Appendix 3-A - Rotorcraft Simulator Standards

1. Discussion

There are currently three levels of complexity of rotorcraft simulators - LevelsB, C and D, which are comparable in complexity and intended use to rotorcraft simulators of the same level. LevelA is reserved for potential future use.

This Appendix describes the simulator requirements for qualifying LevelB, C and D rotorcraft simulators under the NSEP. The validation and functional tests listed in Appendices3-B and 3-C should also be consulted when considering a specific level simulator.

2. Statement of Compliance

For LevelC and D qualification, certain simulator and visual system requirements included in this Appendix must be supported by a Statement of Compliance and, in some designated cases, an objective test. Statements of Compliance shall describe how the requirement is met, such as gear modelling approach, coefficient of friction sources, etc. The objective test shall show how the requirement has been attained. In the following sections describing simulator standards, whenever a Statement of Compliance is required, it will be indicated in the applicable "Comments" column.

3. Simulator General

STANDARD LEVEL COMMENTS
  A B C D  

a.The cockpit shall represent a full scale replica of the rotorcraft being simulated. Where movement of controls and switches is involved, the direction of movement shall be identical to that in the rotorcraft. The cockpit, for simulator purposes, consists of all the space forward of a cross-section of the fuselage at the most extreme aft setting of the pilots' seats. Additional required crew member duty stations and those required bulkheads aft of the pilots' seats are also considered part of the cockpit and must replicate the rotorcraft.

  x x x  

b.Circuit breakers that affect procedures and/or result in observable cockpit indications shall be properly located and functionally accurate.

  x x x  

c.The effect of aerodynamic changes for various combinations of drag and thrust normally encountered in flight shall correspond to actual flight conditions. The effect of change in rotorcraft attitude, thrust, drag, altitude, temperature, gross weight, centre of gravity location and configuration shall be included.

  x x x  

d.All relevant instrument indications involved in the simulation of the applicable rotorcraft shall be entirely automatic in response to control movement by a crew member or external disturbances to the simulated rotorcraft, i.e. turbulence or wind shear.

x x x x  

e.Communications and navigation equipment shall correspond to that installed in the applicant's rotorcraft and shall operate within the tolerances prescribed for the actual airborne equipment.

x x x x  

f.In addition to the flight crew member stations, there shall be two suitable seats for the Instructor/Check Pilot and Transport Canada Inspector. The MSP will consider options to this standard based on unique cockpit configurations. These seats shall provide adequate vision to the pilot's panel and forward windows in visual system models. Observer seats need not represent those found in the rotorcraft but shall possess similar positive restraint devices.

x x x x  

g.Simulator systems must simulate the applicable rotorcraft system operation, both on the ground and in flight. Three systems must be operative to the extent that normal, abnormal and emergency operating procedures appropriate to the simulator application can be accomplished.

  x x x  

h.Instructor controls shall be installed to enable the operator to control all required system variables and insert abnormal or emergency conditions into the rotorcraft systems.

  x x x  

i.Static control forces and degree of control travel shall correspond to that of the applicable rotorcraft. Control forces shall react in the same manner as in the rotorcraft under the same flight conditions.

  x x x  

j.Significant cockpit sounds which result from pilot actions corresponding to those of the rotorcraft.

  x x x  

k.Sound of precipitation windshield wiper and other significant rotorcraft noises perceptible to the pilot during normal operations and the sound of a crash when the simulator is landed in excess of landing gear limitations.

    x x Statement of Compliance for LevelD, appropriate weather related sounds shall be coordinated with the weather representations specified in Appendix3-C, section2, item15.

l.Realistic amplitude and frequency of cockpit noises and sounds, including engine, transmission, rotor and airframe sounds.

      x Tests required for noises and sounds that originate from the rotorcraft or rotorcraft systems.

m.Ground handling and aerodynamic programming to include:

