Appendix 3-B - Rotorcraft Simulator Validation Tests

3. Table of Validation Tests

Test Tolerance Flt Condition Requirement Comments
      A B C D  
1. PERFORMANCE
A. Engine Assessment
1. Start Operations
(a) Engine Start and Acceleration (transient) Light Off Time - ±10% or ±1 sec
Torque - ±5%
Rotor Speed - ±3%
Fuel Flow - ±10%
Gas Generator Speed - ±5%
Power Turbine Speed - ±5%
Turbine Gas Temp. - ±30°C
Ground Rotor Brake Used/Not Used   x x x Time histories of each engine from initiation of start sequence to steady state idle and from steady state idle to operating RPM.
(b) Steady State Idle and Operating RPM Conditions Torque - ±3%
Rotor Speed - ±1.5%
Fuel Flow - ±5%
Gas Generator Speed - ±2%
Power Turbine Speed - ±2%
Turbine Gas Temp. - ±20°C
Ground   x x x Present data for both steady state idle and operating RPM conditions. May be a snapshot test.
2. Power Turbine Speed Trim ±10% of total change of power turbine speed Ground   x x x Time history of engine response to trim system actuation (both directions).
3. Engine and Rotor Speed Governing Torque - ±5%
Rotor Speed - ±1.5%
Climb/Descent   x x x Collective step inputs. Can be conducted concurrently with climb and descent performance tests.
B. Ground Operations
1. Minimum Radius Turn ±3 feet (0.9 m) or 20% of Rotorcraft Turn Radius Ground   x x x If differential braking is used, brake force must be set at the rotorcraft flight test value.
2. Rate of Turn Versus Pedal Deflection or Nosewheel Angle ±10% or ±2°/sec. Turn Rate Ground   x x x  
3. Taxi Pitch Attitude - ±1.5°
Torque - ±3%
Longitudinal Control Position - ±5%
Lateral Control Position - ±5%
Directional Control Position - ±5%
Collective Control Position - ±5%
Ground   x x x Control position and pitch attitude during ground taxi for a specific ground speed, wind speed and direction, and density altitude.
4. Brake Effectiveness ±10% of time and distance Ground   x x x  
C. Take-off
1. All Engines Airspeed - ±3 kt
Altitude - ±20feet (6.1 m)
Torque - ±3%
Rotor Speed - ±1.5%
Vertical Velocity - ±100fpm (0.50 m/sec) or 10%
Pitch Attitude - ±1.5°
Bank Attitude - ±2°
Heading ±2°
Longitudinal Control Position - ±10%
Lateral Control Position - ±10%
Directional Control Position - ±10%
Collective Control Position - ±10%
Ground/Take-off and Initial Segment of Climb   x x x Time history of take-off flight path as appropriate to rotorcraft model simulated (running take-off for LevelB, take-off from a hover for LevelsC and D). For LevelB, criteria apply only to those segments at airspeeds above effective translational lift. Record data to at least 200feet (61 m) AGL.
2. One Engine Inoperative See1.C.1. above for tolerances and flight conditions     x x x Time history of take-off flight path as appropriate to rotorcraft model simulated. Record data to at least 200feet (61 m) AGL.
D. Hover Performance Torque - ±3%
Pitch Attitude - ±1.5°
Bank Attitude - ±1.5°
Longitudinal Control Position - ±5%
Lateral Control Position - ±5%
Directional Control Position - ±5%
Collective Control Position - ±5%
In Ground Effect (IGE) Out of Ground Effect (OGE)     x x Light/heavy/gross weights. May be a snapshot test.
E. Vertical Climb Performance Vertical Velocity - ±100fpm (0.50 m/sec) or 10%
Directional Control Position - ±5%
Collective Control Position - ±5%
From OGE Hover     x x Light/heavy/gross weights. May be a snapshot test.
F. Level Flight Performance and Trimmed Flight Control Positions Torque - ±3%
Pitch Attitude - ±1.5°
Sideslip Angle - ±2°
Longitudinal Control Position - ±5%
Lateral Control Position - ±5%
Directional Control Position - ±5%
Collective Control Position - ±5%
Cruise Augmentation On/Off   x x x Two gross weight/CG combinations. Vary trim speeds throughout airspeed envelope. May be a snapshot test.
G. Climb Performance and Trimmed Flight Control Positions Vertical Velocity - ±100fpm (0.50 m/sec) or 10%
Pitch Attitude - ±1.5°
Sideslip Angle - ±2°
Longitudinal Control Position - ±5%
Lateral Control Position - ±5%
Directional Control Position - ±5%
Collective Control Position - ±5%
All engines operating

One engine inoperative

Augmentation On/off

  x x x Two gross weight/CG combinations.

Data presented at normal climb power conditions.

May be a snapshot test.

H. Descent       x x x  
1. Descent Performance and Trimmed Flight Control Positions Torque - ±3%
Pitch Attitude - ±1.5%
Sideslip Angle - ±2%
Longitudinal Control Position - ±5%
Lateral Control Position - ±5%
Directional Control Position - ±5%
Collective Control Position - ±5%
At or near 1,000fpm Rate of Descent (RoD) at normal approach speed

Augmentation On/Off

        Two gross weight/CG combinations.

May be a snapshot test.

