Appendix 3-C - Functions and Subjective Tests

1. Discussion

Functional and subjective tests of simulator characteristics and systems operation will be evaluated at each flight crew member position. As appropriate, these shall include the cockpit check, system operation, normal, abnormal and emergency procedures using the operator's operating procedures and check lists. This assessment is to include operations under the full range of environmental conditions (winds, density altitude, etc.) in which the rotorcraft would normally be expected to perform.

Initial evaluation shall include functional checks from this Appendix as appropriate. If required, TC may elect to focus on simulator operation during a special aspect of an operator's training program during the functional check portion of a recurrent evaluation. Such a functional evaluation may include a portion of a LOFT scenario or special emphasis items within the operator's training program. Unless directly related to a requirement for the current certification level, the results of such an evaluation would not affect the simulator's current status.

Operational principal navigation systems, including but not limited to, Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS), Flight Management Systems (FMS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and Initial Navigation Systems (INS) will be evaluated if installed.

The ground and flight manoeuvres which shall be evaluated, as appropriate to the level of the simulator and the visual and special effects evaluations, are in the following table.

All systems functions will be assessed for normal and, where appropriate, alternate operations. Normal, abnormal and emergency procedures associated with a flight phase will be assessed during the evaluation of manoeuvres or events within that flight phase. Systems are listed separately under "any flight phase" to assure appropriate attention to system checks.

2. Table of Functions and Subjective Tests

  Simulator Level
  A B C D
1. Pre-flight. Accomplish a functions check of all switches, indicators, systems, and equipment at all cockpit crew members' and instructors' stations and determine that the cockpit design and functions are identical to that of the rotorcraft simulated.   x x x
1. APU/Engine start and run up
  1. Normal start procedures
  2. Alternate start procedures
  3. Abnormal starts and shutdowns (hot start, hung start, etc.)
  4. Rotor engagement
  5. Systems checks
  6. Other
  x x x
2. Ground Taxi.
  1. Power required to taxi
  2. Brake effectiveness
  3. Ground handling
  4. Abnormal/emergency procedures, e.g.
    • Brake system failure
    • Ground resonance
    • Other
  x x x
3. Hover
  1. Takeoff to a hover
  2. Instrument response
    • Engine instruments
    • Flight instruments
  3. Hovering turns
  4. Hover power checks
    • In ground effect (IGE)
    • Out of ground effect (OGE)
  5. Crosswind/tailwind hover
  6. Abnormal/emergency procedures, e.g.
    • Engine failure
    • Hovering autorotation
    • Fuel governing system failure
    • Settling with power (OGE)
    • Stability system failure
    • Directional control malfunction
    • Other
  7. Translating tendency
  8. External load operations
    • Hook up
    • Release
  9. Winch operations
    x x
4. Translational Flight
  1. Forward
  2. Sideward
  3. Rearward
    x x
1. Normal        
(a) From ground     x x
(b) From hover
  • CAT A
  • CAT B
    x x
(c) Running   x x x
(d) Crosswind/tailwind   x x x
(e) Maximum performance     x x
(f) Instrument     x x
(g) Confined area     x x
(h) Pinnacle/platform     x x
(i) Slope     x x
(j) External load operations     x x
2. Abnormal/emergency procedures, e.g.        
(a) Takeoff with engine failure before and after critical decision point (CDP)
  • CAT A
  • CAT B
  x x x
(b) Rejected takeoff
  • Land
  • Water (if float equipped)
  x x x
(c) Other   x x x
1. Climb        
(a) Normal   x x x
(b) Obstacle clearance   x x x
(c) Vertical     x x
(d) One engine inoperative   x x x
(e) Other   x x x
2. Cruise        
(a) Performance   x x x
(b) Flying qualities   x x x
(c) Turns
  • Timed
  • Normal
  • Steep
  x x x
(d) Accelerations and decelerations   x x x
(e) High airspeed vibrations   x x x
(f) External load operations     x x
(g) Abnormal/emergency procedures, e.g.
  • Engine fire
  • Engine failure
  • Inflight engine shutdown and restart
  • Fuel governing system failures
  • Directional control malfunction
  • Hydraulic failure
  • Stability system failure
  • Rotor vibrations
  • Other
  x x x
3. Descent
  1. Normal
  2. Maximum rate
  3. Autorotative
    • Straight in
    • With turn
  4. Other
  x x x
1. Non-precision
  1. All engines operating
  2. One or more engines inoperative
  3. Approach procedures, e.g.
    • NDB
    • ASR
    • Circling** (if requested by operator)
    • Rotorcraft only
    • Other
  4. Missed approach
    • All engines operating
    • One or more engines inoperative

