Appendix 4-A - Flight Training Device Standards

1. Discussion

This Appendix describes the minimum flight training device requirements for qualification at Levels1 through 7. Appropriate Canadian Aviation Regulations must be consulted when considering particular training device requirements. The validation and functional tests listed in Appendices4-B and 4-C must also be consulted when determining the requirements of a specific level training device. In the following tabular listing of flight training device standards, needed statements of explanation are indicated in the comments column.

These standards are written to apply to aeroplanes. For rotorcraft FTDs, these standards will be amended on a case by case basis as appropriate to a rotorcraft device.

2. Flight Training Device General

  1 2 3 4 5 6 7  

a. A cockpit which will have actuation of controls and switches which replicate those in the aeroplane.

    x*     x x * Level3 must be representative of a single set of aeroplanes and must have navigation controls, displays and instrumentation as set out in the CARs for IFR operations.

b. Instruments, equipment, panels, systems and controls sufficient for the training/checking events to be accomplished must be located in a spatially correct open flight deck area. Actuation of these controls and switches must replicate those in the aeroplane.

  x*   x x     * Level2 must be representative of a single set of aeroplanes. Levels2 and 5 require simulated aerodynamic capability and control forces and travel sufficient to manually fly an instrument approach.

c. Daily pre-flight documentation.

  x x x x x x  

d. Lighting environment for panels and instruments must be sufficient for the operation being conducted.

  x x x x x x* * Lighting must be as per aeroplane lighting for Level7.

e. Circuit breakers should function accurately when they are involved in operating procedures or malfunctions requiring or involving flight crew response.

  x x x x x* x* * Must be properly located in Levels6 and 7.

f. Effect of aerodynamic changes for various combinations of drag and thrust normally encountered in flight, including the effect of change in aeroplane attitude, thrust, drag, altitude, temperature and configuration.

  x x*   x x* x* * Levels3, 6 and 7 require, additionally, the effects of gross weight and centre of gravity.

g. Digital or analogue computing of sufficient capacity to conduct complete operation of the device including its evaluation and testing.

  x x   x x x  

h. All relevant instrument indications involved in the simulation of the applicable aeroplane entirely automatic in response to control input.

  x x   x x x  

i. Navigation equipment corresponding to that installed in the replicated aeroplane with operation within the tolerances prescribed for the actual airborne equipment.

  x x*   x x* x* * Levels3, 6 and 7 must also include communication equipment (interphone and air/ground) corresponding to that installed in the replicated aeroplane and, if appropriate to the operation being conducted, an oxygen mask microphone/communication system. Levels2 and 5 need have operational only that navigation equipment sufficient to fly a non precision instrument approach.

j. Crew member seats must afford the capability for the occupant to be able to achieve the design eye reference position for specific aeroplanes, or to approximate such a position for a generic set of aeroplanes.

    x   x x x Level7 crew member seats must accurately simulate those installed in the aeroplane.

k. In addition to the flight crew member stations, suitable seating arrangements for an instructor/check airperson and TC inspector. These seats must provide an adequate view of crew member's panel(s).

  x x x x x x These seats need not be a replica of an aeroplane seat and can be as simple as an office chair placed in an appropriate position.

l. Installed system(s) must simulate the applicable aeroplane system operation, both on the ground and in flight. At least one aeroplane system must be represented. System(s) must be operative to the extent that applicable normal, abnormal and emergency operating procedures included in the operator's training program can be accomplished.

  x* x* x x* x* x* * Levels6 and 7 must simulate all applicable aeroplane flight, navigation and systems operation.

* Level3 must have flight and navigational controls, displays and instrumentation for powered aircraft as set out in the CARs for IFR operation.

* Levels2 and 5 must have functional flight and navigational controls, displays and instrumentation.

m. Instructor controls that permit activation of normal, abnormal and emergency conditions, as may be appropriate. Once activated, proper system operation must result from system management by the crew and not require input from the instructor controls.

  x x x x x x  

n. Control forces and control travel which correspond to that of the replicated aeroplane or set of aeroplanes. Control forces should react in the same manner as in the aeroplane or set of aeroplanes under the same flight conditions.

  x x*   x* x x * Levels2 and 5 need control forces and control travel only of sufficient precision to manually fly an instrument approach.

o. Significant cockpit sounds which result from pilot actions corresponding to those of the aeroplane.

    x     x x  

p. Sound of precipitation, windshield wipers and other significant aeroplane noises perceptible to the pilot during normal, abnormal or emergency operations, as may be appropriate.

            x Statement of Compliance.

q. Aerodynamic modelling which, for aeroplanes issued an original type certificate after June 1980, icing, normal dynamic thrust effect on control surfaces, aeroelastic representations and representations of non linearities due to sideslip based on aeroplane flight test data provided by the manufacturer.

            x Statement of Compliance.

Tests required.

See Appendix4-B for further information. The SOC must address ground effect, Mach effect, aeroelastic representations and non linearities due to sideslip. Separate tests for thrust effects and demonstration of icing effects are required.

r. Control feel dynamics which replicate the aeroplane simulated. Free response of the controls shall match that of the aeroplane within the tolerance given in Appendix4-B. Initial and upgrade evaluation will include control free response (column, wheel and pedal) measurements recorded at the controls. The measured responses must correspond to those of the aeroplane in take-off, cruise and landing configurations.

  1. For aeroplanes with irreversible control systems, measurements may be obtained on the ground if proper pitot static inputs are provided to represent conditions typical of those encountered in flight. Engineering validation or aeroplane manufacturer rationale will be submitted as justification to ground test or omit a configuration.
  2. For flight training devices requiring static and dynamic tests at the controls, special test fixtures will not be required during initial evaluations if the operator's QTG shows both test fixture results and alternate test method results, such as computer data plots, which were obtained concurrently. Repeat of the alternate method during the initial evaluation may then satisfy this test equipment.
              Statement of Compliance.
Tests required. See Appendix4-B, section4.

s. Aerodynamic and ground reaction modelling for the effects of reverse thrust on directional control.

            x Statement of Compliance.
Tests required.

t. Timely permanent update of flight training device hardware and programming consistent with aeroplane modifications.

  x x x x x x  

u. Visual system; if installed (not required).

  x x x x x x Visual system standards set out in this manual for at least basic simulators will be acceptable.

v. Motion system; if installed (not required).

  x x x x x x Motion system standards set out in this manual for at least basic simulators will be acceptable.
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