Part II — The Ground and Air Instruction Syllabus — Exercise 24 — Instrument Flying

Full Panel

Attitudes and Movements

Objective

To teach, using instrument reference:

(1)  The range of attitudes through which an aircraft will normally be operated.

(2)  How to produce and control the movements necessary to achieve and maintain the desired attitudes.

(3)  How yaw can be controlled.

Motivation

The ability to relate information gained from the instruments to outside references is the cornerstone upon which instrument flying skills are developed.

Essential Background Knowledge

Human Factors

(1)  Before commencing instrument flying instruction, review the effects of the following:

  1. Limitation of the senses — visual, vestibular, kinaesthetic.
  2. Disorientation — visual illusions, vestibular illusions.
  3. Fatigue — acute, chronic, effect on skill.
  4. Colds and sinus congestion.
  5. Stress, emotional upset.
  6. Incorrect dietary habits.
  7. Alcohol and the hangover.
  8. Medications — prescribed, over-the-counter, anaesthetics.
  9. Drugs.
  10. Hypoxia and hyperventilation.
  11. Carbon monoxide.
  12. Blood donations.
  13. Cockpit noise, lighting, vibration.

(2)  Explain that illusory sensations are to be expected during instrument flight and how to cope with them.

Terminology

(1)  Before commencing instrument flying instruction, review these terms:

  1. Pitot Head.
  2. Static Pressure.
  3. Dynamic Pressure.
  4. Position Error.
  5. Gyroscopic Precession.
  6. Gyroscopic Rigidity.
  7. Indicated Airspeed.
  8. True Airspeed.
  9. Calibrated Airspeed.
  10. True Altitude.
  11. Indicated Altitude.

(1)  Explain the function and basic mechanical operation of each flight instrument.

(2)  Emphasize the source of operation, limits, errors, and instrument serviceability checks.

(3)  Explain the concepts related to the control and performance instruments. Specifically, explain:

  1. The purpose of a scan.
  2. Selective radial scan technique.
  3. Scanning speed.
  4. Detection of instrument malfunctions.
  5. Common scanning faults.

(4)  Explain the instrument indications associated with the following attitudes:

  1. Cruise;
  2. Nose-up;
  3. Nose-down;
  4. Banked.

(5)  Explain the instrument indications associated with the following movements:

  1. Pitching;
  2. Rolling;
  3. Yawing.

(6)  Explain the following points:

  1. The control inputs required to produce a movement or to put the aircraft into a desired attitude are the same as those used in visual flight.
  2. The pilot refers to the control instruments to establish attitude and power, and refers to the performance instruments to verify airspeed, vertical speed, or other desired performance.
  3. Changes are initiated using the control instruments and the performance instruments are then used to verify airspeed, vertical speed, or other performance information.
  4. Use smooth control pressures, making small corrections and waiting for the results.
  5. The pilot must anticipate the need to change power and attitude to arrive at desired airspeeds and altitudes when accelerating, decelerating, climbing, descending, and levelling off.
  6. Correct use of trim is essential to maintenance of control.

Advice to Instructors

(1)  Maintain a sharp lookout at all times. During flight, with the emphasis on instrument indications, you may be distracted from keeping a vigilant watch for traffic. Have the student ask "ALL CLEAR LEFT (OR RIGHT)?", and wait for your confirmation before entering a turn. Reassure the student that you are watching for traffic.

(2)  Make every effort to explain all the principles of this lesson carefully. This first instrument training session covers the basics upon which future lessons are developed.

(3)  Give the first few lessons in calm air.

(4)  Present the entire air demonstration of attitudes and movements with the student not using a view-limiting device. Doing so will help the student to concentrate more on the content of the lesson. After the initial demonstration, the student may practise flying while referring only to the instruments.

(5)  While the student is flying with reference to the instruments, initially keep the lessons short. Then gradually lengthen them.

(6)  Emphasize that when in doubt about aircraft control, keep straight with the rudder and level the wings with the ailerons.

(7)  Relate instrument lessons to the equivalent visual lessons. For example, climbs, descents, and turns require the same control inputs whether the pilot is referring to visual or instrument indications.

(8)  Advise the student to view the attitude indicator as though he or she is situated on the tail, looking forward at the wings of the aircraft.

(9)  If the training fleet permits, demonstrate the differences between turn co-ordinators and turn and bank indicators.

