Appendix 3-C - Functions and Subjective Tests
Functional and subjective tests of simulator characteristics and systems operation will be evaluated at each flight crew member position. As appropriate, these shall include the cockpit check, system operation, normal, abnormal and emergency procedures using the operator's operating procedures and check lists. This assessment is to include operations under the full range of environmental conditions (winds, density altitude, etc.) in which the rotorcraft would normally be expected to perform.
Initial evaluation shall include functional checks from this Appendix as appropriate. If required, TC may elect to focus on simulator operation during a special aspect of an operator's training program during the functional check portion of a recurrent evaluation. Such a functional evaluation may include a portion of a LOFT scenario or special emphasis items within the operator's training program. Unless directly related to a requirement for the current certification level, the results of such an evaluation would not affect the simulator's current status.
Operational principal navigation systems, including but not limited to, Electronic Flight Instrument Systems (EFIS), Flight Management Systems (FMS), Global Positioning System (GPS) and Initial Navigation Systems (INS) will be evaluated if installed.
The ground and flight manoeuvres which shall be evaluated, as appropriate to the level of the simulator and the visual and special effects evaluations, are in the following table.
All systems functions will be assessed for normal and, where appropriate, alternate operations. Normal, abnormal and emergency procedures associated with a flight phase will be assessed during the evaluation of manoeuvres or events within that flight phase. Systems are listed separately under "any flight phase" to assure appropriate attention to system checks.
2. Table of Functions and Subjective Tests
|1. FUNCTIONS AND MANOEUVRES|
|A. PREPARATION FOR FLIGHT|
|1. Pre-flight. Accomplish a functions check of all switches, indicators, systems, and equipment at all cockpit crew members' and instructors' stations and determine that the cockpit design and functions are identical to that of the rotorcraft simulated.||x||x||x|
1. APU/Engine start and run up
2. Ground Taxi.
4. Translational Flight
|(a) From ground||x||x|
(b) From hover
|(e) Maximum performance||x||x|
|(g) Confined area||x||x|
|(j) External load operations||x||x|
|2. Abnormal/emergency procedures, e.g.|
(a) Takeoff with engine failure before and after critical decision point (CDP)
(b) Rejected takeoff
|D. INFLIGHT OPERATION|
|(b) Obstacle clearance||x||x||x|
|(d) One engine inoperative||x||x||x|
|(b) Flying qualities||x||x||x|
|(d) Accelerations and decelerations||x||x||x|
|(e) High airspeed vibrations||x||x||x|
|(f) External load operations||x||x|
(g) Abnormal/emergency procedures, e.g.
** Simulators with visual systems which permit completing a circling approach without violating FAR § 91.175(e) may be approved for that particular circling approach procedure.
|(d) CAT A profile||x||x||x|
|(e) CAT B profile||x||x||x|
|(f) External load||x||x|
|(g) Visual segment from precision approach||x||x||x|
|(h) Visual segment from circling approach||x||x||x|
(i) Abnormal/emergency procedures, e.g.
|(a) From a hover||x||x|
|(d) Confined area||x||x|
|2. Abnormal/emergency procedures, e.g.|
|(a) From autorotation||x||x|
|(b) One engine inoperative||x||x||x|
|(c) Directional control failure||x||x|
|(d) Hydraulics failure||x||x||x|
|(e) Stability system failure||x||x||x|
|G. ANY FLIGHT PHASE|
1. Rotorcraft and powerplant systems operation
2. Flight management and guidance system
3. Airborne procedures
4. Engine Shutdown and Parking
|2. VISUAL SYSTEM|
|1. Accurate portrayal of environment relating to simulator attitudes and position||x||x||x|
2. The distances at which airport/heliport features are visible should not be less than those listed below. Distances are measured from runway threshold to a rotorcraft aligned with the runway on an extended 3° glide slope.
3. Representative airport/heliport scene content including the following:
|4. Operational landing lights||x||x||x|
5. Instructor controls of the following:
|6. Visual system compatibility with vehicle mathematical model||x||x||x|
|7. Visual cues to assess sink rate, translational rates, and height AGL during landings||x||x||x|
8. Dusk and night visual scene capability
9. Minimum of three specific airport/heliport scenes
|10. General terrain characteristics and significant landmarks||x||x|
11. At and below an altitude of 2,000ft. (610 m) height above the airport/heliport and within a radius of 10 miles (16.1 kilometers) from the airport/heliport, weather representations, including the following:
|12. A capacity to present ground and air hazards such as another aircraft crossing the active runway and converging airborne traffic||x||x|
|13. Operational visual scenes which provide a cue rich environment sufficient for precise low airspeed/low altitude manoeuvring and landing||x||x|
|14. Operational visual scenes which portray representative physical relationships known to cause landing illusions such as short runways, landing approaches over water, uphill or downhill landing areas, rising terrain on the approach path, and unique topographic features||x|
|15. Special weather representations of light, medium, and heavy precipitation near a thunderstorm on takeoff, approach, and landing at and below an altitude of 2,000feet (610 m) above the airport/heliport surface and within a radius of 10 miles (16.1 kilometers) from the airport/heliport||x|
|16. Wet and snow-covered landing areas including runway/helipad lighting reflections for wet, partially obscured lights for snow, or suitable alternative effects||x|
|17. Realistic colour and directionality of airport/heliport lighting||x|
|18. Weather radar presentations in rotorcraft where radar information is presented on the pilot's navigation instruments. Radar returns should correlate to the visual scene||x|
|19. Dynamic visual representation of rotor disk tip path plane||x|
|20. Freedom from apparent quantization (aliasing)||x|
|3. SPECIAL EFFECTS|
|1. Buffet rumble, oleo deflections, effects of ground-speed and uneven surface characteristics||x||x||x|
|2. Buffet due to transverse flow effect||x||x||x|
|3. Buffet during extension and retraction of landing gear||x||x||x|
|4. Buffet due to retreating blade stall||x||x||x|
|5. Buffet due to settling with power||x||x||x|
|6. Representative touchdown cues for landing gear||x||x||x|
|7. Rotor vibrations||x||x||x|
|8. Representative brake and tire failure dynamics and decreased brake efficiency due to high brake temperatures based on rotorcraft related data. These representations must be realistic enough to cause pilot identification of the problem and implementation of appropriate procedures. Simulator pitch, side loading, and directional control characteristics should be representative of the rotorcraft.||x||x|
|9. Sound of precipitation and significant rotorcraft noises perceptible to the pilot during normal operations and the sound of a crash when the simulator is landed in excess of landing gear limitations Significant rotorcraft noises should include engine, rotor, transmission, landing gear, and other airframe sounds to a comparable level as that found in a rotorcraft. The sound of a crash should be related in some logical manner to landing in an unusual attitude or in excess of the structural gear limitations of the rotorcraft.||x||x|
|10. Effects of airframe icing (if applicable)||x||x|
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