  1. ground effect - e.g. flare and touchdown from a running landing as well as in ground effect (IGE) hover programming;
  2. ground reaction - reaction of the rotorcraft upon contact with the runway during landing to include strut deflections, tire friction, side forces and other appropriate data such as weight and speed necessary to identify the flight condition and configuration;
  3. ground handling characteristics - steering inputs to include crosswind, braking, thrust reversing, deceleration and turning radius.
  x x x Statement of Compliance. Tests Required. LevelB does not require hover programming.

n.Representative crosswind modelling and instructor controls for wind speed and direction.

  x x x  

o.Representative stopping and directional control forces for at least the following runway conditions based on rotorcraft related data for a running landing:

  1. dry;
  2. wet;
  3. icy;
  4. patchy wet; and
  5. patchy icy.
    x x Statement of Compliance. Objective Test for 1.Functional check for 2, 3, 4 and 5. The subjective tolerance is interpreted to mean that the relationships among the tests are logical (e.g. "patchy icy" distances are less than "icy" distances) and that the performance can be rationalized against Flight Manual documented performance.

p.Representative brake and tire failure dynamics and decreased brake efficiency due to brake temperature based on rotorcraft related data.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

q.Simulator computer capacity, accuracy, resolution and dynamic response sufficient for the level sought.

  x x x Statement of Compliance.

r.Cockpit control dynamics which replicate the rotorcraft simulated. Free response of the controls shall match that of the rotorcraft within the tolerance given in Appendix3-B. Initial and upgrade evaluation will include control free response (cyclic, collective and pedal) measurements recorded at the controls. The measured responses must correspond to those of the rotorcraft in ground operations, hover, climb, cruise and autorotation.

  1. For rotorcraft with irreversible control systems, measurements may be obtained on the ground if proper pilot static inputs are provided to represent conditions typical of those encountered in flight. Engineering validation or rotorcraft manufacturer rationale will be submitted as justification to ground test or omit a configuration.
  2. For simulators requiring static and dynamic tests at the controls, special test fixtures will not be required during initial evaluations if the operator's QTG shows both test fixture results and alternate test method results such as computer plots which were obtained concurrently. Repeat of the alternate method during the initial evaluation may then satisfy this test equipment.
        Tests Required. See Appendix3-B, section4.

s.

1.Relative responses of the motion system, visual system and cockpit instruments shall be coupled closely to provide integrated sensory cues. These systems shall respond to abrupt pitch, roll and yaw inputs at the pilot's position within 100/150 milliseconds of the time, but not before the time, when the rotorcraft would respond under the same conditions.

  x     Tests required. For LevelB, response must be within 150 milliseconds.

s.

2.Visual change may start before motion response, but motion acceleration must occur before completion of visual scan of first video field containing different information. The test to determine compliance with these requirements should include simultaneously recording the analogue output from the pilot's cyclic, collective and pedals, the output from an accelerometer attached to the motion system platform located at an acceptable location near the pilots' seats, the output signal to the visual system display (including visual system analogue delays), and the output signal to the pilot's attitude indicator or an equivalent test approved by the Administrator. The test results in a comparison of a recording of the simulator's response to actual rotorcraft response data in hover (LevelsC and D only), climb, cruise and autorotation. For rotorcraft response, acceleration in the appropriate rotational axis is preferred. As an alternative, a transport delay test may be used to demonstrate that the simulator systems do not exceed the specified limit of 100/150 milliseconds. This test shall measure all the delay encountered by a step signal migrating from the pilots' control though the control loading electronics and interfacing through all the simulation software modules in the correct order, using a handshaking protocol, finally through the normal output interfaces to the motion system, to the visual system and instrument displays. A recordable start time for the test should be provided by a pilot flight control input. The test mode shall permit normal computation time to be consumed and shall not alter the flow of information through the hardware/software system. The transport delay of the system is then the time between the control input and the individual system responses. It need only be measured once in each axis, being independent of flight conditions.

    x x For LevelsC and D, response must be within 100 milliseconds.