(10)  Remember that it is permissible to train for the Private Pilot licence using an aeroplane equipped with partial panel. The student will be required to fly the flight test manoeuvres to the same standard as if the aeroplane were fitted with a full panel.

Instruction and Student Practice

Cruise Attitude

(1)  While maintaining outside reference:

  1. Establish straight and level flight.
  2. Have the student adjust the miniature aircraft on the attitude indicator for level flight at normal cruise.
  3. Demonstrate the similarity between the aircraft's attitude relative to the horizon and the display shown on the attitude indicator.
  4. Point out the constant indications shown on the performance instruments.

Pitch

(1)  While using outside reference, compare the visual indications of the pitching movement to the instrument indications.

Nose-up attitude

  1. While the student is following the indications on the attitude indicator, place the aircraft in a nose-up attitude and point out the similarity between the natural horizon and the horizon line on the attitude indicator.
  2. Compare the nose-up indication on the attitude indicator with the position of the aircraft's nose.
  3. Point out the pitch scale on the attitude indicator.
  4. Point out the indications on the performance instruments and compare them with the cruise attitude indications.
  5. Demonstrate the relationship between the amount of nose-up pitch change and the change indicated by the airspeed indicator, vertical speed indicator and the altimeter.
  6. Demonstrate the normal range of nose-up attitudes.
  7. Point out the momentary lag in the vertical speed indicator. Demonstrate the relationship between the abruptness of the pitch change and the lag or reversal.
  8. Return to the cruise attitude.

Nose-down attitude

  1. While the student is following the indications on the attitude indicator, place the aircraft in a nose-down attitude and point out the similarity between the natural horizon and the horizon line on the attitude indicator.
  2. Compare the nose-down indication on the attitude indicator with the position of the aircraft's nose.
  3. Point out the pitch scale on the attitude indicator.
  4. Point out the indications on the performance instruments and compare them with the cruise attitude indications.
  5. Demonstrate the relationship between the amount of nose-down pitch change and the changes indicated by the airspeed indicator, vertical speed indicator, and altimeter.
  6. Demonstrate the normal range of nose-down attitudes.
  7. Point out the momentary lag in the vertical speed indicator. Demonstrate the relationship between the abruptness of the pitch change and the lag or reversal.
  8. Return to the cruise attitude.

(2)  Have the student practise by selecting nose-up and nose-down attitudes, as well as the cruise attitude, while referring to the instruments.

Roll

(1)  Compare the outside visual indications of the rolling movement to the instrument indications.

Banked attitude

  1. Roll the aircraft to a banked attitude. Point out the similarity between the natural horizon and the horizon line on the attitude indicator.
  2. Show how the attitude indicator gives a direct indication of bank.
  3. Point out the bank scale on the attitude indicator.
  4. Demonstrate the range of bank attitudes for gentle and medium turns.
  5. Point out the turn indications on the heading indicator and turn co-ordinator or turn and bank indicator.
  6. Demonstrate the turn co-ordinator indications while the aircraft is rolling.
  7. Point out the relationship between the bank angle and the rate at which the heading changes. Explain how the heading indicator gives an indirect indication of bank.
  8. Show that the turn needle reacts to yaw. Point out turn needle indications when the aircraft is yawed with rudder while keeping wings level. Point out turn needle indications when the aircraft is banked and yaw is prevented with rudder.
  9. Point out that when the ball is centred, the bank angle and rate of turn are co-ordinated.
  10. Point out that when the ball is on one side of centre, it indicates that the corresponding wing is lower than required to produce a co-ordinated turn at that rate.
  11. Emphasize that the turn needle can be used as an indirect indication of bank, but only when the ball is in the centre.

(2)  Have the student practise by selecting various banked attitudes to the left and right while referring to the instruments.

Yaw

(1)  Compare the visual indications of the yawing movement to the instrument indications.

(2)  Point out that the turn co-ordinator or turn and bank indicator gives a direct indication of yaw.

(3)  Point out that when yaw is desired in order to turn it is produced by selecting the appropriate angle of bank.

(4)  Demonstrate the control of adverse yaw by controlling the movement of the turn needle with rudder. For the purpose of this publication, adverse yaw is defined as any yaw, regardless of origin, having an effect contrary to the interests of the pilot.

(5)  Using reference to instruments, have the student practise controlling yaw while changing power, while turning, and during climbs and descents.

