Appendix 4-B - Flight Training Device Validation Tests

3. Table of Validation Tests

Test Tolerance Flt Condition Qualification Requirement Comments
      1 2 3 4 5 6 7  
1. PERFORMANCE
A. Take-off
1. Ground Acceleration Time ±5% Time or ±1 Second Ground/Take-off     x     x x* * Level7 devices will require distance measurements also. Tolerances will be ±5% time and distance or ±5% time and +200feet (60 m) of distance.
2. Minimum Unstick Speed (or equivalent as provided by the aircraft manufacturer) ±3 Knots Airspeed
±1.5°Pitch
Ground/Take-off             x Vmu is defined as that speed at which the last main landing gear leaves the ground.
3. Normal Take-off ±3 Knots Airspeed
±1.5°Pitch
±1.5°Angle of Attack
±20feet (6 m) Altitude
Ground/Take-off and First Segment Climb           x x  
4. Critical Engine Failure on Take-off 3 Knots Airspeed
±1.5°Pitch or ±1.5°Angle of Attack
±20feet (6 m) Altitude
±2°Bank and Sideslip Angle
Ground/Take-off and First Segment Climb             x  
5. Crosswind Take-off 3 Knots Airspeed
±1.5° Pitch or ±1.5°Angle of Attack
±20feet (6 m) Altitude
±2°Bank and Sideslip Angle
Ground/Take-off and First Segment Climb             x  
B. Climb
1. Normal Climb All Engines Operating ±3 Knots Airspeed
±5% or ±100FPM (0.5 meters/sec) climb rate
Climb with all Engines Operating   x x   x x x May be a snapshot test.
2. One Engine Inoperative Second Segment Climb ±3 Knots Airspeed
±5% or ±100FPM (0.5 meters/sec) climb rate but not less than the TC AFM Rate of Climb
Second Segment Climb with one Engine Inoperative             x  
3. One Engine Inoperative Approach Climb for Aeroplanes with Icing Accountability per Approved AFM ±3 Knots Airspeed
±5% or ±100FPM (0.5 meters/sec) climb rate but not less than the TC AFM Rate of Climb
Approach Climb with one Engine Inoperative             x  
C. In-Flight
1. Stall Warning, Stall Speeds ±3 Knots Airspeed
±2°Bank
Second Segment Climb and Approach or Landing             x  
2. Stall Warning (actuation of stall warning device) ±3 Knots Airspeed Second Segment Climb and Approach or Landing   x x   x x    
D. Stopping
1. Stopping Time, Wheel Brakes Dry Runway ±5% Time or ±1 Second Landing     x     x x* *Level7 devices will require distance measurements also. Tolerances will be ±5% time and the smaller of ±10% of distance or 200Feet (60 m).Time (and Distance for Level7) should be recorded for at least 80% of total segment. (Initiation of Rejected Take-off to Full Stop).
2. Stopping Time, Reverse Thrust, Dry Runway ±5% Time or ±1 Second Landing     x     x x* *Level7 devices will require distance measurements also. Tolerances will be ±5% time and the smaller of ±10% of distance or 200Feet (60 m).Time (and Distance for Level7) should be recorded for at least 80% of total segment. (Initiation of Rejected Take-off to Full Stop).
3. Stopping Time and Distance, Wheel Brakes, Wet Runway Representative Stopping Time and Distance Landing             x Time and Distance should be recorded for at least 80% of total segment (Initiation of RTO to Full Stop). TC approved AFM data is acceptable.
4. Stopping Time and Distance, Wheel Brakes, Icy Runway Representative Stopping Time and Distance Landing             x Time and Distance should be recorded for at least 80% of total segment (Initiation of RTO to Full Stop). TC approved AFM data is acceptable.
E. Engines
1. Acceleration ±10% Time Approach or Landing   x* x*   x* x x *Tolerances of ±1 second authorized for Levels2, 3 and 5.

Test from flight idle to go around power.

2. Deceleration ±10% Time Ground/Take-off   x* x*   x* x x *Tolerances of ±1 second authorized for Levels2, 3 and 5.

Test from maximum take-off power to 10% of maximum take-off power (90% decay in power available above idle).