t.Aerodynamic modelling which includes ground effect, effects of airframe icing (if applicable), aerodynamic interference effects between the rotor wake and the fuselage, influence of the rotor on control and stabilization systems and representations of non-linearities due to sideslip based on rotorcraft flight test data provided by the manufacturer.

      x  

u.A means for quickly and effectively testing simulator programming and hardware. This may include an automated system which could be used for conducting at least a portion of the tests in the QTG.

    x x Statement of Compliance.

v.Self-testing for simulator hardware and programming to determine compliance with simulator performance tests as prescribed in Appendix3-B. Evidence of testing must include simulator number, date, time, conditions, tolerances and appropriate dependent variables portrayed in comparison to the rotorcraft standard. Automatic flagging of "out-of-tolerance" situations is encouraged.

      x Statement of Compliance. Tests Required.

w.Diagnostic analysis printouts of simulator malfunctions sufficient to determine compliance with the Simulator Component Inoperative Guide (SCIG). These printouts shall be retained by the operator between recurring TC simulator evaluations as part of the daily discrepancy log.

      x Statement of Compliance.

x.Timely permanent update of simulator hardware and programming subsequent to rotorcraft modification.

    x x  

y.The daily pre-flight shall be documented in the maintenance log or in a location easily accessible for review.

  x x x  

4. Motion System Requirements

STANDARD LEVEL COMMENTS
  A B C D  

a.Motion (force) cues perceived by the pilot representative of the rotorcraft motions, i.e. touchdown cues shall be a function of the simulated rate of descent.

  x x x Motion tests to demonstrate that each axes onset cues are properly phased with pilot input and rotorcraft response.

b.A motion system which produces cues in three degrees of freedom (DOF).

  x      

c.A motion system which produces cues in six degrees of freedom (DOF).

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

d.A means for recording the motion response time for comparison with actual rotorcraft data shall be incorporated.

  x x x See section3, item.s. of this Appendix.

e.Special effects programming shall include:

  1. runway rumble, oleo deflections, effects of ground-speed and uneven runway characteristics;
  2. buffet due to transverse flow effect;
  3. buffet during extension and retraction of landing gear;
  4. buffet due to retreating blade stall;
  5. buffet due to settling with power;
  6. representative cues resulting from touchdown; and
  7. rotor vibrations.
  x x x  

f.Characteristic buffet motions that result from operation of the rotorcraft (e.g. retreating blade stall, extended landing gear, settling with power) which can be sensed at the flight deck. The simulator shall be programmed and instrumented in such a manner that the characteristic buffet modes can be measured and compared to rotorcraft data. Rotorcraft data is also required to define flight deck motions when the rotorcraft is subjected to atmospheric disturbances. General purpose disturbance models that approximate demonstrable flight test data are acceptable. A test with recorded results which allows the comparison of relative amplitudes versus frequency is required.

      x Statement of Compliance. Tests Required.

5. Visual System Requirements

STANDARD LEVEL COMMENTS
  A B C D  

a.The visual system shall be capable of meeting all standards of this Appendix and Appendices3-B and 3-C (Validation and Functional Test Appendices) as applicable to the level of qualification requested by the applicant.

  x x x  

b.The visual system shall be capable of providing at least a 75° horizontal and 30° vertical field of view simultaneously for each pilot.

  x      

c.The visual system shall be capable of providing a continuous minimum collimated (or equivalent) visual field of view of 150° horizontal and 40° vertical for each pilot.

    x   Horizontal field of view is to be centred on the zero degree azimuth line relative to the rotorcraft fuselage.

d.The visual system shall be capable of providing a continuous minimum collimated (or equivalent) visual field of view of 180° horizontal and 60° vertical for each pilot. In addition, operational chin windows representative of those found in the rotorcraft model simulated are required.

      x Horizontal field of view is to be centred on the zero degree azimuth line relative to the rotorcraft fuselage.

e.A means of recording the visual response time.

  x x x  

f.Verification of visual ground segment and visual scene content at a decision height on landing approach. The QTG must contain appropriate calculations and a drawing showing the pertinent data used to establish the rotorcraft location and visual ground segment. Such data should include, but is not limited to:

  1. airport and runway used;
  2. glide slope transmitter location for specified runways;
  3. position of the glide slope receiver antenna relative to the rotorcraft main landing wheels;
  4. approach and runway light intensity settings; and
  5. rotorcraft pitch angle.