Straight And Level Flight

Objective

To teach, using instrument reference:

(1)  Straight flight;

(2)  Level flight;

(3)  Straight and level flight at various airspeeds.

Motivation

The skills learned in straight and level flight are fundamental to most aspects of instrument flying.

Essential Background Knowledge

Straight Flight

(1)  Review:

  1. The wings level indication on the attitude indicator;
  2. The yaw indication on the turn co-ordinator or turn and bank indicator;
  3. Anticipating yaw, e.g. slipstream effect, asymmetric thrust, aileron drag;
  4. The errors related to the magnetic compass and the technique used to accurately read the compass;
  5. The correct scan technique for straight flight by:
  1. Establishing the wings-level attitude while referring to the attitude indicator;
  2. Referring often to the heading indicator to confirm that the desired heading is being maintained;
  3. Referring occasionally to the turn co-ordinator (or turn and bank indicator) for confirmation that the wings are level, and no yaw is occurring.

Level Flight

(1)  Review:

  1. The procedure for setting the attitude indicator for level flight;
  2. The importance of detecting small pitch changes on the attitude indicator;
  3. How to determine pitch attitude when the wings are not level;
  4. The importance of properly trimming the aircraft;
  5. The correct scan technique for level flight by:
  1. Establishing the cruise attitude while referring to the attitude indicator;
  2. Referring often to the altimeter to confirm that the assigned altitude is being maintained;
  3. Referring occasionally to the vertical speed indicator to detect any trend toward climbing or descending.

F. How to cross-check between the altimeter and the airspeed indicator to identify the need to change pitch or power.

Straight and Level Flight at Various Airspeeds

(1)  Review the following points:

  1. Altitude can be controlled by pitching the nose up or down;
  2. Airspeed can be controlled with power;
  3. Both attitude and power must be changed to change airspeed in level flight;
  4. Review the correct scan technique for straight and level flight. Explain how to combine the scan techniques for straight flight and level flight. The full selective radial scan should now be used:
  1. Using the attitude indicator and tachometer, establish the aircraft in straight and level flight at a desired airspeed;
  2. Refer often to the heading indicator, altimeter and airspeed indicator to confirm that the aircraft is flying straight and level at the desired airspeed;
  3. Use the performance instruments to detect any error in heading, altitude or speed;
  4. Occasionally scan the magnetic compass, tachometer, and engine instruments.

(2)  Explain the control inputs required while accelerating and decelerating.

Advice To Instructors

(1)  SUGGESTED RULES OF THUMB:

  1. 100 RPM (or one inch of manifold pressure) changes airspeed by about 5 knots.
  2. While making small heading corrections, the angle of bank used should not exceed the number of degrees to be turned.

(2)  Allow enough time for a thorough demonstration and student practice in straight and level flight. It is important to master this exercise because the skills learned will be applied to most other aspects of instrument flight.

(3)  Refer to Part Two of the Instrument Procedures Manual (TP 2076E) for information on the magnetic compass.

(4)  When you are teaching straight and level flight while changing airspeeds, it will be helpful to have the student define, first, what information is needed to maintain a constant altitude and, second, how the selective radial scan should be changed to get that information. For example, before accelerating to a high airspeed, determine the power changes required.

(5)  As power is changed in level flight, a pitch change may occur. Therefore, the student must refer often to the altimeter and attitude indicator to maintain the desired altitude. Then, as the new airspeed is approached, airspeed information becomes increasingly important. At this time, the pilot should make frequent reference to the airspeed indicator until the desired airspeed is established, the power is correctly set, and the aircraft is re-trimmed.

Instruction and Student Practice

(1)  Straight Flight:

  1. Using outside reference, establish the aircraft in straight and level flight at normal cruise airspeed;
  2. Briefly review the scanning technique, then have the student fly straight while referring only to the instruments;
  3. Emphasize that the student must keep the wings level and maintain co-ordinated flight while using the rudder to keep straight;
  4. Introduce the magnetic compass. Briefly demonstrate:
  1. errors related to acceleration, deceleration, turning;
  2. the technique for setting the heading indicator from the magnetic compass while flying in smooth air and rough air;
  3. if the aircraft deviates from the heading, have the student make corrections as necessary to return to the assigned heading.