** Simulators with visual systems which permit completing a circling approach without violating FAR § 91.175(e) may be approved for that particular circling approach procedure.

  x x x
2. Precision
  1. All engines operating
  2. One or more engines inoperative
  3. Approach procedures, e.g.
    • PAR
    • MLS
    • ILS
      • Manual (raw data)
      • Flight director only
      • Auto pilot coupled
      • CAT I
      • CAT II
    • Other
  4. Missed approach
    • All engines operating
    • One or more engines inoperative
  x x x
3. Visual        
(a) Normal   x x x
(b) Steep   x x x
(c) Shallow   x x x
(d) CAT A profile   x x x
(e) CAT B profile   x x x
(f) External load     x x
(g) Visual segment from precision approach   x x x
(h) Visual segment from circling approach   x x x
(i) Abnormal/emergency procedures, e.g.
  • Directional control failure
  • Hydraulics failure
  • Fuel governing failure
  • Autorotation
  • Stability system failure
  • Other
  x x x
1. Normal        
(a) From a hover     x x
(b) Running   x x x
(c) Pinnacle/platform     x x
(d) Confined area     x x
(e) Slope     x x
(f) Crosswind/tailwind   x x x
2. Abnormal/emergency procedures, e.g.        
(a) From autorotation     x x
(b) One engine inoperative   x x x
(c) Directional control failure     x x
(d) Hydraulics failure   x x x
(e) Stability system failure   x x x
(f) Other   x x x
1. Rotorcraft and powerplant systems operation
  1. Air conditioning
  2. Anti-icing/de-icing
  3. Auxiliary powerplant
  4. Communications
  5. Electrical
  6. Fire detection and suppression
  7. Stabilizer
  8. Flight controls
  9. Fuel and oil
  10. Hydraulic
  11. Landing gear
  12. Oxygen
  13. Pneumatic
  14. Powerplant
  15. Flight control computers
  16. Stability and control augmentation
  17. Other
  x x x
2. Flight management and guidance system
  1. Airborne radar
  2. Automatic landing aids
  3. Autopilot
  4. Collision avoidance system
  5. Flight data displays
  6. Flight management computers
  7. Head-up displays
  8. Navigation systems
  9. Other
  x x x
3. Airborne procedures
  1. Holding
  2. Air hazard avoidance
  3. Retreating blade stall recovery
  x x x
4. Engine Shutdown and Parking
  1. Engine and systems operation
  2. Parking brake operation
  3. Rotor brake operation
  4. Abnormal/emergency procedures
  x x x
1. Accurate portrayal of environment relating to simulator attitudes and position   x x x
2. The distances at which airport/heliport features are visible should not be less than those listed below. Distances are measured from runway threshold to a rotorcraft aligned with the runway on an extended 3° glide slope.
  1. Runway definition, strobe lights, approach lights, runway edge white lights and VASI/PAPI lights from 5statute miles (8Kilometers) of the runway threshold
  2. Runway centreline lights, helipad perimeter lights, and taxiway definition from 3 statute miles (4.8kilometers)
  3. Threshold lights and touchdown zone lights from 2 statute miles (3.2 kilometers)
  4. Runway and helipad markings within range of landing lights for night scenes; as required by 3 arc-minute resolution on day scenes
  x x x
3. Representative airport/heliport scene content including the following:
  1. Airport runways, helipads, and taxiways
  2. Runway/helipad definition
    • Runway/helipad surface
    • Lighting for the runway in use, including runway edge and centreline lighting, touchdown zone, VASI, and approach lighting of appropriate colours
    • Helipad perimeter and taxiway lights
  x x x
4. Operational landing lights   x x x
5. Instructor controls of the following:
  1. Cloud base-cloud tops
  2. Visibility in statute miles (km) and RVR in feet (meters)
  3. Airport/heliport selection
  4. Airport/heliport lighting
  x x x
6. Visual system compatibility with vehicle mathematical model   x x x
7. Visual cues to assess sink rate, translational rates, and height AGL during landings   x x x