The above parameters should be presented for the rotorcraft in the landing configuration and at a main wheel height of 100ft. (30 m) above the touchdown zone. The visual ground segment and scene content shall be determined for a RVR of 1200ft. (350 m).

  x x x  

g.Visual cues to assess rate of change of height, height AGL and translational displacements and rates during take-off and landing.

  x      

h.Visual cues to assess rate of change of height, height AGL and translational displacements and rates during take-off, low altitude/low airspeed manoeuvring, hover and landing.

    x x  

i.Test procedures to quickly confirm visual system colour, RVR, focus, intensity, level horizon and attitude as compared to the simulator attitude indicator.

  x x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

j.The dusk scene shall enable identification of a visible horizon and typical terrain characteristics such as fields, roads and bodies of water.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

k.A minimum of ten levels of occulting. This capability shall be demonstrated by a visual mode through each channel.

    x x Statement of Compliance. Tests required.

l.Daylight, dusk and night visual scenes with sufficient scene content to recognize airport, terrain and major landmarks around the airport and to successfully accomplish a visual landing. The daylight visual scene shall be part of a total daylight cockpit environment which at least represents the amount of light in the cockpit on an overcast day. Daylight visual system is defined as a visual system capable of producing, as a minimum, full colour presentations, scene content comparable in detail to that produced by 4,000edges or 1,000surfaces for daylight and 4,000light points for night and dusk scenes, 6-foot lamberts of light measured at the pilot's eye position (highlight brightness), 3 arc minutes resolution for the field of view at the pilot's eye and a display which is free of apparent quantization and other distracting visual effects while the simulator is in motion. The simulator cockpit ambient lighting shall be dynamically consistent with the visual scene displayed. For daylight scenes, such ambient lighting shall neither "washout" the displayed visual scene nor fall below 5-foot lamberts of light as reflected from an approach plate at knee height at the pilot's station. All brightness and resolution requirements shall be validated by an objective test and will be re-tested at least yearly by the MSP. Testing may be accomplished more frequently if there are indications that the performance is degrading on an accelerated basis. Compliance of the brightness capability may be demonstrated with a test pattern of white light using a spot photometer.

  1. Contrast Ratio - A raster drawn test pattern filling the entire visual scene (three or more channels) shall consist of a matrix of black and white squares no larger than 10° and no smaller than 5° per square with a white square in the centre of each channel. Measurement shall be made on the centre bright square for each channel using a 1° spot photometer. This value shall have a minimum brightness of 2-foot lamberts. Measure any adjacent dark squares. The contrast ratio is the bright square value divided by the dark square value. Minimum test contrast ratio result is 5:1.
  2. Highlight brightness - Maintaining the full test pattern described above, superimpose a highlight area on the centre white square of each channel and measure the brightness using the 1° spot photometer. Light points are not acceptable. Use of calligraphic capabilities to enhance raster brightness is acceptable.
  3. Surface resolution will be demonstrated by a test pattern of objects shown to occupy a visual angle of 3 arc minutes in the visual scene from the pilot's eyepoint. This shall be confirmed by calculations in the Statement of Compliance.
  4. Lightpoint size. Not greater than 6 arc minutes measured in a test pattern consisting of a single row of light points reduced in length until modulation is just discernible, a row of 40lights will form a 4° angle or less.
  5. Lightpoint contrast ratio. Not less than 25:1 when a square of at least 1° filled with lightpoints (i.e. lightpoint modulation is just discernible) is compared to the adjacent background.
      x Note: Cockpit ambient light levels shall be maintained at LevelD requirements.
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