Appendix 3-B - Rotorcraft Simulator Validation Tests

1. Discussion

Simulator performance and system operation shall be objectively evaluated by comparing each performance and stability and control test conducted in the simulator to rotorcraft data unless specifically noted otherwise. To facilitate the validation of the simulator, a multi-channel recorder, line printer or other appropriate device, acceptable to the MSP, shall be used to record each validation test. The results of these recordings shall then be compared to the rotorcraft source data.

The QTG provided by the operator shall describe clearly and distinctly how the simulator will be set up and operated for each test. Use of a drive program designed to automatically accomplish the tests is encouraged but procedures shall be included to positively determine that the driver is doing nothing more than accurately flying the simulator. It is not the intent and it is not acceptable to TC to test each simulator subsystem independently. Overall integrated testing of the simulator must be accomplished to assure that the total simulator system meets the prescribed standards. A manual test procedure with explicit and detailed steps for completion of each test must also be provided.

The tests and tolerances contained in this Appendix shall be included in the sponsor's QTG. LevelsB, C and D simulators must be compared to flight test data except as otherwise specified. For rotorcraft certified prior to June 1980, the sponsor may, after reasonable attempts to obtain suitable flight test data have failed, indicate in the QTG where flight test data is unavailable or unsuitable for a specific test. For such a test, alternative data shall be submitted to the MSP for approval. Submissions for approval of data other than flight test shall include an explanation of validity with respect to available flight test information.

The Table of Validation Tests of this Appendix generally indicates the test results required. Unless otherwise specified, simulator tests shall represent rotorcraft performance and handling qualities at normal operating weights and centres of gravity (CG). If a test is supported by rotorcraft data at one extreme weight or CG, another test supported by rotorcraft data at mid-conditions or as close as possible to the other extreme shall be included. Where multiple gross weights and/or CG are specified, these data shall be presented for conditions as close as possible to the operational extremes of the flight envelope. Certain tests which are relevant only at one extreme CG or weight condition need not be repeated at the other extreme. Tests of handling qualities must include validation of stability and control augmentation devices.

Simulators for augmented rotorcraft will be validated both in the non-augmented configuration (or failure state with the maximum permitted degradation in handling qualities) and the augmented configuration. Where various levels of handling qualities result from failure states, validation of the effect of the failure is necessary. For those performance and static handling qualities tests where the primary concern, in the non-augmented configuration, is control position, non-augmented data are not required if the design of the system precludes any effect on control position. In those instances where the non-augmented rotorcraft response is divergent and non-repeatable, it may not be feasible to meet the specified tolerances. Alternative requirements for testing will be mutually agreed to between the operator and the MSP on a case-by-case basis.

In the case of rotorcraft simulators approved in accordance with criteria in effect prior to the issue of this manual revision, the tolerances of this Appendix may be used in subsequent recurrent evaluation for any given test provided the operator has submitted a proposed QTG revision to the MSP and has received approval.

These validation tests are meant to be identical to the latest FAA requirements. In this case, they reflect FAA Advisory Circular120-63.

2. Test Requirements

The ground and flight tests which shall be evaluated, as appropriate to the type of rotorcraft, are listed under Validation Tests in this Appendix. Computer generated simulator test results shall be provided for each test. The results shall be produced on a multi-channel recorder, line printer or other appropriate recording device acceptable to the MSP. Time histories are required unless otherwise indicated in the Table of Validation Tests.

Flight test data which exhibits rapid variations of the measured parameters may require engineering judgement when making assessments of simulator validity. Such judgement must not be limited to a single parameter. All relevant parameters related to a given manoeuvre or flight condition must be provided to allow overall interpretation. When it is difficult or impossible to match simulator to rotorcraft data throughout a time history, differences must be justified by providing a comparison of other related variables for the condition being assessed.

Parameters, Tolerances and Flight Conditions

The Validation Tests section of this Appendix describes the parameters, tolerances and flight conditions for simulator validation. These tolerances are intended to account for the inexact modelling and reference data. When two tolerance values are given for a parameter, the percentage tolerance applies to the recorded value of that parameter. The less restrictive of the two tolerance values may be used unless otherwise indicated. In those cases where a tolerance is expressed only as a percentage, the tolerance applies to the maximum value of that parameter within its normal operating range as measured from the neutral or zero position unless otherwise indicated.

If a flight condition or operating condition is shown which does not apply to the qualification level sought, then it should be disregarded. Simulator results must be labelled using the tolerances and units given.

Flight Conditions Verification

When comparing the parameters listed to those of the rotorcraft, sufficient data must also be provided to verify the correct flight conditions. For example, to show that control force is within ±0.5lb (0.223 daN) in a static stability test, data to show the correct airspeed, power, thrust or torque, rotorcraft configuration, altitude and other appropriate datum identification parameters shall also be given. If comparing short period dynamics, normal acceleration may be used to establish a match to the rotorcraft, but airspeed, altitude, control input, rotorcraft configuration and other appropriate data shall also be given. All airspeed values shall be clearly annotated as to indicated, calibrated, etc., and like values must be used for comparison.

Alternate Method for Dynamic Handling Qualities Tests

TC is open to alternative means for dealing with dynamic handling qualities tests. One method that has been suggested is frequency response testing. Such alternatives must be justified and appropriate to the application. Each case must be considered on its own merit on an ad hoc basis. Should TC find that alternative methods do not result in satisfactory simulator performance, more conventionally accepted methods must be used.

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