Part II — The Ground and Air Instruction Syllabus — Exercise 24 — Instrument Flying

Radio Aids to Navigation

Objective

To teach, using outside reference:

(1)  How to use VOR, ADF and GPS equipment to determine the position of the aircraft;

(2)  Basic orientation and tracking using VOR, ADF and GPS.

Motivation

(1)  The ability to use radio aids to determine the position of the aircraft will aid visual navigation and is particularly useful over featureless terrain and while flying at night.

(2)  Radio aids can improve the accuracy of cross-country navigation and reduce the pilot's workload.

VOR

Essential Background Knowledge

(1)  Describe VOR stations with respect to:

  1. Station and signal characteristics;
  2. Range of frequencies;

(2)  Describe the airborne VOR equipment:

  1. Receiver;
  2. Indicator;
  3. Antennae.

(3)  Outline the advantages of VOR:

  1. Freedom from interference;
  2. Accuracy;
  3. Ease of wind drift correction.

(4)  Explain limitations and possible errors:

  1. Reception range;
  2. Line of sight restrictions.

(5)  Show how to refer to charts and the Canada Flight Supplement for information.

(6)  Explain the purposes of the station identification.

(7)  Explain how to tune frequencies, identify stations and confirm correct equipment operation.

(8)  Explain that the VOR is position sensitive and not heading sensitive.

(9)  Explain how to determine what radial the aircraft is on, and how to plot a position fix.

(10)  Explain:

  1. Tracking a radial to the station;
  2. Correcting for wind drift;
  3. Indications of station passage;
  4. Tracking a radial away from the station.

(11)  Describe the following method to intercept and fly a predetermined radial toward the station:

  1. Tune and identify the VOR;
  2. Determine the inbound track to be used after intercepting the desired radial and set the corresponding number on the omni bearing selector (OBS);
  3. Check the TO - FROM indication:
  1. if FROM, you cannot readily intercept the desired radial from the present location;
  2. if TO, proceed with the interception;
  3. check the course deviation indicator (CDI);
  4. if CDI left, subtract 90 degrees from the OBS to determine the intercept heading;
  5. if CDI right, add 90 degrees to the OBS to determine the intercept heading.

D. Fly the intercept heading until the CDI begins to close;

E. At this point you may be want to reduce the intercept angle;

F. Turn to the inbound heading as the CDI centres and track to the station.

(12)  Describe a similar method for intercepting a predetermined radial and flying it away from the station.

Advice to Instructors

(1)  Ensure the VOR equipment is tuned and tested and that the station is identified prior to beginning a VOR exercise.

(2)  Before carrying out a VOR procedure, make sure that the heading indicator is correctly set.

(3)  After determining the aircraft position using VOR, visually confirm using map reference and landmarks.

(4)  When choosing a VOR radial to intercept, select one close enough that the intercept will not be lengthy but far enough away that the demonstration will be effective.

(5)  When first demonstrating this exercise use an intercept method that demands as little concentration and calculation as possible. A basic method of VOR interception is included in the Essential Background Knowledge. After mastery of the basic procedure, the intercept angles may be modified to suit specific needs. A method requiring more calculation may be introduced after the basic method has been mastered.

(6)  Thoroughly review VOR procedures before each VOR lesson. Students often forget important information in the interval between the first and second lessons.

(7)  Point out that the course deviation indicator does not necessarily point toward the radial selected on the OBS.

(8)  When intercepting a radial outbound near the station, use a shallow intercept angle.

Instruction and Student Practice

(1)  Demonstrate how to:

  1. Tune and test the VOR receiver and how to identify the station;
  2. Determine on which radial the aircraft is flying;
  3. Use radials from two or more stations to plot a position fix;
  4. Track along a radial;
  5. Fly directly to the station;
  6. Intercept a predetermined radial and fly to the station;
  7. Identify station passage by the indications of the course deviation indicator and the ambiguity indicator;
  8. Intercept and track outbound along a radial.

(2)  Have the student practise each of these VOR exercises immediately after it has been demonstrated.