(2)  Straight and Level Flight:

  1. Using outside reference, establish the aircraft in straight and level flight at normal cruise airspeed;
  2. When the aircraft is stable, have the student adjust the attitude indicator;
  3. Assign a heading to be maintained;
  4. Review the scanning technique for level flight, then have the student maintain altitude by adjusting the attitude as required, while referring only to the instruments;
  5. Demonstrate the use of small changes in pitch attitude for small altitude corrections;
  6. Emphasize the importance of trimming the aircraft properly.

Straight and Level Flight at Various Airspeeds

(1)  While the student is using instrument reference, demonstrate how to increase airspeed using the following steps:

  1. Increase the power to that required for the new airspeed;
  2. Control yaw to maintain heading;
  3. Adjust the pitch attitude as required to maintain altitude;
  4. Adjust trim as required.

(2)  Demonstrate how to decrease airspeed as follows: 

  1. Reduce the power to that required for the new airspeed;
  2. Control yaw to maintain heading;
  3. Adjust the pitch attitude as required to maintain altitude;
  4. Adjust trim as required.

(3)  Have the student practise flying straight and level at various airspeeds.

Climbing

Objective

To teach, using instrument reference, how to:

(1)  Enter and maintain climbs at specified airspeeds;

(2)  Enter and maintain climbs at specified rates;

(3)  Level off from the climb.

Motivation

The ability to climb at a particular airspeed and a given rate of climb is essential to obtain the best climb performance from the aircraft.

Essential Background Knowledge

(1)  Review:

  1. Control of yaw and the effects of asymmetric thrust and slipstream, questioning the student on the anticipated rudder requirement;
  2. The climb entry — Attitude, Power, Trim;
  3. Levelling off — Attitude, Power, Trim.

(2)  Explain:

  1. The nose-up pitch indication for the best rate of climb speed;
  2. The correct scanning technique for entering and maintaining the climb using a specific airspeed;
  3. The correct scanning technique for climbing at a specific rate;
  4. The use of small control inputs to make small corrections to the airspeed and rate of climb;
  5. The correct scanning technique for levelling off from the climb;
  6. How to estimate the amount of lead for levelling off, based upon the rate of climb.

(3)  Insist that the student continually answer the crucial questions:

  1. What Information Do I Need?
  2. Which Instruments Give Me the Needed Information?
  3. Is the Information Reliable?

Advice to Instructors

(1)  SUGGESTED RULES OF THUMB:

  1. One degree of pitch changes airspeed by about 5 knots and the rate of climb by about 100 feet per minute;
  2. A change of 100 RPM, or one inch of manifold pressure, changes airspeed by about 5 knots or the rate of climb by about 100 feet per minute;
  3. When levelling off from a climb, lead with 10 percent of the vertical speed, e.g., if the rate of climb is 500 feet per minute, begin levelling off 50 feet before reaching desired altitude.

(2)  When climbing at a given airspeed, use small attitude changes to achieve small corrections is airspeed.

Instruction and Student Practice

Constant Airspeed Climbs

(1)  Demonstrate the following while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Pitch the nose up to the approximate attitude for the climb;
  2. Advance the power to the climb power setting;
  3. Cross check the airspeed indicator with the attitude indicator to determine the need for adjusting pitch;
  4. adjust the attitude as required while referring to the attitude indicator, then cross check with the airspeed indicator to confirm the correct climb speed has been attained;
  5. Trim as required;
  6. Emphasize the need to monitor heading throughout the manoeuvre.

(2)  Have the student practice straight climbs at a constant airspeed.

Levelling Off

(1)  Demonstrate the following while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Use the attitude indicator to adjust to the cruise attitude;
  2. Frequently cross check the altimeter and heading indicator to make sure that the desired altitude and heading are maintained;
  3. Set cruise power when the aircraft has reached cruise speed;
  4. Trim as required;
  5. Point out the need to closely monitor the airspeed as the aircraft accelerates.

(2)  Have the student practise constant airspeed climbs and levelling off.

Constant Rate Climbs at a Specified Airspeed

(1)  Demonstrate the following while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Estimate the attitude and power setting required to climb at a predetermined rate and airspeed;
  2. Enter the climb by adjusting the attitude and power;
  3. Cross check the airspeed indicator with the attitude indicator to determine the need for adjusting pitch;
  4. Cross check the vertical speed indicator with the attitude indicator to determine the need for adjusting power;
  5. Adjust the attitude and power as required;
  6. Trim as required.

(2)  Have the student practise constant rate climbs and levelling off.