8. Dusk and night visual scene capability
  1. Surface on runways/helipads, taxiways, and ramps
  2. Terrain features
    x x
9. Minimum of three specific airport/heliport scenes
  1. Surfaces and markings on runways, helipads, taxiways, and ramps
  2. Lighting of appropriate colour for all landing areas including runway edge, centreline, VASI/PAPI, and approach lighting for the runway in use
  3. Helipad perimeter and taxiway lighting
  4. Ramps and terminal buildings and vertical objects which correspond to an operator's LOFT and Line Oriented Simulator scenarios (LOS).
    x x
10. General terrain characteristics and significant landmarks     x x
11. At and below an altitude of 2,000ft. (610 m) height above the airport/heliport and within a radius of 10 miles (16.1 kilometers) from the airport/heliport, weather representations, including the following:
  1. Variable cloud density
  2. Partial obscuration of ground scenes; the effect of a scattered to broken cloud deck
  3. Gradual break out
  4. Patchy fog
  5. The effect of fog on airport/heliport lighting
    x x
12. A capacity to present ground and air hazards such as another aircraft crossing the active runway and converging airborne traffic     x x
13. Operational visual scenes which provide a cue rich environment sufficient for precise low airspeed/low altitude manoeuvring and landing     x x
14. Operational visual scenes which portray representative physical relationships known to cause landing illusions such as short runways, landing approaches over water, uphill or downhill landing areas, rising terrain on the approach path, and unique topographic features       x
15. Special weather representations of light, medium, and heavy precipitation near a thunderstorm on takeoff, approach, and landing at and below an altitude of 2,000feet (610 m) above the airport/heliport surface and within a radius of 10 miles (16.1 kilometers) from the airport/heliport       x
16. Wet and snow-covered landing areas including runway/helipad lighting reflections for wet, partially obscured lights for snow, or suitable alternative effects       x
17. Realistic colour and directionality of airport/heliport lighting       x
18. Weather radar presentations in rotorcraft where radar information is presented on the pilot's navigation instruments. Radar returns should correlate to the visual scene       x
19. Dynamic visual representation of rotor disk tip path plane       x
20. Freedom from apparent quantization (aliasing)       x
1. Buffet rumble, oleo deflections, effects of ground-speed and uneven surface characteristics   x x x
2. Buffet due to transverse flow effect   x x x
3. Buffet during extension and retraction of landing gear   x x x
4. Buffet due to retreating blade stall   x x x
5. Buffet due to settling with power   x x x
6. Representative touchdown cues for landing gear   x x x
7. Rotor vibrations   x x x
8. Representative brake and tire failure dynamics and decreased brake efficiency due to high brake temperatures based on rotorcraft related data. These representations must be realistic enough to cause pilot identification of the problem and implementation of appropriate procedures. Simulator pitch, side loading, and directional control characteristics should be representative of the rotorcraft.     x x
9. Sound of precipitation and significant rotorcraft noises perceptible to the pilot during normal operations and the sound of a crash when the simulator is landed in excess of landing gear limitations Significant rotorcraft noises should include engine, rotor, transmission, landing gear, and other airframe sounds to a comparable level as that found in a rotorcraft. The sound of a crash should be related in some logical manner to landing in an unusual attitude or in excess of the structural gear limitations of the rotorcraft.     x x
10. Effects of airframe icing (if applicable)     x x
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