Appendix 4-B - Flight Training Device Validation Tests

1. Discussion

Performance must be objectively evaluated by comparing the results of tests conducted in the training device to aircraft flight test data unless specifically noted otherwise. The QTG provided by the operator must describe clearly and distinctly how the FTD will be set up and operated for each test. Use of a driver program designed to automatically accomplish the tests is encouraged for all FTDs. A manual test procedure with explicit and detailed steps for completion of each test must also be provided. The tests and tolerances contained in this Appendix must be included in the operator's QTG.

The Table of Validation Tests of this Appendix generally indicates the test results required. Unless noted otherwise, tests should represent aircraft performance and handling qualities at normal operating weights and centres of gravity(cg). If a test is supported by aircraft data at one extreme weight or cg, another test supported by aircraft data at mid conditions or as close as possible to the other extreme should be included. Certain tests which are relevant only at one extreme cg or weight condition need not be repeated at the other extreme. It should be recognized that the tests listed in the table merely sample, on a very limited basis, the FTD performance and handling qualities. The results of these tests for Levels3, 6 and 7 are expected to be indicative of the device's performance and handling qualities throughout the aircraft weight and centre of gravity envelope, the operational envelope and for varying atmospheric ambient and environmental conditions to the extremes authorized for the respective aeroplane or set of aircraft. It is not sufficient, nor is it acceptable, to program these FTDs so that the modelling is correct only at the validation test points.

Test of handling qualities must include validation of augmentation devices. FTDs for highly augmented aeroplanes will be validated both in the unaugmented configuration (or failure state with the maximum permitted degradation in handling qualities) and the augmented configuration. Where various levels of handling qualities result from failure states, validation of the effect of the failure is necessary. Requirements for testing will be mutually agreed to between the operator and the MSP in a case by case basis.

These FTD standards are designed to apply to aeroplanes. For rotorcraft FTDs, appropriate substitutions, omissions and additions to this test list will occur at the discretion of the MSP.

2. Test Requirements

The ground and flight tests required for qualification are listed in the Table of Validation Tests. Results of these tests should be available in a form which can be compared to validation reference data. For those devices listed in the following table requiring "generic" aerodynamic modelling, the TC approved data supplied by the manufacturer or the operator sponsoring the device will be used as the comparison basis for objective testing.

Flight test data which exhibit rapid variations of the measured parameters may require engineering judgement when making assessments of simulator validity. Such judgement must not be limited to a single parameter. Such judgement must not be limited to a single parameter. All relevant parameters related to a given manoeuvre or flight condition must be provided to allow overall interpretation. When it is difficult or impossible to match data throughout a time history, differences must be justified by providing a comparison of other related variables for the condition being assessed.

Parameters, Tolerances and Flight Conditions

The Validation Tests section of this Appendix describes the parameters, tolerances and flight conditions for training device validation. If a flight condition or operating condition is shown which does not apply to the qualification level sought, it should be disregarded. Results must be labelled using the tolerances and units given.

Flight Conditions Verification

When comparing the parameters listed to those of the aeroplane, sufficient data must also be provided to verify the correct flight conditions. For example, to show that control force is within ±5lbs (2.225daN) in a static stability test, data to show the correct airspeed, power, thrust or torque, aeroplane configuration, altitude and other appropriate datum identification parameters shall also be given. If comparing short period dynamics, normal acceleration may be used to establish a match to the aeroplane, but airspeed, altitude, control input, aeroplane configuration and other appropriate data shall also be given. All airspeed values shall be clearly annotated as to indicated, calibrated, etc., and like values used for comparison.

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