Test Tolerance Flt Condition Qualification Requirement Comments
      1 2 3 4 5 6 7  
2. HANDLING QUALITIES
A. Static Control Checks** ** Column, wheel and pedal position versus force shall be measured at the control. An alternative method acceptable to the MSP in lieu of the test fixture at the controls would be to instrument the training device in an equivalent manner to the flight test aeroplane. The force and position data from this instrumentation can be directly recorded and matched to the aeroplane data. Such a permanent installation could be used without any time for installation of external devices.
1. Column Position Versus Force and Surface Position Calibration ±2 lbs (0.89daN) Breakout
±5lbs (2.224daN) or ±10% Force
±2°Elevator
Ground           x x Uninterrupted control sweep.
Column Position Versus Force ±2 lbs (0.89daN) Breakout
±5lbs (2.224daN)
    x x   x      
2. Wheel Position Versus Force and Surface Position Calibration ±2 lbs (.89daN) Breakout
±3 lbs (1.334daN) or ±10% Force
±2°Rudder
Ground           x x Uninterrupted control sweep
Wheel Position Versus Force ±2 lbs (.89daN) Breakout ±3 lbs (1.334daN) or ±10% Force     x x   x      
3. Pedal Position Versus Force and Surface Position Calibration ± 5lbs (2.224daN) Breakout
±5lbs (2.224daN) or ±10% Force
±2°Rudder
Ground           x x Uninterrupted control sweep
Pedal Position Versus Force ±5lbs (2.224daN) Breakout
±5lbs (2.224daN) or ±10% Force
    x x   x      
4. Nosewheel Steering Force ±2 lbs (.89daN) Breakout
±3 lbs (1.33 daN) or ±10% Force
Ground     x     x x If appropriate to the aircraft or "collection" of aircraft being simulated.
5. Rudder Pedal Steering Calibration ±2° Nosewheel Angle Ground     x     x x If appropriate to the aircraft or "collection" of aircraft being simulated.
6. Pitch Trim Calibration Indicator Versus Computed ±0.5° of Computed Trim Angle Ground           x x  
7. Alignment of Power Lever (or Cross Shaft Angle) Versus Selected Engine Parameter (i.e., EPR, N1, Torque, Manifold Pressure, etc.) ±5° of Power Lever Angle or Cross Shaft Angle or Equivalent Ground           x x Computer output results may be used to show compliance with engine model data.
8. Brake Pedal Position Versus Force ±2° Pedal Position
±5lb (2.224daN) or 10%
Ground     x*     x* x *Levels3 and 6 only need data points at zero and maximum braking application.
B. Dynamic Control Checks**

** Column, wheel and medal position versus force shall be measured at the control. An alternative method acceptable to the MSP in lieu of the test fixture at the controls would be to instrument the training device in an equivalent manner to the flight test aeroplane. The force and position data from this instrumentation can be directly recorded and matched to the aeroplane data. Such a permanent installation could be used without any time for installation of external devices.

1. Pitch Control ±10% Time for Each Zero Crossing
±10% Amplitude of First Overshoot
±20% of Amplitude of second and subsequent overshoots greater than 5% of Initial Displacement.
±1 Overshoot.
Take-off, Cruise, Landing             x Data should be normal control displacement in both directions. Approximately 25% to 50% of full throw. Refer to section 4 of this Appendix.
2. Roll Control Same as 1. above. Take-off, Cruise, Landing             x  
3. Yaw Control Same as 1. above Take-off, Cruise, Landing             x  
C. Longitudinal
1. Power Change Dynamics ±3 Knots Airspeed ±100Feet (30 m) Altitude
±20% or 1.5° Pitch
Cruise or Approach             x  
Power Change Force ±5lbs or ±20% Cruise or Approach   x x   x x   Snapshots will be acceptable. Power change dynamics will be accepted.
2. Flap Change Dynamics ±3 Knots Airspeed ±100Feet (30 m) Altitude ±20% or 1.5°Pitch Take-off to Second Segment Climb, Approach to Landing             x  
Flap Change Force ±5 lbs or ±20% Take-off to Second Segment Climb, Approach to Landing   x x   x x   Snapshots will be acceptable. Flap change dynamics will be accepted.
3. Spoiler/Speedbrake Change Dynamics ±3 Knots Airspeed
±100Feet (30 m) Altitude
±20% or 1.5°Pitch
Cruise and Approach             x  
4. Gear Change Dynamics ±3 Knots Airspeed
±100Feet (30 m) Altitude
±20% or ±1.5°Pitch
Take-off to Second Segment Climb, Approach to Landing             x  
Gear Change Force ±5 lbs or ±20% Take-off to Second Segment Climb, Approach to Landing   x x   x x   Snapshots will be acceptable. Gear change dynamics will be accepted.
5. Gear and Flap Operating Times ±1 Second or 10% of Time Take-off, Approach   x x   x x x  
6. Longitudinal Trim ±1°Pitch Control (Stab and Elev)
±1°Pitch Angle
±2%Net Thrust or equivalent in Cruise ±5% Net Thrust or equivalent in Approach or Landing
Cruise, Approach, Landing   x* x*   x* x x May be a snapshot.

