4.2 Evaluation Policy
4.2.1 The FTD must be assessed in the areas critical to the accomplishment of pilot climb, cruise, descent, approach and landing. Crew member stations and instructor station functions checks and certain additional requirements depending on the complexity of the device must be thoroughly assessed. Should a motion system or visual system be contemplated for installation on any level of flight training device, the operator or the manufacturer should contact the MSP for information regarding an acceptable method for measuring motion and/or visual system operation and applicable tolerances. The motion and visual systems, if installed, will be evaluated to ensure their proper operation. It is intended that FTDs be evaluated as objectively as possible. Pilot acceptance, however, is also an important consideration. The device will be subjected to validation tests presented in Appendix4-B and functions and subjective tests from Appendix4-C. These tests include a qualitative assessment by a TC pilot who is qualified in the respective aircraft, or set of aircraft in the case of Levels2 or 3. Validation tests are used to objectively compare training device and aircraft data (or other approved reference data) to assure that they agree within a specified tolerance. Function tests are designed to provide a basis for evaluating FTD capability to perform over a typical training period and to verify correct operation of the controls, instruments and systems.
4.2.2 Tolerances, listed for parameters in Appendix4-B, should not be confused with design tolerances specified for FTD manufacturer. Tolerances for the parameters listed in Appendix4-B are the maximum acceptable to TC for validation of this device.
4.2.3 A convertible FTD will be addressed as a separate device for each model and series to which it will be converted and TC qualification sought. A TC evaluation is required for each configuration. For example, if an operator seeks qualification for two models of an aircraft type using a convertible device, two QTGs or a QTG and a supplemental QTG are required. Two evaluations are required.
4.2.4 The aircraft manufacturer's flight test data is the accepted standard for initial qualification of Levels6 and 7 FTDs due to the specific aircraft aerodynamic programming necessary. Exceptions to this policy may be made but must first be submitted to the MSP for review and consideration.
4.2.5 If flight test data from a source in addition to or independent of the aircraft manufacturer's data is to be submitted in support of an FTD qualification, it must be acquired in accordance with normally accepted professional flight test methods. Proper consideration for the following must be an intrinsic part of the flight test planning:
- Appropriate and sufficient data acquisition equipment or system;
- Current calibration of data acquisition equipment and aircraft performance instrumentation (calibration must be traceable to a recognized standard);
Flight test plan, including -
- manoeuvres and procedures,
- initial conditions,
- flight conditions,
- aircraft configuration,
- weight and centre of gravity,
- atmospheric ambient and environmental conditions,
- data required, and
other appropriate factors;
- Appropriately qualified flight test personnel;
- Data reduction and analysis methods and techniques;
- Data accuracy (the data must be presented in a format that supports the flight training device validation);
- Resolution must be sufficient to determine compliance with the tolerances of Appendix4-B;
- Presentation must be clear with necessary guidance provided; and
- Over-plots must not obscure the reference data.
4.2.6 The flight test plan should be reviewed with the MSP well in advance of commencing the flight test. After completion of the tests, a flight test report should be submitted in support of the validation data. The report must contain sufficient data and rationale to support qualification of the device at the level requested.
4.2.7 For a new type of model of aircraft, predicted data validated by flight test data which has not been finalised and made official by the manufacturer, can be used for an interim period. In the event predicted data are used in programming the device, an update should be accomplished as soon as practicable when actual aircraft flight test data become available. Unless specific conditions warrant otherwise, this update should occur within six months after release of the final flight test data package by the aircraft manufacturer.
4.2.8 Levels2, 3 and 5 FTDs do not require a specific aerodynamic model; however, their performance must be compared to a reference set of validation data for initial qualification and for repeated recurrent evaluations. Note: Level4 requires no aerodynamic model. In the absence of a specific model, these devices may use a generic model typical of the set of aircraft as described in this Chapter. For example, a twin engine, turbojet transport aircraft FTD must demonstrate the performance and handling typical of that set of aircraft. Similarly, a light twin or single engine aircraft FTD must demonstrate performance typical of the respective set of aircraft. The aerodynamic model may be one representing an actual aircraft within that set of aircraft or it may be created or derived using the same mathematical expressions as those used in a specific model but with coefficient values which are not obtained from flight test results for a particular aircraft. Instead, the coefficient values could be fictitious but be typical of the set of aircraft replicated. The reference validation data could then be created by doing a computer simulation, using these fictitious coefficients. A generic model may also be acquired from public domain resources or it may be a composite of various models, none of which is complete within itself. It is the responsibility of the operator to demonstrate that the reference data used represents the appropriate set of aircraft. To assure that the device continues to comply with its original qualifications status, it will then be compared to the reference data for subsequent recurrent evaluations. Once reference data for a specific set of aircraft is accepted by the MSP, this data will be considered accepted for that set of aircraft without a requirement for further review and approval.
4.2.9 Evaluation dates will not be established until the QTG has been reviewed by TC and determined to be acceptable in accordance with this Manual.
4.2.10 During evaluations, the operator's pilots may assist in the accomplishment of the functions and validation tests at the discretion of TC; however, only TC personnel should manipulate the pilot controls during the functions check portion of a TC evaluation.
4.2.11 TC evaluations of FTDs located outside of Canada will be performed if the device is used by an operator in satisfying any training or checking requirements. Evaluations may be conducted otherwise as deemed appropriate by the Minister on a case-by-case basis.
4.2.12 Upon qualification of the FTD, approval for the use of the device in a particular training program will be determined by the Operational Authority in accordance with the Standard that applies with respect to that training program.
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