ADF

Essential Background Knowledge

(1)  Describe non-directional beacons with respect to:

  1. Station and signal characteristics;
  2. Range of frequencies.

(2)  Describe the airborne ADF equipment:

  1. Receiver;
  2. Indicator needle;
  3. Antennae.

(3)  Outline the advantages of ADF:

  1. Reception range at low levels;
  2. Reception while not within line-of-sight range of the signal origin.

(4)  Explain limitations and possible errors:

  1. Reception range;
  2. Bank error;
  3. Errors due to thunderstorms or magnetic interference.

(5)  Show how to refer to charts and the Canada Flight Supplement for information.

(6)  Explain the purposes of the station identification.

(7)  Explain how to turn frequencies, identify stations and confirm correct equipment operation.

(8)  Explain that the ADF is heading-sensitive.

(9)  Explain that an increase in heading will result in a decrease in relative bearing, and vice-versa.

(10)  Explain that, while intercepting a track or passing abeam a station, the ADF needle moves toward the tail of the aircraft.

(11)  Review the formula: magnetic heading plus relative bearing equals magnetic bearing to the station.

(12)  Explain:

  1. How to plot a line of position on a map;
  2. How to plot a position fix on a map.

(13)  Explain:

  1. Homing to the station;
  2. Tracking directly to the station;
  3. Indications of station passage;
  4. Tracking away from the station.

(14)  Describe how to intercept a predetermined track inbound to the station:

  1. Tune, identify, and test the ADF;
  2. Turn parallel to the desired track;
  3. From the parallel heading, turn 90 degrees to the direction of the ADF needle;
  4. As the needle moves to the wing-tip position (a relative bearing of 090° or 270°), turn inbound on the desired track.

(15)  Describe in a manner similar to the above, how to intercept a predetermined track outbound from the station.

Advice to Instructors

(1)  Ensure the ADF equipment is tuned and tested and that the station is identified prior to beginning an ADF exercise. Also test for correct sensing while performing the instrument taxi checks.

(2)  Before carrying out an ADF procedure, make sure that the student sets the heading indicator correctly.

(3)  After the student has determined the aircraft position using ADF, visually confirm by referring to a chart and landmarks.

(4)  When choosing an ADF bearing to intercept, select one close enough that the intercept will not be lengthy but far enough away that the demonstration will be effective.

(5)  The method described in Essential Background Knowledge is one that demands as little concentration and calculation as possible. After mastery of this basic procedure, the intercept angles may be modified to suit specific needs. A method requiring more calculation may be introduced after the basic method as been mastered. NOTE: Point out to the student that changing the intercept angle suggested in the basic procedures produces a different relative bearing upon intercepting the desired track.

(6)  Review ADF procedures before each ADF air lesson. Students often forget important information in the interval between the first and second lessons.

(7)  Tracking on ADF to eliminate wind drift should be compared to flying toward a landmark while compensating for wind drift.

(9)  When intercepting an outbound track while close to a station, use a shallow intercept angle.

(10)  A common error when plotting a position fix on a map is failing to take magnetic variation into account.

Instruction and Student Practice

(1)  Demonstrate the following:

  1. How to tune and test the ADF receiver and how to identify the station;
  2. How to find the aircraft's magnetic bearing from a station;
  3. How to plot a position fix on the map by using bearings from two or more stations;
  4. That, when the ADF is tuned to a station and the aircraft heading changes, the ADF needle changes by the same amount;
  5. Homing from the present position directly to the station;
  6. Tracking to eliminate drift;
  7. How to intercept a predetermined track and fly to the station;
  8. Indications of the ADF needle as the aircraft approaches the station;
  9. Indications of the ADF needle as the aircraft passes the station;
  10. Tracking away from the station;
  11. How to intercept a predetermined track outbound from the station.

(2)  Have the student practice the above immediately after each ADF exercise is demonstrated.