* Levels2, 3 and 5 may use equivalent stick and trim controllers in lieu of stabilizer and elevator.

7. Longitudinal Manoeuvring Stability (Stick Force/g) ±5lbs (±2.224daN) or ±10% Column Force or Equivalent Surface Cruise, Approach, Landing           x x May be a series of snapshot tests. Force or surface deflection must be in the correct direction. Must comply with certification requirements for category and class.
8. Longitudinal Static Stability ±5lbs (±2.224daN) or ±10% Column Force or Equivalent Surface Approach   x x   x x x May be snapshot tests. Levels2, 3 and 5 must be positive.
9. Phugoid Dynamics ±10% of Period ±10% of Time to 1/2 or Double Amplitude or ±.02 of Damping Ratio Cruise           x x Test should include 6cycles or that sufficient to determine time to ½ amplitude, whichever is less.
  ±10% of Period with Representative Damping Cruise     x x   x      
10. Short Period Dynamics ±1.5°Pitch or 2°Second Pitch Rate
±.10g Normal Acceleration
Cruise           x x  
D. Lateral Directional
1. Minimum Control Speed, Air (Vmca), per devices Applicable Airworthiness Standard or Low Speed Engine Inoperative Handling Characteristics in Air ±3 Knots Airspeed Take-off or Landing (whichever is most critical in aeroplane)             x  
2. Roll Response (Rate) ±10% or ±2°/Second Roll Rate Cruise and Landing or Approach   x x   x x x  
3. Roll Overshoot or Response to Roll Controller Step Input ±2° or ±10% of Bank
±10% or ±2°/Second Roll Rate
Approach or Landing     x     x x  
4. Spiral Stability Correct Trend Cruise   x     x      
  Correct Trend ±3° of Bank Angle or ±10% in 30seconds. Cruise     x     x   Data averaged from multiple tests may be used.
  Correct Trend ±2° of Bank Angle or ±10% in 20seconds. Cruise             x* *Level7 requires test in both directions.
5. Engine Inoperative Trim ±1° Rudder Angle or ±1° Tab Angle or Equivalent Pedal ±2° Sideslip Angle Second Segment Approach or Landing             x May be snapshot test.
6. Rudder Response ±2°/Second or ±10% Yaw Rate or Heading Change Approach or Landing           x x Test may be deleted if rudder input and response is shown in Dutch roll test.
  Roll Rate ±2° Second Bank Angle ±3° Approach or Landing   x x   x     Test may be roll response to a given rudder deflection.
7. Dutch Roll, Yaw Damper Off ±10% of Period 10% of Time to 1/2 or Double Amplitude or ±.02 of Damping Ratio Cruise and Approach or Landing           x x* * For Level7, additional requirement of ±20% or 1 second of time difference between peaks of bank and sideslip.
  ±10% of Period With Correct Trend and Number of Overshoots Cruise and Approach or Landing     x          
8. Steady State Sideslip or Heading Angle For a given rudder position ±2°Bank, ±1°Sideslip, ±10% or ±2°Aileron, ±10% or 5°Spoiler or Equivalent Wheel Position or Force Approach or Landing   x x   x x x May be a series of snapshot tests.
E. Testing
1. Automatic Testing. A means for quickly and effectively testing training device programming and hardware. This could include an automated system which could be used for conducting at least a portion of the tests in the ATG.                 x  
2. Cockpit Instrument Response. Instrument Systems Response to an abrupt pilot controller input, compared to aeroplane response for a similar input. One test is required in each axis (pitch, roll and yaw) for each of the three conditions. (Total nine tests). 150 milliseconds or less after aeroplane response. Take-off, Cruise, Approach or Landing             x A Statement of Compliance referencing computer operation, update rates, etc., which describe how the 150/300 millisecond timing is achieved will be acceptable.
300 milliseconds or less after aeroplane response. Take-off, Cruise, Approach or Landing   x x   x x  
or                  
Transport Delay.
One test is required in each axis. (Total three tests).
150 milliseconds or less after control movement. Pitch, Roll, Yaw             x
300 milliseconds or less. Pitch, Roll, Yaw   x x   x x  
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