Part II — The Ground and Air Instruction Syllabus — Exercise 7 — Climbing

Objective

To teach:

(1)  Climbing:

  1. At recommended normal climb speed;
  2. At various airspeeds — en route climbs;
  3. At recommended best rate of climb speed;
  4. At recommended best angle of climb speed.

(2)  Levelling off at specified altitude.

Motivation

As required.

Essential Background Knowledge

(1)  Using the Pilot Operating Handbook show where to find recommended climb airspeeds.

(2)  Define and give practical examples in the use of:

  1. Normal climb speed;
  2. Best rate of climb speed;
  3. Best angle of climb speed;
  4. Climb at airspeeds above the recommended climb speed — "en route climbs".

(3)  Review:

  1. Slipstream effect and control of yaw;
  2. How uncontrolled yaw may produce a roll.

(4)  Explain:

  1. Safety considerations — cockpit checks;
  2. Procedure to enter a climb from level cruise flight: attitude — power — trim;
  3. How to return to cruise attitude, i.e., attitude — power — trim;
  4. The precautions necessary due to ground effect and those of entering a climb too soon after lift-off at low airspeed;
  5. Effect of density altitude on the rate of climb;
  6. Need for proper engine cooling during climbs;
  7. Effects of flaps and landing gear on climb performance;
  8. Effects of application of carburettor heat in a climb;
  9. Effect of weight on climb performance;
  10. Procedures to enter a climb from a "balked approach", i.e., power — attitude — trim;
  11. Instrument indications.

(5)  Question student on the exercise and clarify as necessary.

Advice to Instructor

(1)  This is a progressive exercise, and no attempt should be made to teach all aspects of climbing in one lesson. Demonstrate only where applicable, e.g., best angle of climb, best rate of climb.

(2)  Many accidents can be attributed to poor climb techniques when close to the ground. Monitor the student carefully and correct bad habits before they are entrenched.

(3)  One of the major faults a student can develop in a climb can be keeping the right wing low to prevent a yaw to the left. Use rudder to prevent yaw.

(4)  Entering a climb from a balked approach should be practised until proficiency is achieved, particularly in the area of sudden attitude change. The correct method of "slowly raising" flaps and loss of performance due to carburettor heat being left on should be demonstrated.

(5)  Emphasize the need to change heading, or lower the nose slightly at regular intervals during a prolonged climb to facilitate effective look-out.

Instruction and Student Practice

(1)  Climbing — normal:

  1. Establish cruise attitude;
  2. Look out ahead and above;
  3. Establish pitch attitude for normal climb and set climb power;
  4. Keep straight — visual and instruments;
  5. Trim;
  6. Adjust attitude if necessary to establish selected climb speed — trim.

(2)  To resume straight and level flight at selected altitude:

  1. Lower nose to the cruise attitude, and allow speed to increase (do not exceed red line RPM);
  2. Keep straight and maintain altitude;
  3. Reduce power to cruise RPM;
  4. Trim;
  5. Adjust attitude and power if necessary to achieve selected altitude and speed.

(3)  Instrument indications.

(4)  Best rate and angle of climb:

  1. Review appropriate airspeeds, and demonstrate:
  1. best rate of climb speed;
  2. best angle of climb speed.

B. Resume straight and level flight.

(5)  Instrument indications.

(6)  Repeat, showing:

  1. Effects of flaps on climb — how and when to raise flaps;
  2. Effects of retractable landing gear where applicable;
  3. Reduced climb performance with carburettor heat applied. Compare vertical speeds;
  4. How roll may result if yaw is allowed to develop due to slipstream effect.

(7)  Demonstrate entering a straight climb from a balked approach, (flap, gear, ancillary control management).

(8)  Demonstrate an "en route climb".

(9)  Instrument indications where applicable.

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