Descending

Objective

To teach, using instrument reference, how to:

(1)  Enter and maintain descents at specified airspeeds;

(2)  Enter and maintain descents at specified rates;

(3)  Level off from the descent.

Motivation

The ability to descend at a specific airspeed and rate of descent is essential to operating the aircraft safely and efficiently. An instrument approach is usually carried out at a particular airspeed and rate of descent.

Essential Background Knowledge

(1)  Review:

  1. Applicable cockpit checks;
  2. The descent entry — Power, Attitude, Trim;
  3. Control of yaw;
  4. Levelling off — Power, Attitude, Trim.

(2)  Explain:

  1. The pitch attitude indications for normal descents;
  2. The correct scanning technique for descending at a given airspeed;
  3. The correct scanning technique for descending at a given rate;
  4. The use of suggested rules of thumb to estimate the power setting and pitch attitude for descents at predetermined rates and airspeeds;
  5. The use of small control inputs to make small corrections to the airspeed and rate of descent;
  6. How to estimate the amount of lead for levelling off, based upon the rate of descent.

Advice To Instructors

(1)  SUGGESTED RULES OF THUMB:

  1. One degree of pitch changes airspeed by about 5 knots and the rate of descent by about 100 feet per minute.
  2. A change of 100 RPM, or one inch of manifold pressure, changes airspeed by about 5 knots or the rate of descent by about 100 feet per minute.
  3. When levelling off from a descent, lead with 10 percent of the vertical speed e.g., If the rate of descent is 500 feet per minute, begin levelling off 50 feet before reaching the desired altitude.

Instruction and Student Practice

Constant Airspeed Descents

(1)  Demonstrate the following while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Complete the applicable cockpit checks;
  2. Enter a descent from normal cruise by reducing power to the desired power setting;
  3. Maintain the cruise attitude until the airspeed approaches the desired airspeed;
  4. Adjust the pitch attitude to maintain the desired airspeed;
  5. Trim as required.

Levelling Off

(1)  Demonstrate the following while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Estimate the amount of lead for levelling off;
  2. Establish the cruise attitude and set cruise power;
  3. Frequently cross check the attitude indicator with the altimeter and heading indicator to make sure that the desired altitude and heading are maintained;
  4. Trim as required;
  5. Point out the need to closely monitor the airspeed as the aircraft accelerates.

(2)  Have the student practise constant airspeed descents and levelling off.

Constant Rate Descents at a Specified Airspeed

(1)  Demonstrate the following while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Complete the applicable cockpit checks;
  2. Estimate the attitude and power setting required to descend at a predetermined rate and airspeed;
  3. Enter a descent from normal cruise by reducing power to the desired power setting;
  4. Maintain the cruise attitude until the airspeed approaches the desired airspeed;
  5. Adjust the pitch attitude to maintain the desired airspeed;
  6. Adjust the power to maintain the desired rate of descent;
  7. Trim as required;
  8. Frequently cross check the attitude indicator with the airspeed indicator and vertical speed indicator to make sure that the aircraft is descending at the desired airspeed and rate of descent.

(2)  Have the student practise constant rate descents and levelling off.

Turns

Objective

To teach, using instrument reference:

(1)  Gentle and medium turns;

(2)  Rate one turns;

(3)  Turns to selected headings;

(4)  Climbing and descending turns;

(5)  Steep turns.

Motivation

The pilot must know how to change the direction of flight using controlled rates of turn while flying on instruments. This skill is necessary to navigate to a destination.

Essential Background Knowledge

(1)  Explain:

  1. That whether the student is flying on instruments or using outside reference, control inputs, turn entry and recovery procedures and use of power are the same;
  2. How to control adverse yaw resulting from aileron drag;
  3. That bank angle is read from the bank scale on the attitude indicator;
  4. That in a turn, pitch information displayed on the attitude indicator is shown by the dot that represents the nose of the aircraft;
  5. How to estimate the correct lead for recovery from a turn to a specified heading;
  6. The rate one turn and its relationship to airspeed and angle of bank;
  7. That the student has to anticipate the need to apply back pressure on the control column as the aircraft is rolled into the banked attitude;
  8. That after the student has established the angle of bank for the desired rate of turn, fluctuations of the turn needle must be controlled with rudder while using aileron to correct bank.

(2)  Explain the correct scan technique for turning.

  1. Entering the Turn:
  1. refer to the attitude indicator while rolling to the desired angle of bank;
  2. scan the turn needle to ensure that the correct rate of turn is achieved;
  3. correct bank as necessary.

