Part II — The Ground and Air Instruction Syllabus — Exercise 5 — Attitudes and Movements

Objective

To teach:

(1)  The range of attitudes through which the aircraft will normally be operated.

(2)  How the movements necessary to achieve and maintain the desired attitudes of flight are produced and controlled.

(3)  Yaw and how it can be controlled.

Motivation

As required.

Essential Background Knowledge

(1)  Define aircraft attitudes relative to the horizon.

(2)  Define Cruise Attitude (reference datum) and point out:

  1. Position of nose and wings relative to the horizon;
  2. Power setting used;
  3. The airspeed for level flight in this configuration.

(3)

  1. Describe the range of pitch attitudes and limits above (nose-up) and below (nose-down) the reference datum applicable to this exercise. Explain flight instrument indications;
  2. Define pitching movements — movement about the lateral axis of the aircraft relative to the pilot;
  3. Explain:
  1. that the pitching movement is produced and controlled by the elevators;
  2. that this movement is used to achieve pitch attitudes;
  3. how, once achieved, these attitudes are maintained by use of elevators.

(4)

  1. Describe the range of banked attitudes and limits relative to the reference datum applicable to this exercise. Explain flight instrument indications;
  2. Define rolling movement — movement about the longitudinal axis of the aircraft relative to the pilot;
  3. Explain:
  1. that the rolling movement is produced and controlled by the ailerons;
  2. that this movement is used to achieve bank attitudes;
  3. how, once achieved, these attitudes are maintained by use of ailerons.

(5)  Describe combinations of pitch and bank attitudes. Explain how movements are relative to the pilot and the aircraft.

(6)  Explain how forces resulting from bank attitudes, power changes, side-slip, aileron drag, turbulence, etc., may produce yaw. This yawing movement can be controlled by the rudder. Point out that if yaw is not controlled the aircraft may roll.

(7)  Lookout.

  1. Explain:
  1. collision geometry — head-on, converging, and climbing or descending on the same path;
  2. scanning techniques.

(8)  Question student on the exercise and clarify as necessary.

Advice to Instructors

NOTE:  Control of yaw under circumstances such as cross-wind take-offs and landings, slipping turns, etc., will be covered later in this guide.

(1)  As this is to be the student's first flight training exercise, spare no pains to explain everything carefully. Emphasis is necessary since all future flight training exercises are based around the basic principles of this exercise.

(2)  Emphasize that all aircraft attitudes are relative to the horizon, while movements are relative to the pilot and the aircraft.

(3)  Keep all movements slow and attitude changes small, increasing only when it is obvious that this will not distress the student.

(4)  Stress the importance of a complete and continuous look-around.

(5)  Explain to the student that you will often be referring to the nose of the aircraft. The student may not, in fact, be able to see the nose, in which case, indicate some forward part of the aircraft which can be used to judge its attitude relative to the horizon.

(6)  In this and future exercises, it is essential that a routine be followed when control of the aircraft is exchanged between the instructor and student.

(7)  Indicate to the student that co-ordination will be achieved progressively with each successive air exercise.

(8)  The instructor is advised not to attempt to show the effect of aileron drag unless the demonstration is convincing.

(9)  Avoid a tendency to stretch out this exercise. Keep it simple, but meaningful.

Instruction and Student Practice

(1)

  1. Establish a Cruise Attitude and point out reference datum;
  2. Demonstrate:
  1. range of pitch attitudes;
  2. by use of the elevators, the production and control of the pitching movement;
  3. how to use this movement to achieve and maintain pitch attitudes within the desired range.

C. When the student achieves a reasonable level of competency, point out flight instrument indications.

(2)

  1. Re-establish a Cruise Attitude and point out reference datum;
  2. Demonstrate:
  1. range of banked attitudes;
  2. by use of the ailerons, the production and control of the rolling movement;
  3. how to use this movement to achieve and maintain bank attitudes within the desired range.

C. When student demonstrates a reasonable level of competency, point out flight instrument indications.

(3)

  1. Demonstrate:
  1. combination of pitch and bank attitudes;
  2. pitching while in a banked attitude, and rolling while in various pitch attitudes.

B. Point out flight instrument indications.

(4)  Demonstrate:

  1. The yawing movement.
  2. How the rudder is used to control yaw — give practical example.
  3. Flight instrument indications.

(5)  Have the student practise simple flight manoeuvres by application of the basic principles of this exercise

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