Appendix 8-A - Flight Training Credits - Aeroplanes

1. Discussion

This Appendix describes the training credits that may be granted to an aeroplane simulator or training device pursuant to the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

ColumnI of the table outlines the flight phase or manoeuvre, and ColumnII outlines the minimum standard or simulator required to conduct the ColumnI activity. Where neither a simulator nor the aircraft is designated, the flight phase or manoeuvre can be trained and checked in a flight training device (FTD). Since the level of FTD is not always an adequate indicator of what performance is required for credit for each manoeuvre or flight phase, credit will be determined on a case-by-case basis. It can be assumed, however, that a Level6 or 7 FTD can gain credit for all items not specifically annotated to a full flight simulator or the aircraft.

Simulators or training devices may be used in the aeroplane's approved training and checking program; however, each one used in the program must be specifically approved for the certificate holder and by aeroplane type and, if applicable, the particular aeroplane type variant being used by the certificate holder. The simulator must be essentially identical to the certificate holder's aeroplane for it to be used in a program. Simulators depicting EFIS equipped digital aircraft can change the various EFIS presentations relatively easily and inexpensively with software changes. This convertibility of a modern simulator should be considered when approving a specific simulator in a specific training program. In some cases, differences between the simulator and the certificate holder's aeroplane can be addressed by additional ground or aeroplane differences training. Where the TC approved training program permits type endorsement of pilots not current on a similar type aeroplane without any aeroplane training, a LevelD simulator must be used for the type endorsement training. For flight engineers or second officers, some aircraft training is always required.

Programs that are approved for a specific certificate holder using advanced simulators, e.g. LevelC simulators, must be conducted entirely in the approved simulator to gain the credits granted that level of simulator.

2. Flight Training Credits - Aeroplanes

Note: A "x" in COLUMN II indicates the minimum standard simulator to conduct the COLUMNI activity. A "x" in the AEROPLANE column means that only the aeroplane operator's aircraft can be used.

COLUMN I COLUMN II AEROPLANE
  SIMULATOR LEVEL  
  A B C D  
1. Pre-flight
a. A visual inspection of the exterior and interior of the aeroplane.         x
b. The proper use of the pre start check list, appropriate control system checks, starting procedures, checks of all radio and electronic equipment and the selection of the proper navigation and communication radio frequencies and facilities prior to flight.          
c. Taxiing, sailing or docking procedures, where appropriate.   x      
d. Pre takeoff checks and power/plant checks.          
2. Takeoff
a. Normal takeoff.   x      
b. Instrument takeoff.   x      
c. Crosswind takeoff.     x    
d. Simulated critical engine failure during takeoff, where failure of the critical engine occurs at a point after V1 speed.   x1 x    
e. Rejected takeoff performed prior to V1 speed. x1 x1 x    
3. Inflight (where appropriate to the aeroplane type)
a. Dutch rolls. x        
b. Turns with and without spoilers. x        
c. Tuck tendency and Mach buffets. x        
d. Operation of systems and controls at the flight engineer station.          
e. Procedures for runaway or jammed stabilizer. x        
f. Normal, abnormal or alternate operations of the following systems, devices and aids -          
(1) pressurization;          
(2) pneumatic;          
(3) air conditioning;          
(4) fuel and oil;          
(5) electrical;          
(6) hydraulic;          
(7) flight controls;          
(8) anti icing and de icing;          
(9) automatic and other approach aids;          
(10) stall warning and avoidance devices and stability augmentation devices;   x      
(11) airborne radar devices; and          
(12) any other systems, devices or aids available.       x  
g. In flight emergency procedures for -          
(1) powerplant, heater, cargo compartment, cabin, flight deck, wing and electrical fires;          
(2) smoke control and removal;          
(3) decompression and rapid decompression;          
(4) powerplant failure;          
(5) fuel dumping;          
(6) emergency descent;          
(7) any other emergency procedures outlined/in the aircraft flight manual; 2        
(8) flight control; x2        
(9) electrical, hydraulic, and flight instrument system malfunction or failure; 2        
(10) landing gear and flap system failures or malfunctions; 2        
(11) failure of navigation equipment; and          
(12) failure of communications equipment.          
h. Steep turns involving bank angle of 45° and a change in heading of at least 180°. x        
i. Approaches to stall under instrument flight rules, including stalls in -          
(1) takeoff configuration; x        
(2) clean configuration; and x        
(3) landing configuration. x        
j. An approach to one stall performed in a turn with a bank angle of between 15° and 30° with a stall warning device inoperative. x        
k. Recovery from specific flight characteristics that are peculiar to the aeroplane type. x2        
l. Engine shutdown and restart.          
m. Instrument procedures, including -          
(1) area departure and arrival;          
(2) use of navigation systems including adherence to assigned radials and tracks;          
(3) holding;          
(4) Category II approaches; and          
(5) Category III approaches.          
n. Windshear. x3        
o. TCAS. 4        
4. Landing and Approach to Landing
a. Precision approaches, including, as applicable, ILS, MLS and PAR approaches.          
b. Non precision approaches.          
c. Circling approaches. x5 x5 x5 x5  
d. Autopilot coupled approaches.          
e. Approaches with malfunctioning flaps, slats or both. x        
f.
  1. Missed approach procedures where the missed approach procedures are conducted with a critical engine failure or other systems failure that could affect that procedure:
    1. from precision approaches; and
    2. from non precision approaches.
  2. Missed approach procedures with all engines and, other systems that failures of which could affect that procedure, operating normally:
    1. from precision approaches; and
    2. from non precision approaches.
x1        
g. Normal landings which shall, where practicable, be conducted without external or internal glideslope information.     x    
h. Landings from precision approaches.   x      
i. Crosswind landings.     x    
j. Landings with failures of 50% of the available engines -          
(1) on a four engine aeroplane, on one side; and   x      
(2) on a three engine aeroplane, the failure of the critical outboard engine and centreline engine is simulated.   x      
k. Landings from a circling approach.   x5      
l. Rejected landings. x        
m. Landings with malfunctioning flaps or slats or both.   x      
n. Manual reversion landings.   x      
o. Landings and go around with the horizontal stabilizer out of trim.   x      
p. Landings at night.   x      
q. Auto land:          
(1) normal, and          
(2) abnormal.   x      
5. Ground Handling Manoeuvres and Procedures
a. Emergency procedures including wheel, brake, engine and cabin fires, loss of nosewheel steering and brake failure.   x      
b. Manoeuvring in apron areas.   x      

1 Permitted, provided the simulator has the "engine-out" data package installed.

2 LevelC required if the failure or malfunction would change the normal/flight characteristics of the aeroplane during any phase of flight.

3 Authorized, provided the simulator has a "windshear" data package installed.

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