B. Maintaining the Turn:

  1. cross check the attitude indicator with the altimeter and the heading indicator, with occasional reference to the turn needle;
  2. scan the attitude indicator and the turn needle to maintain a given rate of turn;
  3. scan the heading indicator frequently enough to know when to begin recovering from the turn.

C. Recovering from the turn:

  1. as the turn progresses to the desired recovery heading, scan the heading indicator frequently;
  2. applying the correct lead, refer to the attitude indicator while rolling the wings level.

Advice to Instructors

(1)  SUGGESTED RULES OF THUMB:

  1. To roll out of a turn on a selected heading, lead the heading by half the angle of bank, e.g., if using a 30 degree bank, being the roll-out 15 degrees before reaching the desired heading.
  2. Use small angles of bank to make small heading changes. Usually a bank angle equal to half the number of degrees of heading change will suffice.
  3. The approximate angle of bank to produce a rate one turn may be calculated by using the following formula: (KIAS divided by 10) + 7 = bank angle. Add 5 instead of 7 for statute miles per hour.

(2)  Have the student ask "ALL CLEAR LEFT (OR RIGHT) ?" and wait for a response before entering the turn.

(3)  Stress smoothness and co-ordination when rolling into and out of turns. Emphasize that it is desirable to use a slower rate of roll than when flying with outside reference.

(4)  Introduce steep turns only after the student is proficient in doing medium turns.

(5)  Common errors that students make during steep turns are as follows:

  1. Rolling in too quickly, producing a spiral dive;
  2. Adding power too late on entry, causing a loss of airspeed;
  3. Failure to maintain the correct pitch altitude control while entering, maintaining, and recovering from the turn, causing altitude or airspeed errors;
  4. Failure to reset the power as required on recovery, causing the aircraft to climb or increase airspeed after the wings have been levelled.

Instruction and Student Practice

Gentle and Medium Level Turns

(1)  Review scan techniques for entering, maintaining, and recovering from the turn.

(2)  Demonstrate the following while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Initiate a gentle or medium turn;
  2. Maintain the turn with bank and control adverse yaw with rudder;
  3. Point out the instrument indications;
  4. Show the pitch attitude required for entering, maintaining, and recovering from the turn;
  5. Show the relationship between angle of bank and the rate of turn;
  6. Recover to straight flight using the correct lead heading to begin the roll-out;
  7. Have the student practise gentle and medium turns.

Rate One Turns

(1)  Review scan techniques for entering, maintaining, and recovering from the turn.

(2)  Demonstrate the following while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Apply the rule of thumb to calculate the approximate angle of bank for the rate one turn;
  2. Initiate a standard rate turn;
  3. After reaching the calculated angle of bank, refer to the turn co-ordinator (or turn and bank indicator) for confirmation of correct rate;
  4. Maintain the turn with bank and control adverse yaw with rudder;
  5. Recover to straight flight using the correct lead.

(3)  Have the student practise rate one turns.

Turns to Selected Headings

(1)  Review scan techniques for entering, maintaining, and recovering from the turn.

(2)  Demonstrate the following while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Initiate the turn;
  2. Maintain the turn with bank and control adverse yaw with rudder;
  3. As the desired heading is approached, frequently scan the heading indicator;
  4. Recover to straight flight using the correct lead.

(3)  Have the student practise turning to specified headings.

Climbing and Descending Turns

(1)  Review scan techniques for entering the turn, maintaining the turn, and recovering from the turn.

(2)  Demonstrate gentle and medium banked climbing turns while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Initiate the turn;
  2. Show the pitch attitude required for entering, maintaining, and recovering from the turn;
  3. Maintain the turn with bank and control adverse yaw with rudder;
  4. Recover from the turn while maintaining the climb or descent.

(3)  Have the student practise climbing and descending turns.

Steep Turns

(1)  Review scan techniques for entering, maintaining, and recovering from the turn.

(2)  Demonstrate the following while the student is using instrument reference:

  1. Initiate the steep turn using 45 degrees of bank;
  2. Point out variations in pitch and bank indication on the attitude indicator while entering and maintaining the turn, and during roll-out;
  3. Maintain the turn with bank and control adverse yaw with rudder
  4. Show the attitude and power changes required during entry and roll-out.

(3)  Using instrument reference, have the student practise entering, maintaining, and recovering from 45 degrees banked turns.

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