GPS

Essential Background Knowledge

(1)  Describe GPS with respect to:

  1. Overview of the system;
  2. Number of satellites;
  3. Area of coverage.

(2)  Describe the airborne GPS equipment:

  1. Receiver;
  2. Database;
  3. Indicators;
  4. Antennae.

(3)  Outline advantages of GPS:

  1. Accuracy;
  2. Ease in determining ground speed and estimated time of arrivals;
  3. Tracking indications.

(4)  Explain limitations and possible errors:

  1. Database errors;
  2. User input errors;
  3. Satellite availability.

(5)  Show how to refer to the AIP for information concerning the terms and conditions of the approval for use of GPS in Canada.

(6)  Explain the function of the various modes of the GPS receiver.

(7)  If the GPS is a fixed installation in the aircraft, explain how the GPS interfaces with other aircraft navigational systems.

(8)  Explain how to turn the GPS receiver on.

(9)  Explain how to complete the receiver initialization with pilot inputs as required.

(10)  Explain how to operate the GPS receiver controls.

(11)  Explain the function of the flight plan mode of the GPS receiver.

(12)  Explain how to create a flight plan in the GPS receiver.

(13)  Explain how to modify the flight plan by deleting or inserting waypoints.

(14)  Explain how to create user-defined waypoints.

(15)  Explain airspace advisories, alerts and other receiver generated messages.

(16)  Explain the functions of the navigation mode of the GPS receiver.

(17)  Explain the moving map display screen symbology, if applicable.

(18)  Explain the track bar sensitivity in the navigation mode.

(19)  Explain the "Direct To" function of the GPS receiver.

(20)  Explain how to retrieve information about the nearest suitable airport from the database of the GPS receiver.

(21)  Explain how to execute a diversion by adding an alternate airport to the flight plan in flight.

(22)  Explain the appropriate action for a GPS receiver failure.

Advice To Instructors

(1)  Most GPS manufacturer manuals are good sources of essential background information on the GPS system.

(2)  Remember that students do not have to master all the navigational functions of the GPS receiver in order to operate it competently. Ensure they have a thorough knowledge of the functions required to use the receiver in VMC conditions and encourage them to learn the other functions as need or desire dictate.

(3)  Use a receiver simulator or the simulation mode of the receiver to demonstrate the various modes and functions of the receiver prior to starting instruction in the aircraft if possible. Use the aircraft itself on battery power or GPU, is a simulator or simulation mode is not available.

(4)  For receivers that are permanently installed in the aircraft, be sure to review the Aircraft Flight Manual or Flight Manual Supplement for a description of the installation and/or any pertinent restrictions.

(5)  Take the student to the aircraft and point out the various components of the installation including the receiver, the antenna and inter-related navigation equipment and annunicators.

(6)  Use the Special Aviation Notices in the AIP to explain the terms and conditions of the approval to use GPS in Canada.

(7)  Once the in aircraft training begins, ensure that you and your student do not become so involved in the GPS receiver and its functions that you forget the aircraft. This is important because these systems tend to draw the attention of pilots into the cockpit, especially during the early stages of the learning curve. Heads up!

(8)  Ensure that students cross check GPS positions with other navigational equipment. Databases have been known to be wrong.

(9)  After the student is competent in obtaining information from the receiver to divert to the nearest airport, give him/her a simulated emergency requiring a diversion. Ensure the student handles the emergency and then programs the GPS. Do not allow the student to be so concerned with the GPS functions that aircraft safety becomes a secondary consideration.

Instruction and Student Practice

(1)  Demonstrate how to:

  1. Turn on and initialize the receiver;
  2. Operate the GPS receiver controls;
  3. Create a flight plan:
  4. Modify a flight plan;
  5. Create user defined waypoints;
  6. Retrieve airport information from the database;
  7. Intercept and track to a waypoint(s);
  8. Determine track bar sensitivity;
  9. Program a "Direct to" a waypoint;
  10. Divert to the nearest suitable airport;
  11. Recognize a system malfunction.

(2)  Have the student practice each of these GPS exercises immediately after it has been demonstrated.

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