording of the above parameters, video recordings which have been cross-plotted into a time history format will be considered an acceptable means of data presentation. If data of sufficient resolution for elevator position is not obtainable using this method of video cross-plotting, then stick position may be used. Special, temporary instrumentation readout installations may be required to record these parameters on video tape.

7. Equipment Installation

For those simulators where windshear warning, caution or guidance hardware is not provided as original equipment with the aeroplane and, therefore, is added to the aeroplane and simulator, an SOC is required stating that the simulation of the added simulator hardware and/or software, including associated cockpit displays and annunciations, functions the same or equivalent to the system(s) installed in the aeroplane. This statement shall be supported by a block diagram that describes the input and output signal flow and compares it to the aeroplane configuration.

8. Qualification Test Guide

  1. All QTG material (performance determinations recordings, etc.) should be forwarded to the MSP.
  2. The simulator will be scheduled for an evaluation in accordance with normal procedures. Use of recurrent evaluation schedules will be used to the maximum extent possible.
  3. During the on-site evaluation, the evaluator should ask the operator to run the performance tests and record the results. The results of these on-site tests will be compared to those results previously approved and placed in the QTG.
  4. QTGs for new or upgraded simulators shall contain or reference the information described in paragraphs2, 4, 5, 6 and 7 of this appendix, as may be appropriate for the simulator.

9. Functional Evaluation

A simulator evaluation specialist must fly the simulator in a least two of the available windshear scenarios to evaluate subjectively the performance of the simulator as it encounters the programmed windshear conditions according to the following:

  1. One scenario will include parameters that enable the pilot to maintain a satisfactory flight path;
  2. One scenario will include parameters that will not enable to the pilot to maintain a satisfactory flight path (crash);
  3. Other scenarios may be examined at the discretion of the simulator evaluation specialist.
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