Part II — The Ground and Air Instruction Syllabus — Exercise 12 — Stalls

Objective

To teach:

(1)  The recognition of the symptoms of an approaching stall.

(2)  The entry to the stall.

(3)  Recognition of the stall itself.

(4)  The correct recovery for minimum loss of altitude.

Motivation

As required.

Essential Background Knowledge

(1)  Outline safety precautions — cockpit checks, minimum altitude, suitable location, look-out, etc.

(2)  Explain:

  1. Basic theory and description of stalls:
  1. angle of attack;
  2. stalling angle;
  3. aileron drag;
  4. attitude variations;
  5. speed variations.

B. Diminishing control response through endurance speed and slow flight;

C. Symptoms of approaching stall — sight, sound, feel;

D. Action to prevent an approaching stall;

E. Typical entry from normal flight manoeuvres, e.g., climbing and descending turns;

F. Recovery with and without power:

  1. control direction with rudder;
  2. unstall aircraft with forward movement of the control column;
  3. level wings with ailerons.

G. Effect of flaps;

H. Effect of thrust;

I. Stall variations (conducted at safe altitude):

  1. power on and off — with and without flaps;
  2. from a steep level, climbing or descending turn — with and without flaps;
  3. sudden change of pitch attitude while at low speed;
  4. departure stalls with and without flaps (with slow deceleration under full power);
  5. acceleration stalls.

(3) Instrument indications.

(4) Question student on the exercise and clarify as necessary.

Advice to Instructors

(1)  This is a progressive exercise and should be practised frequently.

(2)  Avoid the tendency to teach the classical stalls only. At a safe altitude prepare the student to handle the stall and recovery action in all phases of flight that might be encountered, e.g., a steep climbing turn while overshooting in a confined area, or under conditions of reduced aircraft performance due to density altitude.

(3)  Stress that an aircraft can stall at practically any airspeed, in practically any attitude, or at any power setting, and that recovery action initiated when the symptoms are noted will prevent the stall.

(4)  Emphasize on simple stall entries that the nose of the aircraft should not be raised above the horizon any more than necessary to produce the stall. On recovery the nose should be lowered only sufficiently below the horizon to unstall the wings. Use power to prevent excessive loss of altitude.

Instructor and Student Practice

(1)  Complete safety precautions — cockpit checks, minimum altitude, continuous meaningful look-out, avoidance of built-up areas.

(2)  Review diminishing control response through endurance and slow flight speed range.

(3)  Maintain level flight at minimum controllable airspeed (slow flight speed range).

(4)  Review control response, visual indications, sound.

(5)  Raise nose sufficiently to demonstrate stall.

(6)  Demonstrate recovery action.

(7)  Demonstrate stalls and recovery action:

  1. Power on and off — with and without flaps;
  2. From a steep level, climbing, and descending turn;
  3. Due to a sudden change of pitch attitude while at low speed;
  4. Departure or overshoot configuration (simulated at an operationally safe altitude);
  5. Secondary stall due to abrupt attitude change on recovery.

(8)  Demonstrate conditions which if uncorrected could lead to a high speed stall — applicable to type.

(9)  Instrument indications.

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