2. Autorotation Performance and Trimmed Flight Control Positions Vertical Velocity - ±100fpm (0.50 m/sec) or 10%
Rotor Speed - ±1.5%
Pitch Attitude - ±1.5°
Sideslip Angle - ±2°
Longitudinal Control Position ±5%
Lateral ControlPosition ±5%
Directional Control Position ±5%
Steady descents

Augmentation On/Off

  x x x Two gross weights.

At normal operating RPM. Rotor speed tolerance only applies if collective control position is full down.

Speed sweep from approximately 50Knots to at least maximum glide distance airspeed. May be a snapshot test.

I. Autorotational Entry Rotor speed Rotor speed ±3%
Pitch Attitude ±2°
Roll Attitude ±3°
Yaw Attitude ±5°
Airspeed - ±5kt
Vertical Velocity - ±200fpm (1.00 m/sec) or 10%
Cruise or Climb     x x Time history of vehicle response to a rapid throttle reduction to idle. If cruise, data should be presented for the maximum range airspeed. If climb, data should be presented for the maximum rate of climb airspeed at or near maximum continuous power.
J. Landing       x x x  
1. All Engines Airspeed - ±3 kt
Altitude - ±20feet (6.1 m)
Torque - ±3%
Rotor Speed - ±1.5%
Pitch Attitude - ±1.5°
Bank Attitude - ±1.5°
Heading - ±2°
Longitudinal Control Position - ±10%
Lateral Control Position - ±10%
Directional Control Position - ±10%
Collective Control Position - ±10%
Approach/Landing         Time history of approach and landing profile as appropriate to rotorcraft model simulated (running landing for LevelB, approach to a hover for LevelsC and D). For LevelB, criteria apply only to those segments at airspeeds above effective translational lift.
2. One Engine Inoperative See 1.J.1. above for tolerances and flight conditions     x x x Include data for both CategoryA and CategoryB approaches and landings as appropriate to rotorcraft model simulated. For LevelB, criteria apply only to those segments at airspeeds above effective translational lift.
3. Balked Landing See 1.J.1. above for tolerances Approach   x x x From a stabilized approach at the landing decision point (LDP).
4. Autorotational Landing Torque - ±3%
Rotor Speed - ±3%
Vertical Velocity - ±100fpm (0.50 m/sec) or 10%
Pitch Attitude - ±2°
Bank Attitude - ±2°
Heading - ±5°
Longitudinal Control Position - ±10%
Lateral ControlPosition - ±10%
Directional Control Position - ±10%
Collective Control Position - ±10%
Approach/Landing     x x Time history of autorotational deceleration and landing from a stabilized autorotational descent.
2. HANDLING QUALITIES
A. Control System Mechanical Characteristics
1. Cyclic** Breakout ±2.5lb (0.1 12 daN) or 25% Force
±0.5lb (0.224daN) or 10%
Ground/Static Trim On/Off
Friction Off
Augmentation On/Off
  x x x Uninterrupted control sweeps. Does not apply to aircraft hardware modular controllers.
2. Collective/Pedals** Breakout ±0.5lb (0.224daN) or 10% Force ±1.0lb (0.448daN) or 10% Ground/Static Trim On/Off
Friction Off
Augmentation On/Off
  x x x Uninterrupted control sweeps.
3. Brake Pedal Force vs. Position ± 5lb (2.224daN) or 10% Ground/Static   x x x Simulator computer output results may be used to show compliance.
4. Trim System Rate (all applicable axes) Rate - ±10% Ground/Static Trim On
Friction Off
  x x x Tolerance applies to recorded value of trim rate.
5. Control Dynamics (all axes) ±10% of time for first zero crossing and ±10 (N+1)% of period thereafter
±10% amplitude of first overshoot
±20% of amplitude of 2nd and subsequent overshoots greater than 5% of initial displacement
±1 overshoot
Hover/Cruise Trim On
Friction Off
Augmentation On/Off
    x x Control dynamics for irreversible control systems may be evaluated in a ground/static condition. Data should be for a normal control displacement in both directions in each axis (approximately 25% to 50% of full throw). N is the sequential period of a full cycle of oscillation. Refer to section 4 of this Appendix.
6. Free-play ±0.10 in Ground/Static
Friction Off
  x x x Applies to all controls.
B. Low Airspeed Handling Qualities
1. Trimmed Flight Control Positions Torque - ±3%
Pitch Attitude - ±1.5°
Bank Attitude - ±2°
Longitudinal Control Position - ±5%
Lateral Control Position - ±5%
Directional Control Position - ±5%
Collective Control Position - ±5%
Translational Flight IGE
Sideward/Rearward/Forward
Augmentation On/Off
    x x Several airspeed increments to translational airspeed limits and 45kt forward. May be a snapshot test.
2. Critical Azimuth Torque - ±3%
Pitch Attitude - ±1.5°
Bank Attitude - ±2°
Longitudinal Control Position - ±5%
Lateral Control Position - ±5%
Directional Control Position - ±5%
Collective Control Position - ±5%
Stationary Hover
Augmentation On/Off
    x x May be a snapshot test. Present data for three relative wind directions (including the most critical case) in the critical quadrant.
** Cyclic, collective and pedal position vs. force shall be measured at the control. An alternate method acceptable to the NSPM in lieu of the test fixture at the controls would be to instrument the simulator in an equivalent manner to the flight test rotorcraft. The force and position data from this instrumentation can be directly recorded and matched to the rotorcraft data. Such a permanent installation could be used without requiring any time for installation of external devices.

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